Study Guide Exam 1
Study Guide Exam 1 MED 274
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MED 274 at Missouri State University taught by Timothy White in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 266 views. For similar materials see Intro to FIlm in Journalism and Mass Communications at Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
MED 274 INTRODUCTION TO FILM Exam 1 Study Guide Film as Art Treatment a preliminary outline of a lm or teleplay laying out the key scenes characters and locales Slate The identi er placed in front of the camera at beginning of a take Storyboard a panel or series of panels on which a set of sketches is arranged depicting consecutively the important changes of scene and action in a series of shots Goaloriented protagonist a hero who is drawn into a situation which he must resolve in some way Classical Hollywood cinema designate both a visual and sound style for making motion pictures and a mode of production used in the American lm industry between 1927 and 1963 Script supervisor is a member of a lm crew and oversees the continuity of the motion picture including wardrobe props set dressing hair makeup and the actions of the actors during a scene Continuity person the script supervisor keeps track of what parts of the script have been lmed and makes notes of any deviations between what was actually lmed and what appeared in the script Best boy The best boy is the chief assistant to the gaffer He or she is not usually on set but dealing with the electric truck rentals manpower and other logistics The third man carries stuff around for sound crew quotScript girl a secretary to a motionpicture director who records information about the photographing of each scene prompts actors and writes a synopsis for advertising the movie Abovetheline costs is the list of individuals who guide in uence and hopefully add to the creative direction process and voice of a given narrative in a lm and their related expenditures quotBelowtheline costs items in the budget are all of the core items crew and issues which it takes to physically make the project Film Form Plot includes nondiegetic elements and everything visibly and audiny presented but not what is presumed or inferred Story all events in a narrative both explicitly presented and inferred Diegeticnondiegetic material Diegetic elements assumed to exist in the lm world Nondiegetic does not occur as part of the action and cannot be heard by the lm39s characters Motif any signi cant repeated element in a lm Explicit meaning second to least abstract meanings that are openly asserted girl dreams of leaving home to escape her troubles only after she leaves does she realize how much she loves her family and friends Referential meaning least abstract meanings within a lm that rely on familiarity with signi cant places or things during Depression a tornado takes girl from her family39s kansas farm to mythical land of 02 After series of misadventures she returns home Implicit meaning second to most abstract an implied or interpreted meaning an adolescent who must soon face the adult world yearns for a return to the simple world of childhood but she eventually accepts the demands of growing up Symptomatic meaning most abstract an abstract general meaning that depends on social ideology in a society in which human worth is measured by money the home and the family may seem to be the last refuge of human values this belief is especially strong in times of economic crisis such as that in the US in 19305 Narrative and Narration Depth of narration access to characters inner states feelings thoughts can be subjective or objective Range of narration range of our knowledge as opposed to that of characters can be restrictedunrestricted Pointof view shot short lm scene that shows what a character is looking at It is usually established by being positioned between a shot of a character looking at something and a shot showing the character39s reaction Mental subjectivity we seehear character39s memories fantasies dreams hallucinations interpretation Narrative lm that tells a ctional or ctionalized story event or narrative In this style of lm believable narratives and characters help convince the audience that the unfolding ction is real Narration moment by moment process that in interaction with style guides us in constructing a story out of plot regulates on acquisition of knowledge quothow much we know whenquot Perceptual subjectivity access to characters opticalsound perspective Miseenscene Studio shooting constructed set in which they stage the action Location shooting already existing local in which they are shooting often cheape Key light primary source most intense light Fill light complimentary angle ll in some of the shadows created by key light Threepoint lighting key light ll light back light Retain shadows and make characters stand out from background Back lighting creates an edge of light around the character silhouettes if intense enough Top lighting unusual lighting source relatively rare Under lighting distorts features relatively rare horror lms Side lighting creates shadows half dark half light Front lighting illuminate shadows and at looking image Costume and makeup historically accurate or stylized can be realistic or stylized Bring attention to a character or object 0 Can be used as a prop Help de ne characters 0 Help de ne genre 0 Call attention to purely graphic qualities 0 Can create motifs Cinematography Aspect ratio ratio of 1 side of frame to top or bottom Tinting and toning TINTING colored white parts TONING black parts messed with the sound 24 frames per second fps standard rate of projection for sound lms 16 frames per second fps Silent lm speed Zoom lens Permits continuous varying of focal length between shots or within a shot Focal length distance from center of lens to point at which the light rays meet in sharp focus Focal length affects the perceived magnitude depth amp scale of the objects shown on screen Process shots Timelapse lming slow shooting speed fast motion lm Widescreen most common creates wider image CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used for shooting widescreen movies Academy ratio 12 35 Mask used to alter shape of image mask of some shape over camera lens to block passage of light Canted camera position camera is set at an angle Mobile framing Change of height distance within a shot angle or level Tilt rotates camera on a horizontal axis Crane keeps characters in the center of the frame used to reveal or obscure information helps create 3D sense of space involve viewer in the action can mark shots as subjective POV Onscreenoffscreen space ONSCREEN space that exists in the story that is in the frame OFFSCREEN space that exists in the story but that is not visible in the frame Pan rotates camera on a vertical axis Slow motion is an effect in lmmaking whereby time appears to be slowed down Technicolor COLOR TECHNICOLOR red and green two roles of lm not a very wide range of color COLOR TECHNICOLOR red green and blue three roles of lm very colourful Wizard of Oz very expensive MONOPACK by EASTMAN KODAK One strip of lm red green blue subtler colors cheaper didn t age well Rack focus shifting from 1 plane to another within a shot Long take continues for unusual long time longer than average shot length ASL before cut to next shot Each shot takes on added importance Long shot gures more easily seen background still dominate Anamorphic lens squeeze image onto smaller lm strip and is spread out when projected onto CinemaScope Depth of eld range of distances within which objects can be photographed in sharp focus Fast motion action that appears to move faster than normal on the screen accomplished by lming the action at less than normal speed in the camera and then projecting it at normal speed Slow motion effect in lmmaking whereby time appears to be slowed down PiXilation a framebyframe animation process repeatedly posing while one or more frame is taken and changing pose slightly before the next frame or frames Camera position Angle level height 8 camera distance extreme long shot long shot plan americain medium shot medium closeup Closeup extreme Closeup refers to position of the camera relative to the pro lmic event material being lmed ANGLE G Top of frame 0 HIGH ANGLE l 0 LOW ANGLE Left of frame Right of frame LEVEL usually parallel to horizon sometimes canted Behind the camera HEIGHT usually height of an average I m a n Behind the set I Bottom of frame CAMERA DISTANCE distance between camera and what is being lmed EXTREME LONG SHOT landscapes human gures barely visible 0 LONG SHOT gures more easily seen background still dominate PLAN AMERICAIN quotAmerican shotquot human gure from the knees up MEDIUM SHOT body from waist up MEDIUM CLOSEUP chest up CLOSEUP just face or an object EXTREME CLOSEUP portion of a gure eye lips Editing The Kuleshov Effect Series of shots that in the absence of an establishing shot creates a spatial whole by joining disjointed special fragments Graphic match Shots linked by noticeable similarities Establishing shot Camera is relatively distant beginning of scene can see all the characters and the setting Space is then broken down in to closer shots Crosscutting Refers to editing that alternates shots of 2 or more lines of action going on in different spaces Actions are usually simultaneous They are usually related narratively Overlapping editing Cuts that repeat part or all of an action thus expanding its viewing time and plot duration Shotreverse shot Cutting from 1 end of line to the other back amp forth Used especially in conversations Often keeps shoulder of 1 character in shot of the other Flashback present events that happened in the past Continuity system of Hollywood editing that has dominated Hollywood cinema since around 1910 FUNCTION OF CONTINUITY EDITING Continuity editing is designed to emphasize the story Ensures NARRATIVE CONTINUITY Also known as INVISIBLE EDITINGquot GRAPHICS Kept similar from shot to shot to avoid disruption RHYTHMIC RELATIONS usually will not be emphasized length of the tape dependant on camera distance long shots generally on screen longer than close ups SPATIAL amp TEMPORAL RELATIONS are important Cheat out Imperfect continuity from 1 shot to the next Narrative motivation prevents us from noticing the difference between two shots speci c spatial relations Axis of action is an imaginary line which de nes the r11 spatial relations of all the elements of a scene correlating v them to the right or left The camera is not supposed to I i J cross the axis at a cut as that would reverse those l Wideangle lens A lens of short focal length that affects a scene39s perspective by distorting straight lines near the edges of the frame and by exaggerating the distance between foreground and background planes Allows for more space in the frame Ideal for shooting in closed locanns Telephoto An image shot with an extremely long lens Dissolve Shot B gradually appears as shot A gradually disappears Screen never goes 5 2 completely black Wipe Line passes across screen replacing shot A with shot B Obvious editing so it is not used as much anymore Fade FADEIN Dark screen that gradually brightens as a shot appears Often used at the beginning of the scene FADEOUT Gradually darkens as the screen goes black Often used at the end of the scene The 180degree system Miseenscene amp camera placement establish and sustain imaginary line or axis of action Generally determined by position of 2 main characters in the shot The camera may not CUT from 1 side of line to the other Functions of the 1800 rule Ensures common space from shot to shot Ensures constant screen direction 0 Clearly delineates space We always know where the characters are in relation to 1 another We always know where we are in relation to the characters EstablishmentBreakdownReestablishment Space established with long shot ESTABLISHING SHOT showing characters amp setting Broken down with closer shots showing characters amp their reactions amp important narrative details Space is reestablished with a long shot Montage sequence A segment of a lm that compresses passage of time into brief symbolic or typical images Graphic relations Editing based on pictorial qualities of 2 shots May be aspect of miseenscene or cinematography Temporal ellipsis in editing story time left out between 2 shots occurs any time there is a gap between scenes that is shorter than the actual time that would have existed between those two events
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