Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide PSY 0310
Popular in Developmental Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mora Lucero on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0310 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Mark Strauss in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 215 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Developmental Psychology Exam 1 Study Guide Jean Rousseau39s Stages of Develooment 1 Impact of Sigmund Freud a Bottle vs Breast Feeding i Symbolized a sexual gratifying response which strengthened the id b Toilet Training i If too strict child may develop OCD C Original Sin i Id sent into over drive sex and aggression are key aspects View of Children 19605 View of Children 19805 use of Benjamin Spock AntiSpock quotmonstersquot or believed children Reaction stated threats to were naturally if children were discipline good raised without children was o parents must discipline common and impose imits rebellion would acceptable NOT harsh rise harsh discipline discipline country became such as lashes and slaps were lm portance of positiveconstruc more conservative norms tive support CONTEXTS FOR DEFINITION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES GATHERING DATA NATURALISTIC Examination of ongoing Natural provides May never observe OBSERVATION behavior in an clues for future important behaviors environment NOT research understand does not explain controlled by researcher everyday social underlying causes interactions in uenced by observes biases Hawthorne effect ETHNOGRAPHIC Observer immerses self Rich understanding Easy to become OBSERVATION as active participant in of a group biased group STRUCTURED Families are in Better control over May never observe OBSERVATION controlled environments situation use important behaviors randomized sample does not explain to allow underlying causes generalization Limited set of behaviors to observe INTERVIEWS Structured useful when Allows insights about Participants may not goal is to collect self reports on same topics from everyone being studied Clinical useful for obtaining in depth information about an individual child what participants are thinking about quick report accurate information limited generalization limited causation Correlational vs Experimental Research CORRELATIONAL EXPERIMENTAL Definition Allows you to naturally determine Research manipulates a variable in whether there is a relationship order to find a cause among variables Virtues Direction of Relationship Random Assignment make Positive both variables go groups equivalent and avoid bias updown Ex As SAT scores increase Manipulation of Independent GPA increases Variable IV take control of IV Negative one variable goes up as the other goes down Experimental group participants EX39 AS weatherlncr ases presented with experiment appearance of Winter Jackets decreases Control group participants not Strength of Relationship presented With experiment but 0 no relationship cannot predict treated Similar from one another 1 calculate score of one variable from the other Advantages Allows discovery of what We can be confident that the only variables are related to each other initial difference between groups useful for understanding relative is on the Independent Variable stability of behaviors over time Any subsequently observed differences must be caused by the manipulated change in IV Disadvantages DOES NOT IMPLY Not possible to randomly assign CAUSATION everyone and everything Ethical reasons NATURE VS NURTURE 1 Epigenetics the study of phenotypic trait variations that are caused by external or environmental factors that switch genes on and off and affect how cells read genes instead of being caused by changes in the DNA sequence a Genotype coded information contained in genes and DNA b Phenotype what is physically expressed 2 Genetic Variability a We are all genetically unique b Genetic diversity is a necessity for survival c Possibility of mutations and chromosomal abnormalities i Transcription errors Deletion or repetition 1 Ex Trisomy 21 3 Phenotypic Variability a Mendelian Principles i Dominant traits more likely to be inherited ii Recessive traits less likely to be inherited iii Incomplete dominance blend of traits 1 Ex red owers white owers pink owers iv Codominance both traits are expressed 1 Ex Blood type v Polygenic inheritance many genes contribute to single phenotypic trait 1 Ex Skin color 2 Applies to most traits and behaviors of interests of behavioral scientists a Ex Aggression thrill seeking language 4 Expression of Genotypes a Depends on continuous interactions between genotypes and environment i Penetrance probability that a genotype will be expressed can vary 1 Ex all humans have the genes for potentially fatal diseases such as breast cancer however they may never be expressed due to the environment ii Reaction ranges limits set by heredity 1 Normal range a Ex gene specifies that eye color will be some exact color based on wavelength 2 Wide range a Ex gene specifies that eye color will be between two wavelengths iii Norm of Reaction all phenotypes could result from given genotype in relation to survivable environments iv Canalization genetic tendency to normalize development of survival Stages of Prenatal Development 1 Germinal Stage conception 2 weeks a Formation of blastocyst and attachment to uterine wall 2 Embryonic Stage 3 8 weeks a Formation of all basic structures 3 Fetal Stage 9 39 weeks a Formation of details and significant growth
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