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Ecology Unit 1 Notes

by: Cecilia Schlecht

Ecology Unit 1 Notes ZOL 355

Cecilia Schlecht
GPA 3.6
Dr. Crosby

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About this Document

Class and book notes for Exam 1
Dr. Crosby
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Ecology

Popular in Animal Science and Zoology

This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cecilia Schlecht on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ZOL 355 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Crosby in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Animal Science and Zoology at Michigan State University.

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Date Created: 09/27/15
ZOL 355 Ecology Unit 1 Class Notes 9315 Fundamental Questions of Ecology Why are organisms found in some places and not in others What determines the abundances of different organisms What are the causes and effects of species diversity Population Growth Rate N1 xA Class Notes 9815 Bergmann s Principle within a species or within closely related species body mass increases with latitude and colder climate CarryOver Effect effect that quotcarries overquot from one experimental condition to another Book Notes Ch 1 2 4 Soil Horizons 0 Horizon freshly fallen organic matter top layer A Horizon mixture of mineral materials such as clay silt sand and organic material derived from the O horizon B Horizon contains clays humus and other materials that have been transported from the A horizon C Horizon deepest layer in the soil consists of weathered parent material V Heritability hzz Phenotypic Class Notes 91015 Areas with high species richness will have a high ratio of speciation rates extinction rates Time since perturbation based on low extinction rates Productivity high species richness Favorableness Environmental heterogeneity based on speciation Niche breadths and species interactions Why are the tropics more diverse Evolution change in gene frequency Ecology how organisms interact with each other and the environment Founders of the theory of evolution Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace Causes of gene frequency natural selection mutation immigration genetic drift Natural selection combined with reproductive isolation can lead to speciation Types of selection stabilizing directional and disruptive Z X Xbcir2 n l Phenotypic plasticity variation among individuals in form and function as a result of environmental influences Variance Class Notes 91515 91715 Poikilotherms body temperature varies directly with environment no regulation Ectotherms rely on external sources for temperature regulation Endotherms rely on internal metabolic energy for temperature regulation l Homeotherms endotherms that maintain relatively constant body temperature birds and mammals Entropy a measure of the disorder or randomness in a closed system Convection heat flow between a soild body and a moving fluid Conduction heat flow between solid objects in direct physical contact Metabolism release of heat during cellular respiration Radiation transfer of heat through electromagnetic radiation Class Notes 92215 92415 Bergmann39s rule an ecogeographic principle that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions Red kangaroo is the exception to this rule it is the largest of kangaroos and they live in hot areas Surface area to volume ratio Osomolarity the concentration of a soulation expressed as the total number of solute particles per liter Osmoregulation regulation of internal salt concentration and water using a variety of anatomical structures and physiological processes an energy consuming process Water Potential of plants is influenced by solutes matric forces and negative pressure due to transpiration Water potential of soil is driven by matric forces which are influenced by soil characteristics Marine Fish are hypoosmotic freshwater fish are hyperosmotic Osmotic Work is a function of urine volume and concentration temperature and the difference in solute concentration between the blood and the environment Species rich areas gain species more quickly than they lose species More Book Notes Principle of Allocation as a population adapts to a particular set of environmental conditions its fitness in other environments is reduced


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