HDFS225Exam1StudyGuide.pdf HDFS 225
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 225 at Michigan State University taught by Sherrell Hicklen House in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in the family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
HDFS 225 Exam 1 Study Guide Exam 1 will be based primarily on the lectures and the textbook It will be multiple choice and about 60 questions in length Chapters 15 will be covered on the exam so please make sure you have thoroughly read all five chapters and you study your lecture notes If you study the following areas thoroughly you should be wellprepared for the exam 0 Know the 4 goals of developmental psychologists OOOO Describe the changes that typically occur across the human life span Explain these changes to specify the determinants of developmental change Predict developmental changes Control or intervene in the course of events 0 Know how to define the 3 major domains of development 0 Physical Development changes that occur in a person s body I Example puberty Cognitive development changes that occur in a person s mental activity I Example ability to think abstractly Emotionalsocial development changes that concern a person s personality emotions and relationships with others 0 Know how to define the 3 processes of development 0 O 0 Growth refers to increase in size that occurs with changing age I Increase in the number of an individual s cells Maturation the unfolding of biological potential in a set irreversible sequence I The development of the individual s organs and limbs in relation to their ability to function Learning the modification in behavior that results from the individual s experience in the environment 0 Understand and know the systems in Bronfenbrenner s ecological systems theory 0 0 Environmental context is important in understanding human development The study of developmental in uences must include I The person s changing physical and social settings I The relationship among those settings I How the process is affected by the society in which the settings are embedded Microsystem network of social relationships and physical settings in which a person is involved each day Mesosystem interrelationships among various settings in which a person is immersed Exosystem social structure that directly or indirectly affect a person s life O Macrosystem overarching cultural patterns of society 0 Chronosystem the dimension of time change and constancy in the individual and in society 7 7 act 0 5 yrs te egosvstemib Ez n edgeso 5 VS 65 I 0 S Vs a Work Famin Q6vido Pa rent s 9 Work Work Famny Environ ment Siblings School Sibiings Peers SchooE Culture Peers quot Mass Media Neighborhoods Economic System 0 Understand the 3 in uences that impact the timing of development 0 Normative agegraded in uences I Strong relation to chronological age I Physical cognitive and psychological changes 0 Normative history graded in uences I Unique for each age cohort birth cohort I Exposed to a unique segment in history I Example the Great Depression 0 Nonnormative life events I Unique turning points at which people change some direction of their lives I Example divorce death of a family member or friend 0 Know the steps of the scientific method 0 Scientific method series of steps that enable us to be clear about what we studied how we studied it and what our conclusions are I 1 Select a researchable problem I 2 Formulate a hypothesis I 3 Test the hypothesis I 4 Draw conclusions about hypothesis I 5 Make the findings of the study available in the scientific community 0 Know how to define culture and age strata 0 Culture social heritage of people I Learned patterns for thinking feeling and acting that are transmitted from one generation to the next 0 Age strata social layers based on time periods in life I Mobility from one age stratum to the next is largely biologically determine and irreversible I Example birth puberty adulthood and death Understand the various research designs and research methods and be able to identify examples 0 Longitudinal studies the same individuals at different time points in their life I Limitations 0 Selective attrition and dropout I Cannot control for unusual life events 0 Timeconsuming and costly O Crosssectional simultaneously compares different age groups I Limitations 0 Confounding variables these groups are so different With age so are going through different events and learning 0 Sequential combines the advantages of the longitudinal and crosssectional methods of research by measuring more than on cohort over time I Limitations I Data is complex and difficult to analyze I Time and money issues 0 Experimental design investigator manipulates one or more variables and measures the resulting changes in the other variables in an effort to determine the cause of a specific behavior 0 Independent variable factor manipulated in an experiment 0 Dependent variable factor that is affected or changes as a result of the manipulated independent variable 0 Developmental outcome how the independent variable affected the dependent variable 0 Experimental group administered the independent variable treatment 0 Control group are not administered the independent variable 0 Casestudy method longitudinal method used to study one individual I Limitations difficult to generalize results questionable objectivity 0 Social survey method data are gathered using in person interviews and questionnaires that are distributed through the mail or online I Limitations response rate and bias 0 Naturalistic observation method researchers intensively watch and record behavior as it occurs I Limitations 0 Lack of control over behaviors and environment I Observer bias 0 The Hawthorne effect being observed can alter the behavior under observation 0 Crosscultural studies compare data from two or more societies I Limitations 0 Quality of data varies 0 Lack of data for many cultures 0 Lack of data on individual differences 0 Correlational Analysis statistical procedure used to determine the degree to which two behaviors are associated with one another I Does not prove causation I Can be used for predictive purposes Know how to define fixation as it relates to Freud s theory 0 Tendency to stay at a particular stage 0 Stressed the role in our behavior of unconscious motivation I Stemmed from impulses buried below the level of awareness I Id ego superego O Psychosexual stages I Oral anal phallic latency genital Understand what Erickson s Stages of Psychosocial Development is and how many there are You do not need to know the specific stages 0 Epigenetic principle anything that grows has a ground plan 0 Each stage poses an unique developmental task and a crisis or opportunity which individuals must resolve 0 Personality development takes place throughout the entire life span Trust vs mistrust 0 The Psychosocial stages of development I Autonomy vs shame and doubt I Initiative vs guilt I Industry vs inferiority I Identity vs Identity confusion I Intimacy vs isolation I Generativity vs stagnation I Integrity vs despair I Despair vs hope and faith 0 Be familiar with the physiological needs in Maslow s hierarchy of needs 0 Psychological needs are air water sex sleep food 0 Safety and security love and belonging self esteem and self accusation Understand operant conditioning and classical conditioning O Operant conditioning A type of learning in which the consequences of a behavior alter the strength of that behavior 0 In uenced by the work of John Watson and BF Skinner 0 Classical conditioning Process of stimulus substitution in which a new previously neutral stimulus is substituted for the stimulus that naturally elicits a response 0 Based on the work of Ivan Pavlov Understand cognitive theory and cognitive learning 0 Cognition acts or processes of knowing 0 Cognitive theory how we go about representing organizing treating and transforming information as we devise our behavior 0 Cognitive learning I Places heavy reliance on information processing I People abstract and integrate information that they encounter in the course of their social experiences I Cognitive learning is referred to as observational learning social learning and social modeling Know how to define assimilation accommodation and equilibrium as it relates to Piaget s theory 0 Assimilation taking in new info and making it fit with the existing schema of the world 0 Accommodation changing one s schema to make it match the reality of the world 0 Equilibrium balance between the processes of assimilation and accommodation Understand nature vs nurture debate 0 Heredity vs Environment 0 Debate continues over which factor is responsible for a given trait 0 New Question How so hereditary and environmental factors work together to produce a behavior Know the theorist associated with sociocultural theory 0 Lev Vygotsky O Sociocultural theory thinking reasoning and remembering are facilitated through language and anchored in the child s interpersonal relationships I Learning from group activities and everyone else Know how to define reproductive concepts such as reproduction gametes fertilization zygote and testes O Reproduction Process by which organisms create more organisms of own kind 0 Testes produce sperm and male sex hormones O Gametes cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization conception in organisms that sexually reproduce O Fertilization fusion of sperm and ovum O Zygote sperm and ovum egg or oocyte fuse to create a zygote 0 Understand what determines the sex of a child 0 46 chromosomes 23 pairs 22 are similar in shape and size in both women and men autosomes O 23rd pair sex chromosomes determine baby s sex 0 Understand phenotype and genotype 0 Genotype actual genetic makeup of an organism O Phenotype observable characteristics of an organism hair eyes skin color 0 Know how to define cloning O Cloning a form of asexual reproduction that creates an embryo by somatic cell nuclear transfer 0 Two types reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning 0 Many legal and ethical issues are involved 0 Be familiar with the prenatal developmental periods 0 Germinal period from conception to end of second week I Characterized by growth of zygote and establishment of linkage between zygote and support system of mother 0 Embryonic period From end of second week to end of eighth week I Rapid growth establishment of a placental relationship with mother chief organs recognizable human body 0 Cephalocaudal development that proceeds from the head to the feet 0 Proximodistal develop that proceeds outward from the central axis of the body toward the extremities 0 Understand the concept of teratogen 0 Major drugs and chemical teratogens I Smoking alcohol weed coke other hard drugs I Oral contraceptives I Caffeine I Environmental toxins I Workplace toxins 0 Understand the concept of cephalocaudal development 0 Cephalocaudal development that proceeds from the head to the feet 0 Understand why there has been a change in motherhood 0 Older and more welleducated mothers Understand the Lamaze method 0 Psychoprophylatic method encouraged women to relax and concentrate on breathing during contractions Know and define the stages of the birthing process 0 Birth transition between dependent existence in the uterus and life as a separate organism Lightening infant shifts downward and forward in the uterus to lighten the mother s discomfort and ensure the baby will be born head first Labor muscle fibers of the uterus rhythmically contract pushing the infant downward toward the birth canal Delivery begins once the infant s head passes through the cervix and ends when the baby has completed the passage through the birth canal I Lasts 2080 minutes Crowning occurs when the widest diameter of baby s the head is at the mother s vulva Neonate a newborn baby in the first month of life Afterbirth occurs when the placenta separates from the uterus and is expelled through the vagina I Lasts for about 20 minutes Be familiar with the birthing accommodations O O O Midwifery legalized provision of prenatal care and delivery by midwives Birthing rooms homelike atmosphere Rooming in arrangement where bassinet is beside the mother s bed allowing the mother to get acquainted with the baby while integrating the father into the childcare process Birthing centers used for low risk deliveries because they lack hightech equipment Understand the purpose of a doulamidwife 0 Provide emotional care and physical comfort and are usually licensed and affiliated with obstetricians Understand the concepts of parentinfant bonding and couvade syndrome 0 Parentinfant bonding process of interaction and mutual attention that occurs over time and builds an emotional bond Couvade syndrome complaints of uncomfortable physical symptoms dietary changes and weight gain because of their partner s pregnancy Parent differently than mother s and play an integral role in children s development Know how to define newborn states and re exes States a continuum of alertness from regular sleep to vigorous activity I Defined by Peter H Wolff Re exes response that is triggered automatically through builtin circuits 39 Simple involuntary unlearned response to stimulus Sleeping usually sleeps 16 or more hours a day 78 naps Crying I The Language of Crying 0 Different cries convey different messages 0 Parents learn the language of crying quickly 39 Soothing the Infant 0 Meet physical and emotional needs 0 Understand the criteria used to define learning 0 O 0 There is some change in behavior The change must be relatively stable The chance must results from experience 0 Be familiar with object permanence and how to identify examples of it 0 0 Object permanence the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed seen heard touched smelled or sensed in any way According to Piaget the development of object permanence is one of the most important accomplishments at the sensorimotor stage of development Object permanence is a child39s understanding that objects continue to exist even though they cannot be seen or heard Imagine a game of peekaboo for example A very young infant will believe that the other person or object has actually vanished and will act shocked or startled when the object reappears Older infants who understand object permanence will realize that the person or object continues to exist even when unseen 0 Know how to define Piaget s sensorimotor period 0 O The sensorimotor stage can be divided into six separate substages that are characterized by the development of a new skill Re exes 01 month during this substage the child understands the environment purely through inborn re exes such as sucking and looking Primary circular reactions 14 months involves coordinating sensation and new schemas For example a child may such his or her thumb by accident and then later intentionally repeat the action These actions are repeated because the infant finds them pleasurable Secondary circular reactions 48 months During this substage the child becomes more focused on the world and begins to intentionally repeat an action in order to trigger a response in the environment For example a child will purposefully pick up a toy in order to put it in his or her mouth 0 Coordination of reactions 812 months During this substage the child starts to show clearly intentional actions The child may also combine schemas in order to achieve a desired effect Children begin exploring the environment around them and will often imitate the observed behavior of others The understanding of objects also begins during this time and children begin to recognize certain objects as having specific qualities For example a child might realize that a rattle will make a sound when shaken Tertiary circular reactions 1218 Children begin a period of trialanderror experimentation during the fifth substage For example a child may try out different sounds or actions as a way of getting attention from a caregiver Early representational though 1824 Children begin to develop symbols to represent events or objects in the world in the final sensorimotor substage During this time children begin to move towards understanding the world through mental operations rather than purely through actions 0 Understand Bruner s modes of cognitive representation 0 O O Enactive representation children represent the world through their motor skills Ikonic representation children use mental images or pictures that are closely linked to perceptions Symbolic representation children learn through language communication 0 Be familiar with and know how to define the two components of attention 0 O Decrement of attention losing interest in watching an object or even that is unchanging Recovery of attention regaining interest when something new happens 0 Know how to define language and paralanguage 0 Language structured system of sound patterns with socially standardized meanings Communication process by which people transmit info ideas attitudes and emotions to one another I Facilitation of though and other cognitive processes Paralanguage the stress pitch and volume of vocalization by which we communication expressive meaning 0 Understand nativist theory 0 O Noam Chomsky The language acquisition device LAD human beings possess an inborn languagegenerating mechanism Human beings begin life with the underpinnings of later speech perception and comprehension Humans are prewired by their brain circuitry for language use 10 0 Human brain Wired to sort through incoming frequencies and sounds categorized as phonemes smallest units of language 0 Understand surface structure and deep structure 0 All languages possess 39 Surface structure the words they use I Deep structure their composition nouns and verbs 0 Know how to define receptive vocabulary o Receptive vocabulary an understanding of spoken words before they are able to express themselves
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