HDFS225Exam3StudyGuide.pdf HDFS 225
Popular in Lifespan Human Development in the family
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 225 at Michigan State University taught by Sherrell Hicklen House in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in the family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
HDFS 225 Exam 3 Study Guide Exam 3 will be based primarily on the lectures and the textbook It will be multiple choice and about 60 questions in length Chapters 1114 will be covered on the exam so please make sure you have thoroughly read all four chapters and you study your lecture notes If you study the following areas thoroughly you should be wellprepared for the exam Chapter 11 0 Know how to define puberty O Puberty period in the life cycle when sexual and reproductive maturation becomes evident I Puberty is not a single even or set of events I A crucial phase in a long and complex process of maturation that begins prenatally 0 Be familiar with Ethological Theory 0 Jay Belsky I Some young mothers are responding to a pattern in human evolution that induces individuals who grow up under stressful circumstances to bear children early and often ensure survival 0 Some psychologists Maccoby Bornstein and Lamb do not agree with the theory I Adolescents that became pregnant have less supervision I Girls tend to enter puberty early similar to their mothers which is based on genetic factors 0 Understand what an adolescent growth spurt is and when it occurs 0 Adolescent growth spurt rapid increase in height and weight I 12 for girls and 14 for boys 0 Be familiar with asynchronous physical growth and menarche 0 Physical growth is asynchronous I Dissimilarity in the growth rates of different parts of the body I Can result in an unbalanced appearance and exaggerated sense of self consciousness and awkwardness O Puberty usually begins around 9 or 10 I Menarche the first menstrual period I Onset is earlier in industrialized nations 0 Significance of menarche I Identity as a woman I Onset varies with ethnicity I Late menarche found where food is scarce I Con ict between mother and daughter 0 Know how to define the different eating disorders O Anorexia nervosa eating disorder primarily affecting females who have become obsessed with looking thin O Bulimia nervosa binging and purging eating behaviors O Binge eating disorder consuming large amounts of food multiple times per week without exercising or purging Be familiar with David Elkind s two dimensions of adolescent egocentrism 0 Expanding on Piaget s belief of egocentrism David Elkind suggested two dimensions of egocentrism I Personal fable tendency to view oneself as unique or heroic I Imaginary audience the adolescent s belief that everyone is primarily concerned with the adolescent Know the major cause of death for adolescents Accidents motor fatality Homicide Suicide Cancer 0 Heart disease Understand Piaget s cognitive development formal operations stage 0 Final and highest stage in the development of cognitive functioning from infancy to adulthood 0 Ability to think about one s own thinking and to think abstractly 0 Ability to imagine many possibilities inherent in a situation Know how to define schizophrenia 0 A brain disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally 0000 Be familiar with the impact of early or late maturation on adolescents 0 Boys latematuring boys may have feelings of inadequacy negative selfconcept and rejection I Berkeley study found that feelings persist through middle age 0 Girls various psychological effects I Physically stout physiques earlier I Thinner physiques later Understand the reasons why adolescents indulge in body art 0 Tattoos and body piercings have become widely acceptable 0 Adolescents indulge in body art for the following reasons I Demonstrate social identity group membership I Commemorate special event I Express intimacy tattooing a significant other s name I Entertainment Chapter 12 Be familiar with Stanley Hall s perception of the adolescent period 0 Hall s portrayal of Storm and Stress O Adolescence characterized by O I Inevitable turmoil I Maladjustment I Tension I Rebellion I Dependency con icts I Exaggerated peer group conformity Made popular by Anna Freud I Believe that having a steady equilibrium during adolescence is abnormal 0 Understand Sullivan s development of identity stages 0 Interpersonal Theory of Development explains human development as being social Preadolescence begins with a need for intimate relationship with samesex playmate I Ends with desire for genital sexuality Early adolescence begins with onset of puberty and genital maturation I Merging need for sexual intimacy challenges samesex friendship of preadolescence I Need to be seen as socially acceptable by potential sexual partners Late adolescence begins with the individual establishing a method of satisfying sexual needs I Ends with the establishment of a relationship that is both sexual and personally intimate 0 Be familiar with the Psychosocial stage Erickson associated with adolescents O O Focused on the struggle of adolescents to develop and clarify their identity Adolescents must synthesize a variety of new roles in order to come to terms with themselves and their environment Role confusion adolescents who are left with a blurred selfimage Believes that adolescents are at risk of experiencing identity di usion or establishing negative or deviant identities Negative identity debased selfimage and social role Deviant identity lifestyle at odds with the values and expectations of society I Example want to be a porn star 0 Understand Marcia s Four Types of Identity Statuses 0 Identity diffusion state in which the individual has few if any commitments to anyone or to any set of beliefs I Those who are identity diffused do not seem to know what they want to do in life or who they want to be Identity foreclosure the avoidance of autonomous choice I Foreclosure is premature identity formation I The adolescent accepts someone else s such as parents values and goals without exploring alternate roles Identity moratorium a period of delay during which adolescents can experiment with or try on various roles ideologies and commitments It is a stage of life between childhood and adulthood when the individual can explore various dimensions of life without having to choose any yet 0 Identity achievement period when the individual achieves inner stability that corresponds to what others perceive the person to be 0 Be familiar with puberty rites O Puberty rites initiation ceremonies that socially symbolize the transition from childhood to adulthood O Rites of Passage include specific rituals such as Seclusion from society Instruction from elders Tests of strength and endurance A transition ceremony A return to society with recognition of adult status 0 Understand drug abuse and binge drinking 0 Substance abuse the harmful use of drugs or alcohol lasting over a prolonged period that puts self or other in hazardous situations 0 Adolescents who abuse drugs or alcohol have a chance of becoming drug addicts or alcoholics commit crimes to support addictions 0 Alcohol is a factor in most deaths for 1524 year olds Accidents homicides suicides accidental overdoses 0 Know the ways in which parents are in uential to adolescents versus peers 0 All of the following decline from early to late adolescence Time spent with parents Sense of emotional closeness Yielding to parents in decisionmaking 0 Parental supervision and monitoring during teen years is associated with Lower rates of delinquency Substance abuse Aggression 0 In uence in Different Realms of Behavior Parents are most in uential in 0 Finances 0 Education 0 Career plans 0 Peers are most in uential in Dress Personal adornment Dating Drinking Music Entertainment 0 Understand consciousness of oneness 0 Holistic all together as one Chapter 13 0 Be familiar with the different generational cohorts that exist in the US 0 Baby Boomers group born between 19461964 0 Generation X group born between 19651980 I More ethnically diverse and better educated than baby boomer generation 0 The Millennials group born between early 1980s and early 2000s I Largest cohort in American history I More ethnically and racially diverse than older adults I Most likely to become the best educated generation 0 Know how to define emerging adulthood 0 We commonly associate adulthood with aging 0 Know how to define the different kinds of aging 0 Aging biological and social change across the life span 0 Biological aging changes in the structure and functioning of the human organism over time 0 Social aging changes in an individual s assumption and relinquishment of roles over time 0 Transition points relinquishing familiar rules and assuming new ones 0 Be familiar with the different types of norms 0 Social norms standards of behavior that members of a group share and to which they are expected to conform I Example unacceptability of pushing or shoving when exiting the subway 0 Age norms social norms that define what is appropriate for people to be and to do at various ages I Example best age to graduate from college get married or have children 0 Know how to define social clock and age grading 0 Age grading the arranging of people in social layers that are based on periods in the life cycle 0 Social clock set of internalized concepts that regulate our progression through the adult years I Standards that people use to asses their conformity to societal expectations 0 For example its appropriate to be impulsive during adolescence but not during middle age I The lower socioeconomic status the more rapid pacing of the social clock tends to be 0 Understand the different kinds of stress 0 Psychological disorders and disturbances results from both individual vulnerability and environmental stresses 0 Eustress good stress winning the lottery or getting into grad school Distress negative events failing an exam or class 0 O Hassles common daily stressors looking for your keys 0 How we perceive an event is a significant factor 0 Amount of sleep is a significant factor in feeling stress or not 0 Be familiar with Selye s stages of stress reaction 0 Alarm reaction nervous system is activated 0 Stage of resistance the body mobilizes its resources to overcome the stress 0 Stage of exhaustion occurs after the body s capacity to handle stress becomes progressively undermined Perception on situation sense of control selfesteem and social support cushions stress 0 Be familiar with the characteristics of the Post Formal Operational Thought Stage 0 Many psychologists believe that there is a fifth stage after Piaget s formal operations stage 0 Postformal Operational Thought is characterized by 3 features I Knowledge is not absolute but relativistic I Accept the contradictions in life and the existence of mutually incompatible systems of knowledge I Must find some encompassing whole by which to organize their experience 0 Understand Carol Gilligan s beliefs of moral reasoning for men and women 0 Carol Gilligan men and women have different moral domains 0 Men right and rules ethic of justice 0 Women an obligation to exercise care and avoid hurt ethic of care Chapter 14 0 Be familiar with the characteristics of parents transitioning to parenthood O Shift from twoperson to threeperson system can cause a quotcrisisquot in the relationship Decline in overall quality of couple39s life Couples with most problems most unrealistic expectations of parenthood Problems with division of labor 0 Children can stabilize marriages 0 Be familiar with the different kinds of relationships and ties formed with other people 0 Social relationships relationships with other people 0 Expressive tie social link formed when we invest ourselves in and commit ourselves to another person 0 Primary relationships a social interaction based on significant expressive ties with friends families lovers 0 Instrumental ties social link formed when we cooperate with another person to achieve a limited goal 0 Secondary relationships social interactions that rest on instrumental ties 000 0 Be familiar with the Psychosocial stage Erickson associated with early adulthood 0 Sixth stage intimacy versus isolation I Task is to reach out and make connections with other people I Principal task for your adults 0 Cultural dislocation feeling of homelessness and alienation from a traditional way of life Understand Levinson s stages of a young man s life and be able to identify examples Phases in adult male development Leaving the family Entering the adult world Settling down Becoming one s own man Men see themselves tied to a future in terms of their career Know Stemberg s Triangular Theory of Love and be able to define the different kinds of love 0 Consummate love has all three elements I Passion physical and sexual attraction I Intimacy having a close warm caring relationship I Commitment intent and ability to maintain the relationship over an extended period of time and under adverse conditions Know how to define lifestyle and intimacy 0 Lifestyle the overall pattern of living whereby we attempt to meet our biological social and emotional needs 0 Intimacy ability to experience a trusting supportive and tender relationship with another person Be able to define role con ict and role overload 0 Role Con ict women experience pressures within one role that are incompatible with the pressures from another role 0 Role Overload too many role demands and too little time to fulfill them 0 Women who encounter these role strains are more likely to experience I Diminished sense of wellbeing I Decrease in work and marital satisfaction I Possible mental health issues OPWPi O
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