HDFS225Exam4StudyGuide.pdf HDFS 225
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 225 at Michigan State University taught by Sherrell Hicklen House in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Human Development in the family in HDFS at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
HDFS 225 Final Exam Exam 4 Study Guide Exam 4 will be based primarily on the lectures and the textbook It will be multiple choice and about 60 questions in length Chapters 1519 will be covered on the exam so please make sure you have thoroughly read all five chapters and you study your lecture notes If you study the following areas thoroughly you should be wellprepared for the exam Chapter 15 Know how to define all of the different vision changes that middle age adults may go through 0 Presbyopia normal condition in which the lens of the eye starts to harden losing its ability to accommodate as quickly as it did in youth I Symptoms include getting headaches or tired eyes while doing close work 0 Glaucoma increased pressure caused by uid buildup in the eye I Can damage the optic nerve and lead to blindness if untreated O Cataracts clouding on the lens typically occurs in 3050 of people over 65 O Floaters annoying oating spots particles suspended in the gellike uid of the eyeball that generally do not impair 0 Dry eye stems from diminished tear production can be uncomfortable and can be eased with drops 0 Macular degeneration first sign is faded distorted or blurred central vision may be related to smoking I Leading cause of visual impairment and legal blindness in older adults Know how to define periodontal disease 0 Periodontal disease loss of teeth gums start to recede Know how to define osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis 0 Rheumatoid Arthritis an autoimmune in ammatory disease that causes pain swelling stiffness and loss of function of the joints 0 Osteoarthritis joint in ammation resulting from cartilage degeneration that causes friction between the bones I Related to aging I Most common type of arthritis Be familiar with the concepts of menopause and the female midlife change 0 Menopause the cessation of ovarian function and of menstruation I Occurs between 45 and 55 average is 51 O Perimenopause the process leading to menopause typically takes 24 years Climacteric changes in the ovaries and in hormonal processes 0 Hormone Replacement Therapy HRT a regimen often recommended to menopausal women by physicians to slow bone loss maintain cardiovascular fitness slow memory loss and maintain sexual desire I HRT may increase incidence of O I Heart attack 0 Stroke 0 Blood clots I Breast cancer I Dementia 0 Know how to define cholesterol 0 A waxy fat that occurs naturally in the body and is used to build the cell walls and make certain hormones 0 A leading risk factor for heart disease 0 How to minimize I Reduce saturated fats in diet I Increase activity level I Stop smoking 0 Be familiar with uid intelligence and crystallized intelligence 0 Fluid intelligence ability to make original adaptations in novel situations what we are born with O Crystallized intelligence abilities learned from education experience and acculturation 0 Fluid intelligence declines with age but crystallized intelligence often increases with age and does not decline until 60s or 70s 0 Understand dialectical thinking convergent thinking and divergent thinking 0 Dialectical thinking organized approach to analyzing and making sense of the world one experiences that differs fundamentally from formal analysis 0 Convergent thinking application of logic and reasoning to arrive at a single correct answer to a problem 0 Divergent thinking more openminded multiple solutions to a problem are sought and examined Chapter 16 0 Know how to define maturity and selfconcept O Maturity ability to respond to the environment in an appropriate manner 0 Selfconcept how someone thinks about evaluates or perceives themselves to be aware of oneself 0 Be familiar with the Psychosocial stage Erickson associated with Middle Adulthood O Generativity vs Stagnation I Erickson s Middle Adulthood Stage of Psychosocial Development 0 The concern in establishing and guiding the next generation 0 Understand Robert Peck s Four Tasks at Midlife and be able to identify examples 0 Valuing wisdom vs valuing physical powers 0 Socializing vs sexualizing in human relationships 0 Emotional exibility vs Emotional impoverishment 0 Mental exibility vs mental rigidity 0 Be familiar with trait models situational models and interactionist models 0 Trait models I An individual gradually forms certain characteristics that become progressively resistant to change with the passage of time I Behavioral traits that constitute the core of personality extroversion neuroticism openness agreeableness and conscientiousness 0 The Big Five 0 Situational models I Behavior is the outcome of the characteristics of the situation in which the person is momentarily located I We are motivated to believe that the world around us is orderly and patterned because we want predictability O Interactionist models I Behavior is always a join product of the person and the situation I Some individuals are more consistent across situations than others 0 Know how to define traditional marriage and displaced homemaker 0 Traditional marriage the women are homemakers and the men are providers I Likely to center their lives in the domestic hemisphere O No longer primarily homemakers I Levinson s theory is not as valid today as most contemporary women in industrial societies are employed outside the home as well as being homemakers I Still applies to many nonindustrial and emergingtechnological societies of the world 0 Be familiar with androgyny sandwich generation empty nest and social convoy O Androgyny combination of masculine and feminine characteristics I Sexual ambiguity may be found in fashion gender identity sexual identity or sexual lifestyle I It can also refer to biological intersex physicality especially with regard to plant and human sexuality 0 Sandwich generation responsibilities for aging parents and minor children bridge across generations 0 Empty nest period of life wen children have grown up and leave home 0 Social convoy network of close relationships we maintain throughout life Chapter 17 0 Know how to define ageism and gerontology O Ageism Stereotyping and judging a group of people solely on the basis of their age 0 Gerontology the study of aging and the special problems associated with it 0 Know how to define sarcopenia collagen and dysphagia O Sarcopenia agerelated muscle loss I Loss of muscle and of skin elasticity produce skin folds and wrinkling O Collagen substance that constitutes a very high percentage of the total protein in the body appears to be implicated in the aging process 0 Dysphagia swallowing disorders increases with age due to various conditions 0 Be familiar with sleep apnea and death drop 0 Sleep apnea disorder in which the person often stops breathing during sleep 0 Death drop a marked intellectual decline or terminal decline phenomenon occurs just a short time before a person dies 0 Be familiar with decay theory and interference theory 0 Decay theory forgetting is due to deterioration of the memory traces in the brain 0 Interference theory retrieval of a cue becomes less effective as more and newer items come in to be classes or categorized in terms of it 0 Know how to define senility and multiinfarcts O Senility progressive mental deterioration memory loss and disorientation regarding time and place 0 Multiinfarcts little strokes that destroy a small area of brain tissue 0 Be familiar with Alzheimer s disease 0 Alzheimer s disease a progressive degenerative disorder that involves a deterioration of brain cells I Phases of Alzheimer s Disease 0 Forgetfulness 0 Confusion 0 Dementia Chapter 18 0 Be familiar with the false stereotypes of late adulthood 0 Factors for positive affect 0 Social relationships 0 Reading and following news 0 Extraverted personality 0 Definite beliefs and disbeliefs 0 Living with others 0 Factors for negative affect 0 Neuroticism 0 Having a major illness 0 Money problems 0 Living alone or feeling lonely 0 Be familiar with the Psychosocial stage Erickson associated with Late Adulthood 0 Erikson s integrity vs despair stage 0 Satisfaction in having led a successful life leads to integrity 0 If they feel like life has been wasted they may experience a sense of despair 0 Be familiar with a life review O A life review elderly person takes stock of his or her life re ecting and reminiscing about it 0 Be familiar with Neugarten s major personality patterns in people aged 5080 0 Integrated well functioning individuals 0 Armoreddefended striving ambitious achievement oriented with the need to retain control over events 0 Passivedependent strong dependency needs 0 Unintegrated gross deficits in psychological functioning 0 Know the various reasons why sibling relationships are important during late adulthood O Longestlasting relationships people have Provide continuity in family history Closeness grows with age Especially important for those with few or no children Fewer depressive symptoms greater life satisfaction and sense of emotional security 0 Be familiar with retirement 0 Retirement withdrawal from one s job or career or from active occupationemployment 39 Some people volunteer or work parttime I Requires adjustment and change Living at home alone Assisted living services Institutional care Retirement communities 0 Adult group homes 0 O O O 0000 0 Be familiar with caregiver burnout 0 Elder abuse and neglect are both acts of commission and omission that cause unnecessary suffering to the elderly 0 Spousal abuse is more common than abuse by adult children 0 Programs have been designed to educate staff to recognize signs to prevent abuse Chapter 19 0 Know how to define thanatology O Thanatology study of death and dying 0 Know how to define the different kinds of euthanasia 0 Passive euthanasia allows death to occur by removing or withholding treatment 0 Involuntary euthanasia family member decides to remove or withhold treatment when patient is brain dead 0 Voluntary euthanasia patient removes lifeprolonging treatments 0 Know how to define living will 0 Living will a legal document that states an individual s wishes regarding medical care in case the person becomes incapacitated and unable to participate in decision about his or her medical care 0 Be familiar with suicide and the concepts of suicide 0 l 2 3 0 Three concepts NIMH Suicide ideas Suicide attempts Completed suicides Who Commits Suicide and Why 0 Females attempt more suicides but males complete more suicides 0 Be able to define hospice vegetative state and near death experience 0 O O O 0 Provides comfort and care but with the knowledge that the recipients are nearing the end of their life s joumey that they re dying Is a concept of care not a place Most hospice programs are centered on the care of the dying person at home Persistent vegetative states periods of sleepwake cycle and re exes but no cognition or willful actiVity Near death experiences dying individuals feel themselves leave their bodies and watch as spectators the resuscitation efforts 0 Be familiar with KublerRoss stages of dying I 2 3 4 5 Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance 0 Know how to define bereavement grief and mourning O O O Bereavement state in which a person has been deprived of a relative or a friend by death Grief keen mental anguish and sorrow over the death of a loved one Mourning socially established manner of displaying signs of sorrow over death 0 Be familiar with the phases in the bereavement process 1 2 3 4 Shock numbness denial disbelief need to withdraw Pining yearning and depression Emancipation from loved one and adjustment to new circumstances Identity reconstruction
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