Exam2StudyGuide.pdf TE 150
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to TE 150 at Michigan State University taught by E. wong in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Reflections on Learning in Education and Teacher Studies at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Study Guide 2 TE150 Reflections on Learning Exam 2 Study Guide Exams will be closedbook and inclass All students are responsible for bringing a blank blue book Your instructor will specify what size blue book to bring The exam will consist of term definition and short answer sections Terms 60 points You will be given six of these terms and asked to define four Your definition should include an original example that demonstrates your understanding of the term 12 1 page per term Each response should include a short definition 33 an relevant example 33 and an explanation of how the example illustrates the definition 34 Big Ideas The performance of experts and novices differs in important ways because of the nature of their knowledge Constructs Expert vs novice Pattern Recognition Organization of content knowledge flexible retrieval of information adaptive expertise expert v novice pattern recognition experts store information in meaningful patterns meaningful chunkspatternsschema of information chunking information can see the connection and relationship between different parts rather than individual pieces of information rote Schema creating and building informationconcept expert v novice knowledge organization notice meaningful patterns organization of knowledge flexible retrieval of information with little effort knowledge of area of expertise apply information to new situations expert knowledge is organized around important ideasconcepts organization of knowledge is meaningful can explain how components of a structure interact deep knowledge knowledge is connected to other knowledge expert v novice conditionalized knowledge expert v novice retrieval of information 10 years or 10000 hours of practice makes you an expert Gives a person broad and far reaching knowledge fluentautomatic retrieval automaticity expert knowledge and teaching pedagogical content knowledge Vocabulary words for knowledge of what you are teaching and how to teach it Knowing what you re teaching and how to teach it adaptive expertise being able to adapt in a variety of situations Big Ideas What students already know and how it is organized has great deal of influence on what they comprehend and learn Constructs misconceptions from birth people begin to develop conceptions and misconceptions Trying to make sense of the world An idea assumption or conception about something that is not true An idea assumption or conception about something that is not true How you grew up what you ve been exposed to alternative conceptions conceptual change origins of misconceptions we form them from the day we are born how teachers can correct students39 misconceptions changing the schemas conceptual change use assimilation to change existing schema or accommodation Posner39s 4steps for conceptual change assimilation accommodation equilibration disequilibration Generative Learning Model for conceptual change Ascertains students39 ideas expectations and explanations prior to instruction Provides a context through motivating experiences related to the concept Facilitates the exchange of views and challenges students to compare ideas including the evidence for the scientific perspective Provides opportunities for students to use the new ideas scientific conceptions in familiar settings Piaget39s assimilation amp accommodation assimilation relating you get new information you are able to explain new ideas or experience using existing schemaunderstanding Assimilation is like adding air into a balloon You just keep blowing it up It gets bigger and bigger For example a two year old39s schema of a tree is quotgreen and big with barkquot over time the child adds information some trees lose their leaves some trees have names we use a tree at Christmas etc Your balloon just gets full of more information that fits neatly with what you know and adds onto it Accommodation if you cant fit in the new information you change your interpretation change your schema Accommodation is when you have to turn your round balloon into the shape of a poodle This new balloon quotanimalquot is a radical shift in your schema or balloon shape Equilibrium understanding information and expiriences using existing schema stable Disequilibrium unable to understand information and expiriences using existing schema Does not fit or make sense Big Ideas Transfer of school learning is sometimes surprisingly difficult educators need to understand why Constructs doctrine of the quotformal disciplinesquot Transfer Skills that can be applied in different situations vertical transfer previous knowledge is essential to learn something new multiplication to do trig near amp far transfer near transfer transfer from one school task to another situations are similar writing in English can help with doing research paper far transfer transfer from a school task to a nonschool task situations are differentgeometry helps in a game of pool negative transfer Learning that hinders other contexts positive transfer to learn something then apply it to another situation elements that promote initial learning understanding vs memorizing time to learn motivation to learn Understanding deep knowledge vs rote Time to learn motivation it takes time to learn meaningful patterns motivation feedback Big Ideas motivation is much more than high or low Instead it can be described by many characteristics Constructs intrinsic amp extrinsic motivation intrinsic doing something because you want to extrinsic doing something because you have to Autonomy selfdetermination theory autonomy desire to be in control of your own life competence selfdetermination theory relatedness free choice measure challenge amp persistence learning amp performance goals Big Ideas how learners explain success and failure is an important characteristic of their motivation Constructs attribution attribution theory stable vs unstable internal external controllable uncontrollable An attempt to explain the world and determine the cause of an event or behavior learned helplessness when people are forced to endure positive punishment people then avoid future encounters with that stimuli expectancyvalue theory the degree to which you expect to be able to perform a task X the degree to which you value the reward entity and incremental theories of intelligence incremental intelligenceability can improve with effort or practice entity belief that intelligence or ability is permanent and can not improve effects of praise on effort and performance persistence task choice Big Ideas Students39 motivation can be broadly described by profiles having certain characteristics related to goals task choice persistence attributions emotions etc Students39 beliefs about their intelligence can affect their learning Dweck Constructs effects of praising ability and effort on task choice persistence performance relationship between view of intelligence and task choice persistence performance Motivation Construct that directs or sustains behavior Big Ideas Computational thinking is problem solving process that improves understanding of a concept Constructs Abstraction pattern recognition decomposition of problems algorithmic thinking Abstraction a simplistic representation of multiple examples Pattern rec Decomposition Algorithmic thinking Essay 40 points Below is a list of essay questions On the exam you will be given two of these questions and will be asked to write a 23 page essay in response to w of them Your essay will be scored according to these criteria 0 Accurate relevant information 50 The information in your response is accurate and relevant to the question Connections between parts of the response are clear logical and function to answer the question Your response is weakened by unnecessary information 0 Application 50 Connections between concepts and examples are clear accurate and germane relevant to the question and demonstrate your understanding Possible Essay Questions Choose a schoolrelated task in which you are relatively expert You can consider yourself quotexpertquot at a task if you39ve done it for awhile you39re better at it than most people Compare your performance on this task to a novice someone who is able to do the task but not very well In this comparison use at least 4 relevant terms to distinguish expert from novice performance Meaningful patterns organizational knowledge retrieveal of info adaptive expertise effective strategies pedagogical content fluent retrieveal 10000 hours pattern recognition Suppose you are a teacher Choose a grade and specific concept you39re teaching You are trying to teach this concept to a student but notice he is having difficulty learning the new concept You suspect that the difficulty might be coming from the connection between what you39re trying to teach and their prior knowledge Describe an example of conceptual change teaching that begins with an analysis of how students39 prior knowledge may make learning the new concept difficult and how you would have to adjust your teaching to adapt to this student39s prior knowledge Use at least 4 relevant terms in your answer Prior knowledge can inhibit sense making Sense making is the process of understanding information and making connections between old and new information For example if a student is learning how to use a hockey stick his prior knowledge of how to swing a golf club could be inhibiting his ability to do a slap shot effectively Assimilationaccommodation misconception schema Suppose you are a teacher Choose a grade and specific idea you39re teaching You notice that a student is having difficulty applying what they39ve learned in class to a situation outside of class Using what you know about transfer of learning develop a possible explanation for why this student may be having difficulty applying this idea to a new situation Use at least 4 relevant terms in your answer Vertical transfer previous knowledge is essential to learn something near transfer transfer from one school task to another situations are similar far transfer transfer from a school task to a nonschool task situations are different negative transfer learning in one context hinders learning in another How can you tell if a student s motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic Use examples to illustrate what qualities makes their motivation more or less intrinsic or extrinsic Use at least 4 relevant terms in your answer Motivation energized directs and sustained behavior and thinking Intrinsic enjoyable interesting meaningful worthwhile Learning something because you want to End in itself sports video games Extrinsic Expectation for the acquisition of external rewards Learning something because you have to Means to an end money and grades autonomy desire to be in control of your own life extrinsic factors decrease intrinsic motivation deadlines and restrictions decrease intrinsic motivation giving students choices increases intrinsic motivation competence controlling outcome and experience mastery poisitive feedback imporves intrinsic motivation negative feedback decreases intrinsic motivation related interact connect with and care for others secure and stable groups promote intrinsic motivation organismic integration theory identification it is valuable to learn or perform for you learning basic math or how to read can be used to intrinsically motivate students Integrated regulation more autonomous when external regulations are internalized What is important to your family or culture can be used to extrinsically motivate students According to the article on attribution it is best to evaluate students solely on the effort they put into their work Explain why this is true or false Use at least 4 relevant terms in your answer What attribution patterns are associated with the different profiles described by Stipek How does the attribution pattern relate to their behavior and feelings Use at least 4 relevant terms in your answer Ability internal and stable learner does not have much control basketball Task difficulty external and stable beyond learners control Effort internal and unstable learner has control Luck external and unstable learner has little control Internal vs External Is our success or failure originate within use or other factors Stable vs Unstable Is the same outcome going to continue occurring Controllable vs Uncontrollable Do we have influence over our success or failure Why is praise dangerous What are its effects Use at least 4 relevant terms in your answer Praise is not an effective way to promote motivation in students Sending the message that product is more important than process Suggests effort is not important You worked hard vs you are smart May lead to cheating Promotes idea that there is a fixed end point to learning rather than a continual process Blind encouragement alters view of self looking intelligent is the most important attributes are static believing intelligence is fixed want to choose easy tasks to look smart decrease in motivation to improve Learned helplessness when people are forced to endure positive punishment people then avoid future encounters with that stimuli Stereotype threat when a group of similar people is reminded of their race gender etc their performance is more likely to enforce their stereotype Selfesteem Motivation Effort How is praise related to the development of entity and incremental theories of intelligence Use at least 4 relevant terms in your answer Incremental view belief that intelligence or ability can improve with effort or practice controllable Entity view belief that intelligence or ability is a quotthingquot that is relatively permanent and unchanged xed and inate you have it or you don39t not controllable
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