TE150Exam1.pdf TE 150
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to TE 150 at Michigan State University taught by E. wong in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Reflections on Learning in Education and Teacher Studies at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
TE 150 Exam 1 Questions Each response should include a short definition 33 a relevant example 33 and an explanation of how the example illustrates the definition 34 1 Big Ideas Learning is a change in behavior and is shaped by patterns of reinforcement from the environment the probability of a behavior occurring increases when it is followed by a positive experience Constructs Key features and process of operant conditioning factors that affect the conditioning process conditioning as a learning mechanism in classrooms operant conditioning reinforcementreward punishment positive reinforcement negative reinforcement differential reinforcement extinction association generalization discrimination extinction contingent and timely reinforcement reinforcement schedule fixed amp variableratio fixed amp variable interval shaping successive approximations 0 Statistical learning when two things cooccur they become associated with each other 0 Operant conditioning association of consequences with behaviors i ii iii iv vi Increasing the probability reinforcement reward Decreasing the probability punishment Positive reinforcement giving something pleasant Negative reinforcement taking away some unpleasant Positive punishment presenting something unpleasant Negative punishment taking away something pleasant O Unconditioned stimulus stimulus that provides response 0 Unconditioned response response of unconditioned stimulus 0 Neutral stimulus stimulus to be conditioned O Conditioned stimulus the neutral stimulus after conditioning O Conditioned response same as unconditioned response but response to conditioned stimulus 0 Classical conditioning association between two or more stimulus i Pavlov s dog food created salivation food and sound of bell neutral stimulus created salivation and also demonstrated statistical learning sound of bell created salivation conditioned response to sound of bell 1 2 Unconditioned stimulus sight of food Unconditioned response salivating Neutral stimulus sound of bell Conditioned stimulus sound of bell Conditioned response salivating to sound of bell 2 Big Ideas A computer metaphor illustrates how human understanding and learning is the process of processing and storing information Constructs Key mechanisms of memory formation from information processing approach and embodied cognition model factors and techniques that affect memory formation and retrieval classroom strategies to support memory formation and retrieval 0 How is the human mind similar to a computer i Information ow hardware vs software input vs output limited capacity encoding storage retrieval 0 Information processing theory people receive and process the info they receive 0 Storage after encoding info humans retain it in 3 different time frames sensory memory fraction of a second short term 30 seconds long term lifetime 0 Sensory memory holds sensory for an instant 0 Short term or working memory limited capacity information is retained for 30 seconds unless it is processed deeper like being rehearsed or elaborated i 7 2 ie phone numbers 3 0 Long term memory holds an enormous amount of info for a really long period of time in a relatively permanent fashion i ii Declarative knowing that 1 Episodic remembering info about wherewhen of events 2 Semantic remembering general info about the world Procedural knowing how like explaining how to ride a bike 0 Retrieval using or recalling info stored in long term memory i ii iii iv Factors that effect retrieval 1 Retrieval cues encoding specificity recall vs recognition tasks Retrieval cues signals that prompt memory Encoding specificity principle associations formed at the time of encoding or learning tend to be effective retrieval cues Recall vs Recognition task 1 Recall retrieving previously learned by materials fill in the blank 2 Recognition identifying learned material multiple choice qs Embodied cognition idea that we learn with our whole bodies learning has to be paired up with sensory experiences we relive experiences when we remember 1 Remember thanksgiving dinner Can you taste it or smell it or see it reperception 2 Meshing our memories of the past help us make sense of what we perceive in the present by meshing with it 3 Suppression occurs when we trying to remember something we are not currently experiencing Big Ideas Attention and short term memory is a limited cognitive resource Attention can be focused on one thing or distributed across more than one thing What you attend to and think about is related to what you learn Constructs selective divided sustained amp executive attention cognitive load intrinsic extraneous germane changeblindness multitasking automaticity 0 We manage these limits by controlling where we want attention to gowhat we want to pay attention to O Sustained attention maintaining attention on a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time 0 Selective attention focusing on a specific stimulus while ignoring irrelevant stimuli O Divided attention multitasking 0 Executive attention degree to which attention is used to monitor and facilitate other cognitive processes 0 Change blindness when a change in a visual stimulus occurs but it is not noticed 0 Cognitive load capacity of cognitive attention resources 7 2 items 30 seconds 0 Intrinsic each task is an inherent load 0 Extraneous cognitive load is generated by the way info is presented 0 Germane load required to process and learn a new task load can vary depending on how the task is presented 0 Automaticity being able to do things with using little or no cognitive resources 0 Relationship to learning 0 Students may not see the material you re presenting if there are too many distractions in the room 0 In a chaotic environment the child you re yelling at to stop may seem to ignore you but in fact has no more resources left to hear with 0 Kids are probably more prone to change blindness than adults because they have less attentional control 0 Cognitive inhibition stopping yourself from thinking about or doing something 0 Factors that in uence attention 0 Teacher knowledgeable accent enthusiastic not monotone considerate attractive engaging activities 0 Content slightly humorous images disagree with content 0 Environment construction loud noises good temperature tiny desks good chairs 4 Big Ideas Learners can become smarter by becoming more metacognitive more strategic Capacities such as attention memory even intelligence may be relatively limited however strategies can be learned Good students tend to be more metacognitive Constructs Core elements of metacognition and strategies the role of strategies in supporting student learning how strategies are acquired and can be taught exploration of particular strategies for K12 instruction 0 Metacognition being aware of your own though processes knowing about knowing differentiating between what you know and what others know You can t really use strategies until you can evaluate your own learning If you can t monitor what you re thinking you can t improve your strategies Middle to late childhood understand that the mind can construct knowledge Adolescence increasing capacity to manage cognition Development of strategies i Production deficiency know a strategy but don t know when to use it preschool age ii Control deficiency know the right strategy but don t always use it a the right time early grade school iii Utilization deficiency use the right strategy at the right time but it doesn t seem to make things easier continues into middle grade school iv Effective use consistently using the right strategies at the right time about 46 grade 5 Big Ideas intercultural interactions differ according to how and why the person is in another culture there are different perspectives on the process of adapting to a new culture Constructs types of intercultural interactions travel sojourners migrants cultural adaptation perspectives culture shock stages honeymoon crisis recovery adjustment reentry crisis resocialization cultural adaptation deculturation acculturation intercultural transformation 0 Tourist people who travel to a foreign country for a short period of time less than 6 months i Leads to superficial relations do not see the real culture ii Trade superficial interactions for money iii Positive feeling for the tourist O Sojourners people who travel to a foreign country for a certain period of time 6 months 5 years i Students business experience the real culture 0 Migrants people who permanently move to a country with a new culture 0 Culture shock experiencing a culture significantly different than your own i Honeymoon fascination with prospect of new environment occurs before and upon arrival ii Crisis notice difference between expected and what occurs iii Recovery see positive aspects of host culture learn how to function in new environment iv Adjustment mostly comfortable in host culture can pass as native O Reentry culture shock returning to your own culture excited to return home 0 Resocialization adjust to own culture understood people do things different in different cultures 0 Cultural adaptation people relocating to a new culture attempt to maintain a stable relationship with the new culture i Marginalized not identifying with new or old culture ii Traditional identify with their home culture iii Assimilated identifying with the new culture iv Bicultural identifying with both cultures 0 Deculturation unlearning cultural practices 0 Acculturation learning some of host cultures practices 6 Big Ideas interacting with people from different cultures can be stressful for good reasons There are ways that we can manage this stress Constructs anxiety and uncertainty management theory predictive amp explanatory uncertainty mindfulness mindlessness 0 Anxiety and uncertain management theory AUM how to communicate with a stranger how to maximize understanding 0 Predictive uncertainty how well you can predict attitudes feelings and behaviors O Explanatory uncertainty how well you can explain attitudes feelings and behaviors 0 Mindful being aware of yours and other thoughts and actions not interpreting others actions based on your own frames of reference i Creating new categories ii Openness to new information iii Awareness of others perspectives Below is a list of essay questions On the exam you will be given two of these questions and will be asked to write a 23 page essay in response to E of them Your essay will be scored according to these criteria 1 You39ve noticed that some of your classmates wait until the last minute to complete their assignments and to study for exams Use the behaviorist perspective to explain how they may have learned these behaviors Apply at least five terms related to behaviorism in your response The way you apply these terms will demonstrate your understanding Your response can include a brief definition but a definition alone does not demonstrate understanding Underline these terms in your response a Behaviorism principal view that behavior can be explained by experience not mental process b Statistical learning when two things cooccur they come associate with each other c Learning occurs when stimuli become more associated connections d Classical conditioning associating or pairing two stimuli e Operant conditioning association between consequences and behaviors i Positive reinforcement probably get good grades even though they procrastinate so don t see a reason why not to procrastinate 2 Some teachers find it helpful to use songs to help students remember lists of terms For example they may put the names of the bones of the human body into a song to help students remember Use the information processing perspective to explain how a song may help students remember these terms Apply at least four terms related to the information processing perspective The way you apply these terms will demonstrate your understanding Your response can include a brief definition but a definition alone does not demonstrate understanding Underline these terms in your response a Information processing theory people receive and process the information they receive b Embodied cognition idea that we learn with our whole bodies and learning has to be paired up with sensory experiences c Reperception we literally reexperience our memories when we remember d Meshing our memories of the past help us make sense of what we perceive in the present by meshing it 3 Some people believe that they are good at multitasking However most research shows that trying to do two things at once results in doing both things poorly Use your experience to find an example of multitasking Apply at least four terms from the Attention lecture to explain why your performance may be better worse or the same as you multitask The way you apply these terms will demonstrate your understanding Your response can include a brief definition but a definition alone does not demonstrate understanding Underline these terms in your response a Divided attention is multitasking concentrating on more than one activity at the same time b Sustained attention is better because that is when you maintain attention on a selected stimulus for a produced period of time c Selective attention is when focusing on a specific stimulus while ignoring irrelevant stimulus d Automaticity being able to do things with using little or no cognitive resources i So doing homework and listening to music can be okay because it is just background music FD Cognitive inhibition stopping yourself from thinking about or doing something Research has shown that one of the consistent differences between people who are good at something and people who are not as good is their metacognition and use of strategies Select an example from school learning and apply at the constructs of metacognition and strategies to distinguish between advanced and struggling learners The way you apply these terms will demonstrate your understanding Your response can include a brief definition but a definition alone does not demonstrate understanding Underline these terms in your response a Metacognition being aware of your own thought processes knowing about knowing differentiating between what you know and what others know i You cant really use strategies until you can evaluate your own learning ii If you can t monitor what you re thinking you can t improve your strategies b Experts more strategies have better metacognitive skills very knowledgeable in one area i Adapt to new situation ii Detect features and meaningful patterns iii Organization and depth of knowledge iv Effective use v Effortless retrieval of important information vi High motivation vii Talent viii Deliberative practice receive and ask for correct feedback c Novices vs Experts i Relate what they are learning to something they have learned in the past ii Regularly review what they are learning iii Distribute learning over a longer period of time rather than cramming iv Take good notes summarize outline concept map v Use a study system Use your experience of coming to MSU to illustrate some of the ideas related to moving from one culture to another Apply at least four of these terms to help us better understand some of your thoughts feelings and behaviors during your first few months at MSU The way you apply these terms will demonstrate your understanding Your response can include a brief definition but a definition alone does not demonstrate understanding Underline these terms in your response a Intercultural interaction is important because more students will be from other cultures and business is becoming global it is important to know how to interact with them b Cross cultural interaction is important in creating cross cultural intelligence Sojourners are people who travel to a foreign country for a certain period of time so that is an example of foreign exchange students d Intergroup communication when communication focuses on cultural and group identities e Interpersonal communication when communication focuses on the individual f Culture shock experiencing a culture significantly different than your own i Coming to BL can be a culture shock since I m from Chicago which is a big city full of diverse people and just a lot more going on and a lot to do More people Also so many college students and people my age are around in this town at once It feels like there are no adults here g Cultural adaptation people relocating to a new culture h Acculturation learning some of a host cultures practices i Going out all the time tailgating etc rama 0 Describe one of your Global Competency Project experiences to illustrate the Theory of Anxiety and Uncertainty Management Apply all of the following terms anxiety and uncertainty management theory predictive amp explanatory uncertainty mindfulness mindlessness The way you apply these terms will demonstrate your understanding Your response can include a brief definition but a definition alone does not demonstrate understanding Underline these terms in your response NA
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