this is a srudy guide for the first exam compoosed of five chapters.
this is a srudy guide for the first exam compoosed of five chapters. 1361
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This 39 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kalani Harrison on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1361 at University of South Carolina - Beaufort taught by Gusmaroli in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 Characteristics or properties of living organisms Characteristics of living organisms Consist of one or more cells 39 Contain genetic information Use genetic information to reproduce themselves Are genetically related and have evolved Levels of organization of biological system atoms molecules cells Otuanlvn n ridmus cxnp39cl wan cznlnn 3393 9551075 l Organ System Grimsod ct cwn O39DYG vowing loy hc l Orgn Cunu zmd d Insects hrmmmg 53300quot kr A Much Luci l Tissue A map at cots vain a cm nzn 3 smutqu rd tram T Coil 7m stnmml and wax390 Wu d 9 in q quotInga u bLI m Ms W quotum mam 1 lim 50quot r ilbInl dunomh 1 Am SantaI u a ct an oknm l Ixmpmw cl minim pmlnm an 39malnmo wownun OCHw bi rhou m l on The cell theory Cell Theme All eelle eeme frem preexisting eelle I All eelle ere eiim illear i eihemiieel eemgpeeiitieni 1 Meet ef the eihemiieell reeetiiene DEF lliife eeeer within eelle I Cemplete eete ef genetic i af l m ti l ere Ireaplliieeted end peeeedl on during eeIlll diivieiiean cell Theery Cells are the basic structural and physiological units cf all living organisms i Cells are beth distinct entities and building lacks ct mere scrapie erganismis Schleiden and Schwann 1838 Differences between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic cells Characteristics shared icy all cells Eaclesea by a membrane Lise Dela as genetic inferrnatica Twc main farms cf cells Eukarye tic cantata ergianelles DNA in nucleus P rclearae tic lack ergianelles DNA in the cyteielaims Ca righci 35 hmdnEdunEun In philhilgn lqnm Camilla LE 18 EUKARYOTIC CELL PROKARYOTIQ CELL DNA no nucleus Membrane Membrane 1 Cytoplasm Organelles Nucleus contains DNA 1 pm 11 JIiii urtiuuu gtl 41 u39uc 1v 339quot 39 Difference between unicellular and multicellular organisms Unicellular organisms a single cell carries out all the functions of life Helical A Sulfolobus 8 Bacilli bacteria C CoccolntnophOre Cocci quot39 gt Domain Archaea Domain Bacteria Domain Eukarya Kingdom Protists LIFE Figure 1quot 1 Lummmanxxmrluvom r n In I l A Multicellular organisms made of many cells that are specialized for different functions 0 Scarlet bankSna F Balloon winged katydid 39F Stinkhom mushrooms G Giant todonse Galapagos hawk Domain Eukarya LIFE 89 Figure 11 Part 2 3n nu DquotCl 039an nancu 39 The three domains of life The Three Dcmaihs cf Life At the highest leveli life is classi ed into three domains Bacteria prelltaryotes Archeea prokanrctes Eukarya ell keryctes Eukaryicrtes include prctists and the kingdoms Plenlee Fungi and Animelie Copyrilisi 2 hmunEmn um In publijhhgnnaquuin Dean39qu The four Eukarya Kingdoms EWOIMWM no Munghm a DOMAIN EUKARYA KINGDOM PROTISTA protists oww m w CWONWMCM h MMH39MG DOMAIN EUKARYA Kl SCUM PLAIHAE deHIb Passl om passion a Mating ptant oMosses terns writers and W69 am both woody and nonwoody oMullioellular with specialized tissues containing complex cells Photosynthesize bod MM IWOMWIIIQN MIN MMVWGM oommm EUKARVA umwmm Jim 5 n39r van Sqva Nathan 7 rno1tu 0M I DOMAIN EUKARYA KINGDOM FUNGI 39 Iln I Understanding the difference between Animals Plants Fungi and Protists in terms of who is unicellular and who is multicellular Understanding the difference between Animals Plants Fungi and Protists in term of the modality of energyfood acquisition Eeesvstem Dynamics 39 The dynamics ref en eeesvsieim include twe mailer pr39 39 essesz Activities of life require riverile Cycling ef nutrients in which materials kadepgndgg Din sources gf enemy eeciiuirdl byquot plants eventually rrtiu rn te the 5Gquot i Energy flaws through an ecosystem usurellv entering as lligih t and exiting as heat Energyr exchange between an organism and The flaw 0f Energy fmm Sunlight to environment efien involves energy transformations P39m d u GETS 139 Uln s umers In trensi ermetiensl sheme energyquot is lest as heat Sunlight Producers plants and other photosynthetic organisms Qnemlcal Consumers including animals km C 239IC39 513 I 3cu h39 lining II Nru n nun Curquotth A 339quot lltI39 The scientific nomenclature of species genus name species name Taxonomy hierarchy from Domain to species Species Genus Famin Order Class Phylum Kingdom Domain Unus 39 t r 39 amen39canus American black bear Three Domains of life 18acteria 2Archaea CW W 3Eukatya Protista Plantne Aninalia Fungi Animalia 01an ace W Mon 0 mm quotnew cumm Cm la srh W STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 2 Matter mass elements and compounds Defi mittens Matter anythtn that takes up sparse and has mass Mass matenlalll substaneea net the sarne as wetglht EIEIiMEi39Iti a sluhstanee that G l l39l 39t be lblreken sewn by GhEllTllllCElll reastiiiens centpnund a substance eentatning twa er rnete elements tun a tted retie Tami El 355 FmanE lb39gn In II an TailI151 The structure of the atoms protons neutrons and electrons Made of three stable subparticles NiE Ultr O39lnlS not charged Protons Positive charge Ellectrons Negative Charge all matter is composed of atome quot Eleetroirlanegativeeharge i Nuoleiua P39F t 39iit Fil EHWE hEFQE 393391 lNlElillEF li it i E EFL l harge Wh mnk l V uumumaar c mm u Atoms ti protone electrons so atoms are elertriraItr neutral Capzany quot2 32925 HmdnEdunijun In peanuts a Humanquot ailInst The mass in Daltons of neutrons and protons v Neutrons and protons weigh roughly 1i atomic mass unit eaoh daiton 17 10 24 grams Electrons weigh very littlle 2 9 x 10 28 grams The electron mass is usually ignored Definition of orbital Locations of electrons in an atom are described by orbitals Orbital region where elleotronl is found at least 90 percent oi the time Atomic number and mass number E rtemiie number 39 quoteGb en rieel symbol 39ml mass FFFm HillW In HIT Li l i iECi ilh A r w inn u 39v il i The number ef bretene identifiee an element Atomic number number ef br etene Melee number number ef bretene number ef neutrene fi rngla 325 hmInEmnhan In Publuhng II 3quotqu ChurnISL How to calculate the mass of an atom in Daltons dalton 17 X 103924 grams Definition of Isotopes I 5 etepee Seeme f l l l EEG l ll39l i El El lf 39f l ll39l ll a EBIIE EI ieefepee riben ueuelly39 bee E bretene and E neutrene 954 ef the time 1C Semetimee if PIES a extra I39IEllill39 l39l 13G Whi h i a ElfHIE a Even EllEL it bee titre extra neutreneentl ie uneteble er recliner titre C These brieell been epenteneeuely Releeee energyr belied reelieeetitritjr Ca mlm 325 PimenEduhun lni Fu llhl15lall39ll l1 ChinLug Types and numbers of orbitals in the first second and third shells Drbitele er ereeniz in ehlle enel lled in e eeei e eee uneeu Fl HST El llElLl ene E epherieel erlz ritel eelleel 39le EEEDHD El llElLl ene Ea epherieel erlz ritel eel Ee three P llziell ehe peel erleitele eelleel 2e 2e 2e TIlI HT IZJi EllHEM ene S eherieel eritl eelletl 3e ihreeF Ell ehepetllerbiteleeellee 3 3 3 flee erbitele eellee 3e F URTl l Sl llElLl ene E epherieel erbiteljl eellee le three P lell ehe peel erbitele eellee il al 5 l ee erbitele eellee 4e seven F eritle eelletl ell Ed ieh l 3535 F39II1urIEiaiivn LI39E IlBIJIIQI39ii 9 1s Orbital 23 Orbital Y y z z E x x i p X Orbital py Orbital pl Orbital All p orbitals full LIFE 8 F0907 25 tit wumuanmrmtm 39 f39o39hv u rl vkur Figure 28 Electronshell diagrams of the rst 18 elements in the periodic table 2 AtOmc number HM moron He l 1quot Atomc mass n4 oo Element symbol a first k Electronshell f Y shel diagram d Cami C 3545 Petuniaum 1 m u 8mm mung The octet rule and the behavior of Noble Gases 39lllhle octet rule Heaetiue atoms earl ehare electrons or Irenee or gain electrons in order to reach a situation of El electrons in the enter meet shell resulting in Eton re between together to term melleeulleei Carylright 3E5 F Iila39nE illtiylrla quotqu ELIEIF The atomic structure of H C N O S and P how many electrons these elements have in the outer shell How many covalent bonding each one of those elements can make Why TABLE zz 39 Covalent Bonding Capabilities of Some Biologically Important Elements USUAL NUMBER OF ELEMENT COVALENT BONDS Hydrogen H 1 Oxygen 0 2 Sulfur S 2 Nitrogen N 3 Carbon C 4 Phosphorus P 5 UFEBoJ Iblo 22 mmmanmmmcaxuuh Hun Be able to draw the electron configurations of H C N O S and P The number of Electron in the outermost Shell determines the Reactivity of Atoms Nucleus First shell NW 3 Helium He meeeeee Lithium L0 Carbon C Nitrogen N Oxygen 0 Fluorinem Third shell Sodium Na Phosphorus P Sulfur S Chlorine Cl Argon Ar LIFE 39 mquot 26 u momentmlm mu 2 t u 1 a u Understanding the meaning of covalent bonds Electrons Ate Shatod ln Covalent Bonds Hydrogen atoms 2H other the electron of each atom is also attmctod to the proton at the 0th melons W 1 In each hydrogen atom the single electron is held in its orbital by its attractiOn to the protoa In the nocbut When two hydmgon atoms apptoach each 3 The two than becomeshared in a covalent bond forming an H molocuio Hydrogen molecule H2 LIFE mmmummmmczuVu39wmu yawnwan Controlom bonolo ooo tho I Sloglohoong ono ooir of oiliooti ono 3 H I oooloolhoriog Mo pairs of olootrooo C228 I Tooloolhoriog tlloroo pairs of olootrooto t pjfl39iai39lt 355 FitzmarlEiIIIilrrIa rmn tryamn E39m39nhgl The definition of electronegativity Elaatlranagatiaity tha attractiiaa faraa that an atarnla anaualaua aaarta an alaatrana EllEEtll39Cll39lEQlEthlty dapaanaaa an tha lnauamtlar af aaiaiitiaa ainaargaa printanal and tha dilatainaaa between the lnaualatla and alaatrana engulfs 335 FrmunE unhun In pawn15 ll Blnlmn nal y Know the difference in electronegativity between H C O and N Same Elactranaatiaitlea ELIEMEltIT ELEaTHaaEaATlam Oxygen D 35 Ehlortna El 311 Nitrogen Ml 3E Earhon G 215 Pnaaahama P 21 Hydrogen H El Eadlium IN a LE F ataaaiam 11K Eta LIFE Table 3553 mm manmlwmi c mam t a 11 Use the concept of electronegativity to understand the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bonds lf twra a tama hatIa alimiilar alaatranagatialtyi they 1will share elaatrana equally a nanpalaraavafant band lf ana at ll39 has mara alaatranagatiatty tlna elaatmna are drawn to that nualaua Electrons not shared equally polar rauv alanf hand aaamlpla H20 Im llEthlEt L d nlhx 135 hmInEmniun In pubhlhllgn lnmn Lhnngl Covalent bonding between HH CH OH OC NH NC Which one of these covalent bonding is polar Which one is nonpolar You need to be able to know The structure of water Understanding the polarity of water Figure 212 Polar covalent bonds in a water molecule Because oxygen 0 Is more eiectronegative than hydrogen H shared electrons are puled mOre toward Oxygen This resuits in a partial negative charge on the oxygen and a partial positive charge on the hydrogens Capra C 23915 PemanEmumn In platinum quotBenn3n Cutnug Understanding the meaning of ionic bond Bonds and lens Ionic Bond Forms when electrons in outermost onbitel are completely removed from one atom and trenefenredl to another etoxrnt a lone Formed when rnoleoulee Ioee or gain electrons omelet res PenanEmnlian Ln panama1quot Emmi15L ons and salts Figure 2J3 Eleotron treheter and ionic bonding I The lone 1telenoe eleotroh of39e eooiurn atom is trana terreel topolhi the T valence eteotrone of a chlorine atom Ho Ell Sodium atom iExhlorine atom tan uncharged on one hergedl atom atom Eeoh reeultihgi ion has e completed valence shell in Ionle bond ean tome between the oppnetball charged ions Ma El Eooiurn ion Ehlohoe ion to oetioh ten e nioh Eodlitrm chloride New d EEE 335 hmnE uulhn In publilhh5n Blr uin My Irene eter r ieeililgir eherged pertiieilee when eterne teeee er grain eleetrene etiene eeeittee Aniene n EQIEtWE lenie beetle are termed by the eteetrteeil etireetien ef ineettiee end negetttre ienei Sette tenteetlt3ir bended eeimeeuntie fag y i 335 PailJimrIEtiIII riIrIl lrn Filmlhh nu Blrglrm Terran151 Understanding the meaning of Hydrogen bonds very important to understand this for Chapter 3 Beetle and lens Hytiregen Bend Ferrite tee e reelu It ef e39ttreetien between peeitieeiy eherlgett hydregeh eterne in pelar meleeutee end negietitrety charged eteme in ether pveler metreewes Only hetre 1D strength of eeveien t bende C39a riliai 125 PimanEmnEIrl In publith III all Giannilg Figure 2l5 A hydrogen 30nd Water H20 A hydrogen bond results from the attraction 5 between the partial positive charge on the hydrogen atom of water and the partial O Ammonia negative charge Nila on the nitrogen atom of ammonia Carin C 92 t cncnimumn In fu nh u Barnum Manny 5 Hydrophilic molecules Polar molecules that form hydrogen bonds with water are hydlmphylic watenloving Hydrophobic molecules Nonpolar molecules such as hydrocarbons that interact with each other but not with water are hydrophobic waterhating Van der Waals interaction and Hydrophobic interactions Geckos on glaaa I van dler Waals forer a tlraotione lootwoon nonpolar Il39l39l ll E ELllllES iiihey result from random variations in oleotron diatriloution individual interao tione are loriof and weak loot auirnmed over a large moleoule oan he auihatantial fopjrrigia i 135 HmonE JnEan no publilhhg Ill all Eurolily STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 3 The structure and polarity of water molecules Polar covalent bonds in a water molecule Because oxygen 0 IS more electronegative than hydrogen H shared electrons are pulled more toward Oxygen This resutts in a partial negative charge on the oxygen and a partial positive charge on the hydrogens Warwick C Z39C F PcmdnEdJumn In comma u 1mm may The polarity of water molecule results in hydrogen bonding Understanding the nature of the hydrogen bonding Hydrogen bonds between water molecules Hydrogen bonds bayou C 2quot39quot Pcmanimuban In patina quotHuman burntig Understanding why the four emergent properties of water are linked to the ability of water to form hydrogen bonding Four emergent properties at water Cohesion 39 Temperature mederatien 39 Insuiation by fioating iee the solvent of iife CamiquotElla 1x5 PrmanEmnban In mung un emu5 Collectively hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together a phenomenon called cohesion Water s first property Cohesionadhesion be able to explain and give examples Cohesion helps the transport of water against gravity in plants Adhesion of water to pliant ceil walls aiso helps to counter gravity Catteatein i Hydra gen iberntie ihalzdl water tegether Surfeee tenaian Surfaee teneten ie a rheaeu re at haw hard it ie ta ihreak the eu Ifaee at a Iliauid Surfaae teneien is related ta aeiheeian 9 Same animals etqpleit eu rfiaee teneien ta Wailr en water Cup315mquot 325 HI39IAIIIEEJIMH In pumlhngn lrum ll lly Difference between heat and temperature Maderatian at temperature Heat is the arneunt ef tetai kinetie energyquot in a eulaetanee ie preaertiehal te the eelume w Temperature ie a nteaeure at heat itquotilEF iEit y and r39eereeente the eaaeeea KINETIC EirriIEEIG39tr ef the meleeulee reaareleee at trelurne 1 Tentaerature ie meaeurea in degree IGeleiue it tC ie freezing ta heiling at iHEEi human heatr temperature ie 3 C er eaee E Ca 39ngm39 335 HmnnE unizlun In pubhlhllgn lrunn Lhnnyt Definition of Specific Heat and definition of Calorie Maderatiea at temperature SPECIFIC iHEeT The ameunt ef heat neeeeeary te raiee the temaerature ef ene gram 391 a at a euhetanee lay WE Water has a very high epeeifie heat heeauee ef hydregen bending 391quot ealr39gtt tre LE ealtgtt fer ethanel 391 CHLQEIE ameunt ef heat neeeeeary ta raiee the temperature at 1a at HEB lay WE Heat is aeeerhea when hearegen trainee area iHeat ie releaeea when hyaregen henae farm Understanding the relationship between heat absorbedreleased by water and hydrogen bonding breakageformation You need to know what happen to the hydrogen bondings when water absorbs heat and when water releases heat Heat is absorbed when hydrogen bonds break Heat is released when hydrogen bonds form Understanding why water has a very high specific heat and its relationship with temperature moderation M39 d r i39 n ref temperature Wetr ELEM ebeerh er release e lIEIl gl emeiunit f hat with l iy a slight elhenge in lite ewe temperature eeeuee ef water high epeeifie heat eeeene ere eeeentiel ih Keeping ternpereture e fluetuetien an Earth within limits eemeetile with life fd 39 lhz39 325 PrmnnEduniaun In FUNNEL Bill39l l39l CELH39LHEL Water s second property Temperature moderation be able to describe it in relationship to water high specific heat Describe the concept of evaporative cooling and give examples Mi lil 39 l39 ti lll ef39 temperature Water abeerbe heat during eveperetien in ferrn ef Kinetic energggir necessary te break free frem hyijregen trends in the liquid w This will renteee heet frer n the eurfeee ef the liquid eve eeretiee renal i rig Animal ellgreet to wet eff w iFereete ere eeel beeeuee ef treee trenepiretien Water s third property Insulation by floating ice be able to describe and give examples Understanding why ice is less dense than liquid water and its relationship with hydrogen bonding c As H20 freezes the hydrogen bonds lock and get liorigerhighiy ordered crystal of water molecules This means fewer molecules per volume in ice than liquidm Therefore ice fleets as it s ilO less dense than liquid H20 INSULATION BY FLOATING ICE ice creates an insulating cap across the ocean surface preventing heat loss to the atmosphere freezing from bottom up and allowing life to exist under the frozen surface liar11 C 2392395 Painanimatequot In pawn11 u Baum Lanny Water s fourth property Universal solvent Water is the solvent of life Solvent 3 dissolving sgent Solute the sulostsnoe dissolved i Solution the oornoinstion of s solvent and solute that is homogeneous Water forms aqueous solutions Water is sometimes called the universal solltrent Cunnilix i 15 hmanEmnsan Ln Fub lthIIBIr nm tum35L Understanding why water is an excellent solvent and its relationship with hydrogen bonding Understanding how salts get dissolved in water A crystal of table salt dissolving in water Negative Oxygen regions of polar water molecules are attracted to sodium cations Na Poste hydrogen regions of water molecules cling to ontonde anions Cr term C 315 Venetianban in puntmg n Baum runny Understanding how large hydrophilic molecules get dissolved in water Hydroohms and Hydlr p39hl ibi sullestsnoes Hydlrsophlilllio water tfhyrtllros lllosing lolhilios Attrsotett to water by hydrogen bonding Polsr oomoountls or ionio oomoountl llttsyt be oomole telyi oissolseo tong sslt litlay39torrn oolloid tog oellulosejt Hydropholtlio water lltydtos tearing pholtlos Resellers front mising Many nonoolsr or nonionio moleoules egg hytl roosrtoonsjl Eaprriliat 135 HmonE uuF n lrr publilhh Ill alr llliil39l EtnaI315 The concept of hydration shell Figure 37 A watersoluble protein This oxygen is attracted to a sight positive charge on 39 c the Iysozyme molecule This oxygen is attracted to a slight negative charge on the tysozyme motecule a Lysozymo molecule an a nonaquoous cnwonment b Lysozymo molecule purple an an aqvocus onwonmem soc as tears or saliva c tom and polar goons on the protein39s Suriaco mac water molecuios amn acf Pmanimnhcn In whaling 3mm nunap The definition of mole mol and Molarity M Cemeentratiens elf eelu tiens I A fixed number ef meieeuiee ie eailed a meie I i mele lime 1 6332 I 11333 eteme er meleeulee Eelled Auegetire39e number H Meleeular weight number ef grams per meie H 391 mel Seeium Me 23 391 mel Helium He r i g I Geneentretiiert ie measured ee melee per liter LL whieh ie eelleti Meler eerteentretien 1 mele per L 1 Meier M12 per L 3 2 M El nEarl RICE PlumclrIEilIi MnE In II quu39m Understanding the meaning of the fact that in pure water at 259C H OH39 10397 M Reeetieh predueing hydrexide and hy39tlrenium lens Whenen hydregeh etern in e wetermeleeule leeeee iteeleetreh behind and ie trehel erretl as e pretehiHltjl te an ether wetter meleeulee we eeeiet at the l fm ll39 l l ell eh hydrehiuml ieh and en hydrexide ien memum Wattage Cert think el thie ee en thequot m EJH HEB 3 Hl DH EE E 1 El 113 Capfugue 35 FrmunEmn39num In Fi hm n qumn MEL Definition and understanding of Acid and Base Pureweter at Hf DH i TM An eeid iie any euheienee ihereeeee the HP eeheenizretien ef e eelutien ll39lGl GIquot 4 He 39EUDIl 39 H A heee ie any euhetenee thet redueee the ll eeneen39tretien ef e eelutien 391 Nettil HI Nat DHquot 39 HI Hat 95 H210 lNl lS H NgH4v fap39yrig39m 35 FirunE unHun In FuHilhil Il lquin Chunky pH formula Formula pH i log Ht How to calculate the pH of a solution knowing the concentration of protons H or hydrogen ions pH We measure eeidliel neeie en a eeele eellec l pH literally perllel H GDI IGE39FI39ll39 39llD I Fermule pH Irg H1 Remember H20 ell 25393C le 11339F llll ll fer beth lerle lt39e leelerleedll pH I gl H 113 pH T er T the pH efe nethrel eelullen uth 35E FmunE lzlliam er II Hugm My The pH scale The pH scale and pH values of some aqueous solutions pH Scale 0 J Ballav and Domalmanac 8 lemon MCQ VIDQOBY beer vane Ola Tomato luuce Black twee Ramwale U002 Pure want Human mood Seem alts OGNU UIAWN MIR 0 squeals Howahdd amma Houseth bleach Own deans Camel C 24 Pawnimuban 1 painting u thm CW5 The concept of Buffer Liaingi arganiama maintain canatant internal nantlitinna inaludiing pH Buffers help maintain uaanatant pH a buffer is a weak aaitl anti its il ll39EELl il i il lgi Itiaaa H303 H HZGDB Ed r jlia 35135 hmnE unlhm lrr Ill qunm STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 4 The structure of the H C N O S and P atoms Covalent bonding capability of H C N O S and P Emm Covalent Bonding Capabilities of Some Biologically Important Elements USUAL NUMBER OF ELEMENT COVALENT BONDS Hydrogen H 1 Oxygen O 2 Sulfur S 2 Nitrogen N 3 Carbon C 4 Phosphorus P 5 UFEBe Table 23 mumunmwrn m an Difference between organic and inorganic molecules Copyright 0 The McGraw HII Compams Inc Pe WSQOn required for reproduction o disuay TABLE 31 Organic Versus Inorganic Molecules Organic Molecules Inorganic Molecules Always contain carbon bonded Usually contain positive and to other atoms negative ions Always covalent bonding Usually ionic bonding Often quite large with Always contain a small number many atoms of atoms Usually associated with Often associated with living organisms nonliving matter Capra C 24 Paranimumn Inc column quotKarynu tunnag Organic molecules made of C and H only are called Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons are organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen irritantr organic molecules such as fats have hydrocarbon components Hydrocarbons can undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy Comngm39 325 FurlmE lniun In publllhll minimum Lhnny The backbone of Hydrocarbon can be linear branched or ring Variations in carbon skeletons H H H H H or Lentit H gquot H H a 1 H H H H H H Ethane PrintoutE t39 H H H H H H H H gt ll Elli ranching H H S H IHH H H IHH ll 2methalar lil r39a toornmon ly called Isobutano not than bile bonds an logs Cyclehexane figure 25 FlrmJnE uniun In pumuhnyuBnunn tummy n organic molecules the carbon backbone can contain single or double bonds Understanding the difference between structural isomers geometric isomers and L and D enantiomers IEDWEFE quotthree types of isomers H a l7 LH isomers are compounds With the same molecular 7 Hal LH H H H H H quot 39 formula but dlfferont structures and properties MHHHHHHHHHHHHHHH H iiiggqa H H H t HHHHH HHll Structural learners have drl terent covalent K 3 H arranglem l lt Uf lhlE lll at lm lbe Geometric isomers 1 an csci H H 3quot H Geometric isomers have the same covalent arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements c Enantiomecs H r g Enantiomers are isomers that are mirror images of each other L new D looms fo 39nlhc 325 HmonEduniun In FUNNEL Bqu Gunny fomnlhs39 325 FurlunEmniwn In pubhlhn quotElwinquot flunl39ly The pharmacological importance of cnantiomcrs Enantiomere are important in the pharmaceutical indluetnr Twe enentiemere of a drug rrlayr have different effeete Differing effeete ofenantiomere demonstrate that erganieme are sensitive to even subtle variations in moleculee LDopa effective against biologically Parkinson39s disease Inactive nanrays 355 MnEiluliam In pimplequ nun35m vpn ngll c zr5 Pmanzaguun In WinIguaqu tummy The definition of functional groups Functional group group of atoms with epeeifie chemical properties and consistent behavior it confers those properties when attached to large rnreleeulee 4 w u Iquot unn Be able to recognize alcohol carbonyl carboxyl amino sulfhydryl phosphate and methyl groups Hl rrEtFlil II39i lL ETHUETLI tE iil H a r wr l H a imminentnum HUI J q H Elhnmi l hl ileelul Flt element mu f NAME EFF E DMEUUHDE Flilii 39ll39il liihl FH FEHT EEE molten tlheir espEllie name I t pelnr a n rum er the umquot and anemonelame awash draining elmlm leeanti innit In Mum Edit mel ulu IiiMme awedlie eempeunde audit in mm tun Flgure Mali ungJill a maximmelan nu W h n Hajgu Eulgumap nau Il 39lii EI I Eld 39igi39l Eff PmnnEmu um III II El nHm ENE Et riJJ i39iL EMUETLI BE 9 i i NAME iIZI39F E UMFU39UHDS Hanna IF lhe tummy gram Is a urinal Illililltin Al hydes if lhe runny r nup is at 1 and 91139th mrhian IllIhlm twigmi ELIaim n Mmrmrlrrmg H Iiiiguar ud Ea r gh i 3155 F IIaInElalIiivIrIE In II El nEn IIAFEEE IZI 312 quot39IEIL Emmy I I39ll IrIJFIIMt EIAMF LE F r np l an ald wdi FUNETIEKHML FHDFEJHS39I39EEB h A km and an aldemsde my bl limllural Immr with Guarani m upEr easc as I ma was hr Juliana Fir29ml BTRLJEI39I39LJHE 9 in I39llme EEWEIUH ES Earhnwllc Elfiii quot WHIE l EEMJIF39LE H n H i 43 H 395 Amati acid uli mum 11 mm FUHIE W ALFH FEH EJE D Haul mldli WM hxmmul39t t a was 1H midran Inna quotF Thu Giili39ill li hind hm nwumm Warnumi m palm tilII IiH hhndw tinasthma rwmlhly ananmple II V H H Ha H I H I ME 1 H H 1111 HIM Inn ni h ll f i di l i tf f i 39HI39IIEhll and a Hrhwylm Elwa i mil39lll l39 IMI5F HL39JI39ZE39EIE39EEFIE Dv39 H39IHMEILquotFEFEE ma l ilnm Eq n39igi39lfz 13 Pmnnltmnhum Ina Il l39rquin tuning Ellali lillwl ETHLJETUHE mm I 4 Halli 5 H HS F3 f39 l lll39llz Humanquot am In Hrhiiii 39l is Math mamlhe and a Hrhianllli mm umupume ad amlnn amt HAHEW EEFIFEIUHEI39ES FUHE39I39IEIHALFHWERIE39ES H 39lll lE plinth IESEI ENE Hi1 tliii il prim Tram Elm mnlu d Evan H IU H P 39i39uil 39l HI ih l Elf d39 mr calluln Mm 3 E39IIEE Flmm zmmn In Pain 153 In Elmarainy E339I39E39iil Ml 1531 uew awsrig 5133 lquotI39urtllllilvclnc Ln quotEl nEn Elmnag IEiEI 139 EULIFXH VDE EL 39THLIETLJ FEE EIEMFLE 39 EH I H J 39 H I I 5 1m In within HIE1i IL Ethan thituil NAME quotEFF EDMFD39LIHDE EUHE39II39IIUHFLI FHUFEHT IE S Thil lti IF ul wdnrl mun gm mama 115 hm glansix pmln Immmwrl in Flgurs in ll muff7 MiaPEQgnEum hm h 7quot r wwE c 1g quot39 I d Iii39lii SIi39mw awsrig 5 325 PaulHIEilllivclnc Ln quotEl nI31 FHIEJEFHATE ETEUETUEE EKAMF LE H H 9H H i ggi H c e 4 i t F 39 i g H H H e G lgeereilpheephete NAME BF EDMF D UHDE FUHEWDHAL PREFEETIIEE pg i ph mi II IHEHE 39Iihe i39l39ltilEtula nf whi l i ll e e em elu mmtel themed imp Hier iranefe r energy himeer New malae ee Augun t WEE Ellu39luil lilli tllt d lill In Mlatrdlzllj LI 51 ng ELIELIILIE II ElliDru In dthq gfIEIIIJ Qd gl39 i 235 PrmunEdunhun In pubhlhng II qumn El nlay Understanding the properties of each of these functional groups for example which one behave as an acid which one behaves as a base which one is polar and in which type of molecules are they commonly found The structure of ATP endeeeeineTriPheephete ATP ie the primary erlergytreheferrihig meleeule in the eell Fheephetee store energy fer reeeee in reeetiene li i 39 39 F illile i i le Ei39Ie39 iul li39ierganie an pheephete Capjugs 35 FirmunEmnhun In Fi uh Bqu CMII39I39IIISL The origin of life on Earth extraterrestrial source of chemical evolution in tidal pools Origin of life on Earth Molecules of life as me from extraterrestrial sources or Lite resulted from ohemioal evolution on Earth STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 5 Monomers and polymers Most macromolecules are polymers built Qrom monomers mung127 Evidence for extraterrestrial sources Meteorites from Mars that have water and small carbon compounds The Synthesis and Breakdown bf Polymers Mlonolmeir one unita a building block for polymers Mono one and mar from maria dart Polymer A chain of repeating units similar or not li oljtr from paws many and mar from media part Each cell has thousands of different polymers proteins enzymes IRMA HA1 Polynsasehariclesm Monomers form larger molecules by condensation reactions sailed dehydration reaetions Pollenquottiers are disassembled to monomers by hydrolysis a reaction that is essentially the reverse of the dehydration reaotion Gummy 3931 125 FrmzlnEmnium In pubhlhmgnliquuin nnl39ly Ca ngh i 125 F nrtunE uniun In puhulhng In qumn Gunny Dehydration synthesis reaction catalyzed by polymerases Comng39it 39339 the McGrawHIII Cm oanocs m l crmrsswn requnrco for reproductm or away H H t I I 394 dehydration reaction my W I g I H monomer H monomer H Synthesis of a polymer Earth Zl P canimuban In gamutmy quotBunrm Luznag Hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by Hydrolases C NOTheMcGrawvHillcom rues Inc Penmsssonrc LIIsalon roductionord l H monomer H monomer H I hydrolysis reaction H monomer monomer H Degradation of a polymer The four major classes of macromolecules 1 Carbohydrates Used for structure OR for energy Consist of H5 and O with the formula CHZi39CJn From 3 to Carbon atoms in their backbone Difference between monosaccharides disaccharides oligosaccharides and polysaccharides Classified as 1 Monosaccharides simple sugars 2 Disaccharides two simple sugars covalently bonded 3 Olligosaccharides from 2 to 20 monosaccharides covalentiy bonded 3 iPolysaccharides complex sugars from dozens to thousands of simple sugars linked together in a complex chain Aldose monosaccharides ketose monosaccharides 39Ii39ime sugars Penna sewn Heso ouum wquot y rennet some 53Wquot group Sugars v v H c olI Hil H ALD SE Glucose is the most common monosaooheridre Keione Monoeaochenotes are clasafiedi by group a location of the carbonyl group oldie5e or ketose a number of cannons in the carbon skeleton from 3 KE TQEE to T cartoon atoms comm ng masdmsm In hymn my Copyright EECE FoamclnEliiIIb cInl In II BIrlllI funky Number of C atoms in monosaccharides from 3 to 7 number of carbons in the carbon skel eton from 3 to 7 carbon atoms Linear monosaccharides ring monosaccharides Linear and ring quotFarmer Inf gimmee Linear and ring farms Ghemleal equllibrlurn between the linear and ring strumArea greatlyr fawn the fnrmatiun at Hinge Tn farm the gluwse ring tartan 1 bands tn the awen attat held in tartan 5 quot39 hfquot SHE39SH 5 HJJE H a H a I H I H Hl n Hr 11 n H i cH ax 5H1 H HE H cl UH 3 23 Jt3 JH H 39339 H Abbreviated ring struEtu re Each EEIITIEF represents a camtan The minQ39s thf bar edge Indicates that f u are lentciran at the rlng edgenan the camperrents attached to the ring Iiia atrium ur belnw the pla na If the ring Caprngra 15 FrrulnEduni n lrr pubhjhng Ill qumn Chm15L Difference between alpha and beta Glucose DI FE BE 6 M39itkeit I da alQnmm F39JM39a h HiaoLu39HW we quotPear w I Alpha 14 and beta 14 glycosidic bonds where do we find them 1 12 glycosidic linkage rA Formation CH H capu 70quot of a linkage H 0 H n n o o l 4 on In H H CH aoGlucose Fructose 10Glucose Fructose aoGlucose BoGlucose Sucrose FE Fm 315 Pan 3 mmmvuovmnuuwtm 391TquotJUN 1tw p39 h L was new ads pin quot 31 4 glycosidic linkage cmou mam cngon of l linkage cmon A D n 0 g H H ISuGlucose oGlucose LoGlucose Cellobiose m mulovmourzwlm vanL tv1unx w a n n LIFE 89 Flynn 315 Pan 2 Composition function and location of glycogen starch and cellulose ligesssshsrides snnsist st 2 ts 20 menesseehsrides Pnlyseseheridles reensist of tens at hundreds st msnssesshsndes jsined thrsugh dehydration synthesis Glynngen energy sterege in animals Starch energy storage in plants Cellulose structural support in plant sell well Chitin structure supan in animal and fungi sell well Peptideglyssn strustursl support in bacteria sell well 114 glycosldlc linkage 39 omen CH70H Format hon quot O H N o CH of a linkage J p n I OH 0 ll ll OH H OH aDGlucose HaGlucose Maltose mp 40 1quot u 39n l a mwammrl w urx Understand why we can digest glycogen and starch but not cellulose Storage polysaccharides of plants and animals quot J u Chloropfast Starch granules quot 1mm GVCOQE 9393 395 Mainly stored ln made and Ever tlssue quotn1 Hydrolysis of Glycogen quot to Glucose for mercy Q 0 39 39 06 Amylase 39 e mylopectln 2 f m Glycogen more NEW 39 quot branched lunbranched branched Polymer of Glucose a Starch a plant polysaccharide b Glycogen an animal powsacchande main form of energy atonge In plants main form of mrgy storage In artrule lung L39oynnak C 22 PuttJuicean In pliantJig u Baum Danny Amylase and maltase are the two enzymes used to digest glycogenstarches back to Glucose Celulase digests cellulose back to Glucose Enzyme Cell ll ulaee Can hydrolyze 3 14 linkage in cellulose Function and location of chitin structural support in exoskeleton of invertebrates and cell wall of fungi Chitin a structural polysaccharide Critically Important structural polysaccharlde in Invertebrate arthropods insects spiders and crustaceans and fungi inctee quotmane l o 0 CH tamermman luncnmal group a The structure of the b Chitin forms the exoskeleton chitin monomer ol arthropods This cicada rs matting shedding its old exoskeleton and emerging in adult form L epuak C 22 FemonEmuban lrr gumhay u Bennm L39urnng Function and location of peptidoglycan structural support in cell wall of bacteria 2 Lipids Lipids are e die39eree greup elf itytirephehii mulleeulles Lipids are the ene eleee ref large lbielegieel rrleleeulee that tie net ferrh pelymere The urnifyilnlg feature elf lipids is having little er he elfl iriitzjilr fer 1liirHter Lipids ere hydrelhelhie heeeuee theyr eeneiet meetly ef lhydreeerbene wlhieh ferrn inlelnlpeler SCI lira lent Iboinlets The meet lbielegieellly impertelnt lipids ere fete pheephelipidle eter39eide endl waxes Gun ghtquot 23339 FirmInEmnhun In PMHJIHHEIIBIINIIIIII Chunny Simple lipid FAT SlMlP LE LlPllJS FAT used to store energy Fat composition Glycerol 3 Fatty acid chains Fats function Differences between saturated and unsaturated fat Difference between unsaturated cis fat and unsaturated trans fat Fatty etiel can be eetureteel er uneetUreted eie uneetureteelj Earthseeflrlit et39id I EEILIE I I H H H H H H H H H H llI HI HI H H H II l l I I I I ll ll I II II l I I l I I H EEE E E E E C EE E E C EH l l I I ll ll I ll II II I I l I I H H H H H H H H H H H lltl H H H H H Eteerit a clean eeample ef a aetureteel fatty eerie e H H H H H H H H H H H H H II ll ll I I I ll II I I I l I I HD EEE E E CE E CE E E E C EH l l I I ll ll I I II II I I l I I H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H lLiheleii aciElLah e123 mple alien ILII39IIEiEIIIUFEIIIEEI fiartty a eiel The uneetureted fettyeeid has 2 me EIIDLJIIJIE herrde efe felt C lm lift FrmunE uniiun In pubhlhns ll Barnum Gummy Phospholipids function and composition The phospholipid bilayer The plasma membrane relationship between fluidity and ratio of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids Steroids general structure and function Waxes general structure and function 3 Proteins be able to draw and recognize the general structure of an amino acid the three classes of amino acids and their properties polar charged and nonpolar The peptide bond be able to recognize a peptide bond in a chain of amino acids The primary structure of a protein Understanding the meaning of Aminoterminal and Carboxylterminal The secondary structure of a protein difference between alpha helix and beta pleated sheet Understanding the role of hydrogen bonding in stabilizing the secondary structure The tertiary structure of a protein understanding the role of hydrogen bonding ionic bonding and hydrophobic interactions in stabilizing the tertiary structure The disulfide bridges The quaternary structure of proteins assembly of multisubunit protein complex made of different polypeptides Factors affecting the stability of proteins Protein denaturation and chaperon complex function 4 Nucleic Acids Nucleic acids DNA and RNA nucleotide composition Difference between Nucleoside and Nucleotide The four DNA s bases A T C G the four RNA bases A U C G Remembering which bases are Purines and which bases are Pyrimidines The DNA s sugar deoxyribose the RNA s sugar ribose Know the difference between Ribose and Deoxyribose Be able to recognize Ribose from Deoxyribose Complementary base pairing AT and CG Understanding the meaning of 5 and 3 hand in defining the polarity of DNA and RNA strands The structure of DNA right handed double helix formed by two antiparallel and complementary strands stabilized by Hydrogen bonding between the bases Understanding the meaning of antiparallel and complementary The structure of RNA one single strand The structure of ATP the universal energy donor is a nucleotide
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