HNF260-Exam1ProblemSet3Qs.pdf HNF 260
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HNF 260 at Michigan State University taught by j. ekstrom in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 498 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Nutrition in Nursing and Health Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
PS 3 question list Chapter4 1 Linda has heard that the acidic environment of the stomach is similar to that of a car battery If the stomach is so acidic why doesn t the acid eat away at the stomach lining and cause holes in the stomach A The stomach is lined with a layer of mucus that protects it B The stomach produces bicarbonate which neutralizes the acid in the stomach and protects it C The stomach produces bacteria which denature the acid in the stomach and protect it D The stomach contracts during peristalsis which pushes the acid out of the stomach and protects it 2 Because of stress at work Linda s stomach has been acting up She saw a commercial for a yogurt with added probiotics that claims to aid with digestion and alleviate bowel problems What is a probiotic A A probiotic is a substance that stimulates bacterial growth in the large intestines B A probiotic contains nutrientdense bacteria that eat other bad bacteria in the stomach C A probiotic contains speci c types of bacteria that are intended to colonize the large intestine and thereby improve intestinal tract health D A probiotic is a dietary supplement that increases fat metabolism which in turn improves digestive health 3 All of the following are thought to be primary causes of ulcer disease EXCEPT A Having a highstress lifestyle B Disorders that cause excessive acid production in the stomach C Infection of the stomach by the acid resistant bacteria Helicobacter pylori H pylori D Heavy use of nonsteroidal anti in ammatory drugs NSAIDs such as aspirin 4 Linda has a history of ulcers and lately has been experiencing heartburn and occasional ulcerative areups All of the following are recommendations for preventing ulcers and heartburn from occurring or recurring EXCEPT A Limit consumption of coffee tea and alcohol especially wine B Increase consumption of milk and cream to coat stomach C Limit consumption of pepper chili powder and other strong spices D Chew foods well and lose weight if she is currently overweight 5 Which of the following is the primary cause of death in children around the world A HIVAIDS B measles C malaria D diarrhea 6 Bicarbonate ions HCO3 from the pancreas A neutralize the acid contents in the stomach B are synthesized in the pyloric sphincter C neutralize the bile in the duodenum D neutralize the acid contents in the duodenum 7 The sphincter that allows chyme to pass into the small intestine is known as the A lower esophageal sphincter B sphincter of Oddi C pyloric sphincter D ileocecal sphincter 8 Segmentation as a function of the GI tract involves A peristalsis to move the food along the GI tract B back and forth contractions that break apart the food mass C conscious effort D enzyme input to break apart the food mass 9 The bacteria that usually inhabit the large intestine are prevented from backing up into the ileum by the action of the A sphincter of Oddi B ileocecal sphincter C pyloric sphincter D rectal sphincter 10 Human digestion of food begins in the where the enzyme breaks down a small amount of starch A mouth amylase B stomach pepsin C small intestine amylase D mouth lipase 11 The taste sensation umami can best be described as A a somewhat salty avor derived from metal ions B the combination of salt and sweet tastes together C a savory or meaty taste derived from the amino acid glutamate D the taste that arises from compounds such as caffeine and quinine 12 The salivary glands produce about cups of saliva each day Saliva is a watery uid that contains and A l mucus digestive enzymes antibacterial substances B l mucus bile hormones C 4 mucus digestive enzymes antibacterial substances D 4 mucus bile hormones l3 Muscular waves in the stomach mix and churn the contents of a meal with A bile B gastric juices C pancreatic juices D sodium bicarbonate l4 Actions of hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach include A promoting digestion of protein B destroying bacteria and viruses found in foods C dissolving dietary minerals for improved absorption D All of the responses are correct 15 The stomach can absorb A proteins or amino acids B sugars such as lactose C alcohol D nothing is absorbed in the stomach 16 Villi are found mainly in the A large intestine B small intestine C esophagus D stomach 17 The secretions of the gallbladder liver and pancreas enter the A ileum by way of a common duct B duodenum by way of the sphincter of Oddi C stomach by way of a common duct D jejunum by way of the sphincter of Oddi 18 Insufficient production of bile is mostly likely to impair absorption of A starch B fat C protein D sugars 19 increases the available surface area of fats for digestion and later absorption A Pancreatic lipase B Lingual lipase C Gastric lipase D Bile 20 Secretions from the pancreas include A HCl and digestive enzymes B sodium bicarbonate and digestive enzymes C cholecystokinin and sodium bicarbonate D All of these responses are correct 21 Rotavirus infection causes A stomach blockage and severe pain B in ammation of the pancreas and severe pain C severe diarrhea and dehydration D peptic ulcer formation 22 Most dietary fats will A be converted to shortchain fatty acids for absorption with other watersoluble nutrients B enter the lymphatic system C enter the colon and become quotfoodquot for bacteria D be converted to bile in the lumen of the intestine 23 Lymph A is like blood since it contains mostly red blood cells B is a uid containing blood proteins C recycles nutrients between the liver and the small intestine D transports fatsoluble particles from the intestinal tract to the general circulation 24 Much of the digestion that occurs in the large intestine is caused by A lipase B pepsin C saliva D bacteria 1 Which of the following statements is NOT consistent with primary lactose intolerance A Primary lactose intolerance is more common in some ethnic groups B Primary lactose intolerance is often seen in Crohn39s disease C Symptoms of primary lactose intolerance include gas bloating and diarrhea D Diarrhea is caused by the osmotic effect of lactose in the large intestine E It can be treated by adding enzymes to the diet 2 Carbohydrates typically comprise the largest proportion of total daily calorie intake Which of the following meals would NOT contribute signi cantly to meeting carbohydrate needs A Bowl of chili with kidney beans B Meat and cheese platter C Bowl of ice cream with fresh blueberries on top D Bowl of whole wheat pasta with red sauce E Vegetable and rice stirfry 3 After sugars from a breakfast of cereal and milk are absorbed into the bloodstream they are transported to this organ A Lymph duct B Liver C Pancreas D Colon 4 The liver is important in carbohydrate digestion as it processes the monosaccharides galactose and fructose into glucose Several things can happen to this glucose once it is done being processed in the liver Which of the following statements is NOT accurate A If glucose is present in excess some can be turned into fat B If glucose is present in excess some can be stored as glycogen C If glucose is present in excess the liver makes it back into disaccharides D The liver can release the glucose directly into the bloodstream for transport to organs 5 Lisa is a 19yearold college student who recently began experiencing symptoms of lactose intolerance She recognizes the importance of consuming adequate dietary calcium but does not want to further aggravate her gastrointestinal system There are several dietary practices that can help Lisa achieve her calcium needs without aggravating her lactose intolerance symptoms Which is NOT a helpful recommendation for Lisa A Eat hard cheeses and yogurt B Drink low lactose or lactasetreated milk such as Lactaid C Drink milk on an empty stomach D Drink calciumforti ed soy milk that contains no lactose E Take pills that contain lactase before eating or drinking dairy foods 6 Sucrose contains A Two glucose monomers B One glucose monomer and one fructose monomer C One glucose monomer and one galactose monomer D One glucose monomer and one sucrose monomer E betaglycosidic bonds 7 Glucose galactose and fructose A are disaccharides B are soluble bers C are monosaccharides D are polysaccharides 8 Humans can digest a carbohydrate if the glucose bond is A an alpha bond B a beta bond C a gamma bond D a peptide 9 The sugar alcohol commonly used to sweeten chewing gum and candy is A corn syrup B dextrin C invert sugar D sorbitol E glucose syrup 10 Dietary sugars and starches are called quotprotein sparingquot which means A sugars and starches can substitute for dietary protein when it comes to body protein synthesis B dietary protein can be used for protein synthesis and other vital processes rather than being used as a source of energy C sugars and starches are converted to fat and then converted to glucose for use as blood sugar D sugars and starches are converted by the liver to ketone bodies 11 The human brain and other nerve tissues use mostly as fuel A fructose B protein C ethanol D glucose 12 The best type of ber to eat for reducing constipation is A glycogen B crude ber C soluble ber D insoluble ber 13 An increased ber intake within recommended guidelines may A decrease risk of diabetes B lower blood lipid levels C decrease risk of certain cancers D All of these choices are correct 14 Amylase A is synthesized in the cells of the small intestine B digests pectin C is synthesized in the pancreas D is the main form of starch found in wheat E more than one choice is correct 15 This carbohydrate is NOT digested or fermented A Amylopectin B Cellulose C Pectin D Gums 16 A low blood glucose concentration will stimulate the increase of in the blood A glucagon B glycogen Cinsan D amylose 17 Which is most likely to be true about a food with a low glycemic index A It contains soluble ber B It is high in amylopectin C It has a low fat content D It is a food that people with diabetes should avoid 18 High fructose corn syrup A is a mixture of approximately 50 fructose and 50 glucose B is 200 times as sweet as sucrose C is classi ed as a polysaccharide D contains gt 90 fructose 19 Simple carbohydrates A contain 3 or more sugar units B include starches C are mono and di saccharides D are called glycogen 20 How would you respond to someone who states that all carbohydrates are bad and should be decreased in the diet A Agree with the person since all carbohydrates are unhealthful B Explain that this is untrue and that the most healthful foods such as fruits vegetables whole grains and beans are carbohydrate foods C Tell the person that simple re ned versions are really the best D Agree and tell them the more protein and fat the better 21 Which of the following is TRUE about the digestion of carbohydrates A Amylase is secreted by the gallbladder and digests proteins and carbohydrates B Amylase is secreted by the salivary glands and pancreas and digests starches C Amylase begins simple sugar breakdown in the mouth D Starches are absorbed through the wall of the small intestine 22 Amylopectin is A a starch digesting enzyme B a type of starch that is branch chained C a type of starch that is straightchained D a simple sugar 23 Which of the following is NOT a function of carbohydrates A Energy for every cell B Sparing protein as an energy source C Preventing ketosis D Making enzymes 24 The results of low amounts of ber in the diet may be A hemorrhoids B enhanced blood sugar control C enhanced weight loss D reduction in cholesterol 25 Which of the following terms is used to describe an elevated blood sugar level A Hypoglycemia B Hyperglycemia C Hyperlipidemia D Glycemic load 26 Which of the following hormones regulates blood sugar by signaling it to leave the blood and enter the cells A Insulin B Glucagon C Glycogen D Pepsin 27 Diabetes can be improved or controlled by A diet B exercise C insulin treatments D All of these choices are correct 28 Which is NOT a cause or risk factor for Type 1 insulindependent diabetes A Autoimmune attack on the insulin producing cells of the pancreas B Genetic link C Consuming excessive amounts of sugar D An advanced case of Type 2 diabetes 29 Once absorbed into the body the majority of carbohydrates are ultimately transformed into glucose by the A muscle tissue B liver C pancreas D red blood cells 30 The body is capable of making glucose from noncarbohydrate nutrients such as protein by a process referred to as A glycogenesis B glycolysis C gluconeogenesis D ketosis 31 Ketosis may result from A starvation B a diet of less than 50100 grams of carbohydrate per day C untreated diabetes mellitus D All of these choices are correct 32 Normal blood glucose levels range between A 40 and 70 mgdL B 70 and 100 mgdL C 125 and 140 mg per 100 ml D 200 and 300 mgdL 33 Raf nose and stachyose are indigestible oligosaccharides found in foods such as A milk and dairy products B cereals and grains C fruits and vegetables D beans and other legumes 34 The storage form of carbohydrates in plants is A maltose B starch C glycogen D ribose 35 The Al for ber for women is A 15 gday B 25 gday C 38 gday D 45 gday 36 Which of the following is classi ed as a nonnutritive sweetener A sorbitol Bhoney C aspartame D mannitol E high fructose corn syrup 37 Very high ber diets can impair the absorption of trace minerals A true B false 38 Glycogen is made of glucose units linked by beta bonds A true B false 39 Phospholipids consist of A two fatty acids B cholesterol C glycerol and phosphate D A and C 40 The chief contributors of saturated fatty acids in the US diet include A whole grains B sun ower soybean and saf ower oils C lecithins D animal products 40 Arachadonic acid is associated with A glucose metabolism B omega 3 fatty acid metabolism C omega 6 fatty acid metabolism D cholesterol metabolism 41 Monosaturated fatty acids A are liquid are room temp B have one double bond in the fatty acid chain C lower cholesterol D all of these are correct 42 In what form is most body fat stored A cholesterol B phospholipids C triglycerides D none of these are correct 43 Which of the following lipids is a precursor for estrogen and bile A saturated fat B alpha linoleic acid C cholesterol B unsaturated fat 44 Saturated fatty acids A are always 18 carbons long B have at least one double bond C are fully loaded with hydrogen D are always liquid at room temperature 45 A triglyceride consists of A three glycerols attached to a lipid B three fatty acids attached to a glucose C three fatty acids attached to a glycerol D three phospholipids attached to a cholesterol 46 Lecithin is A an emulsi er B a phospholipid C an essential nutrient D a constituent of cell membranes 47 Chylomicrons are produced in the A liver B pancreas C gallbladder D absorptive cells of small intestine 48 Lipids are transported by A micelles B lipoproteins C red blood cells D bile 49 Which is not true Fats A contain glucose B provide energy C Protect organs from injury D carry vitamins A D E and K 50 The essential fatty acids include A linolenic acid and linoleic acid B stearic acid and oleic acid C oleic acid and linoleic acid D stearic and linoleic acid 51 A person consuming 2200 calories per day who wants to meet health recommendations should limit daily fat intake to A 2035 grams B 5085 grams C 75100 grams D 90130 grams 52 The lowest amount of saturated fat is found in which of the following foods A coconut oil B butter C canola oil D margarine
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