KIN173-Exam2Review.pdf KIN 173
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 173 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Pontifex in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 181 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Kinesiology in Kinesiology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
21 Arousal and Anxiety Effects on Performance Arousal physiological activation of the body profuse sweating increased HR increased respirations increased muscle tension increased concentrations of adrenaline and nonadrenaline in the blood Drive theory linear relationship between arousal and performance as drive increases so does habit Performance Habit Drive 0 Habit degree to which the correctincorrect response is the dominant response 0 Drive physiological arousal lnverted U Hypothesis curvilinear relationship between arousal and performance Catastrophe Theory arousal increases so does performance Hardy amp Par tt 0 Once arousal increases beyond athletes optimal level performance declines in a catastrophic manner unable to regroup Attentional Capacity xed attention is limited xed resource similar to a box Easterbrook s Cue Utilization Hypothesis relationship between narrowing of attention environmental cues and performance Anxiety nonspeci c excessive worrying that consists of both cognitive and somatic components Trait anxiety acquired behavioral disposition independent of time causing an individual to perceive a wide range of objectively nondangerous circumstances as threatening State anxiety subjective consciously perceived feelings of inadequacy and tension accompanied by increased arousal in the ANS in response to a speci c situation or stimulus Dimensions of Anxiety 0 Cognitive anxiety worries of negative thoughts 0 Somatic anxiety changes in perceived physiological arousal IZOF Individual Zones of Optimal Function Hypothesis anxiety is not related to performance at a group level but at an individual level Physiologic anxiety dry mouth sweating increased HR and BP 22 Aggression and Violence in Sports Social Learning TheoryBandura s BoBo Dolls several conditions in which a child observed a model interact with a Bobo doll o The experiment shows that behaviors like aggression can be learned by watching and imitating the behaviors of others 0 History of Violence in Sports since the Olympics certain sports have been known to be brutally violent spectators enjoyment of sports has been linked to the amount of violence in sports more 0 Media in uences on aggression o Aronson Wilson amp Akert longterm study of over 700 families found an association between the amount of time spent watching violent TV as a teen and the likelihood of aggressive acts later in life 0 Goldstein amp Arms showed that individuals who watched football ice hockey and wrestling reported increased aggression compared to those who watched less aggressive sports 0 Smith violence in youth hockey comes from the professional level because it encourages aggression in upper levels 0 Sport increasing violence in athletes o responsible for 13 of sexual assaults o 55 times more likely to commit date rape 0 Factors contributing to this male bonding ritual preconditioning for violence against women drugs and violent behavior 0 Instrumental aggression aggressive behavior committed to achieve a nonaggressive goal intent to harm goal to win no anger Hostile aggression aggressive behavior involving anger with the primary goal of harminjury intent to harm goal to harm anger o Ethological predispositions Lorenz aggression is an innate ghting instinct that developed through the course of evolution 0 Frustrationaggression hypothesis frustration facilitates aggressive behavior aggression stems indirectly from frustration Cathartic nature of sport aggression is released on the eld and reduced during nonsport environments In ammatory nature of sport sports cause aggression because learning and reinforcement of aggression will increase the probability of future aggression 23 Performance Enhancing Drugs in Sport 0 Performance enhancing drug substance or procedure designed to provide an advantage in performance 0 Steroids Stimulants Depressants Analgesics Diuretics Testosterone and sport most common form of steroids anabolic Social cognitive model of drug use Donovan Egger Kapernick Mendoza athletes drug use from interaction between appraisals of threat bene t morality legitimacy on attitudes and intentions toward drug use Deterrence model of drug use Sterlan amp Boekman explains athletes drug use in terms of criminal behaviors History of performance enhancing drugs Greeks and Romans used hallucinogens and stimulants prior to WWII boxers cyclists and European soccer players used coke alcohol and caffeine In uences on using performance enhancing drugs athletes devote their lives to improving their skills 0 Arguments for and against allowing PED in sports 0 Against makes competition unfair introduces unnecessary health risks makes athletes rely on technology rather than natural ability 0 For competition is unfair biology economics geography participation also increases health risks athletes already rely on technology equipment tennis rackets high tech apparel 24 Bodv Image 0 Trends in body image dissatisfaction women are more dissatis ed than men 0 Thinness depicting promoting media 0 Culturalwide sexualization 0 Peer in uences and competition family mothers in particular 0 Development of body image 0 Attractiveness popularity in school 0 Social physique anxiety anxiety when one perceives others are negatively evaluating one s physique males and females 0 Importance of body image selfesteem increased risk of depression and anxiety health damaging behaviors such as anorexia and bulimia In uence of exercise attire at gyms there are people with great bodies wearing tight clothes which in uence other people s workouts 0 Body image in athletes o 62 if female athletes in swimming gymnastics tennis gure skating etc have some form of an eating disorder 0 58 female and 38 of male athletes are at risk for developing an eating disorder 0 Parentscoaches put pressure 0 Social norms media images quotideal female bodyquot 0 Strategies for enhancing body image exercise 0 Prevalence of eating disorders 0 10 of women and 1 of men suffer from eating disorders 0 15 of young women 0 70 of teens report feeling fat both males and females 0 US spends 109 million each day on dietingdiet related products 0 Eating disorders unique type of substance abuse opposite of steroid use Anorexia nervosa refusal to maintain body weight at or above a minimally normal weight for age and height 0 In females the absence of at least 3 menstrual cycles 0 Bulimia nervosa episodes of bingeeating inappropriate compensatory behavior fasting diuretics at least twice a week for 3 months Anorexia athletica exercise addiction subclinical disorder 0 Compulsion to exercise associated with loss of enjoyment Perception process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory info context and past experiences 0 Visual Research Janelle took a group of college aged ppl who rated high for low body image selfesteem and showed them pictures of themselves and other while tracking where the participants looked o quotMorbid preoccupationquot with regions of discontent when viewing pictures of themselves 0 Participants avoided areas of dissatisfaction when viewing attractive others 0 Body image and visual research 0 Not everyone who suffers from an eating disorder suffers from body image issues and vice versa 25 Body Composition 0 Method for assessing body composition 0 Girth measuring tape circumference of quotfatquot and muscle sites enter measurements into equation reasonable estimate lssues skill required location of sites may not re ect fat distribution validity depends on equation used Waist to Hip Ratio measuring tape circumference of natural waist at or at the level of the belly button and the circumference of the butt lssues skill location of sites may not re ect fat distribution BMI weightheight squared low cost originally developed by insurance co s based on higher risk of death lssues over estimates muscular ppl under estimates elderly Skinfold subcutaneous fat represent half of all storage fat easy to do lssues large risk of error exercise increases skin thickness dehydration reduces skin thickness edema increases skin thickness dermatitis increases skin thickness poor predicts visceral fat validity depends on equation used Bioelectric impedance principle that fatty tissue is a less efficient conductor of electrical current than muscle Lean tissue more water less resistance Fatty tissue has less water more resistance lssues sensitive to changes in body water food and caffeine intake body temp menstrual cycles overestimates lean underestimates obese cost of analyzer Hydrostatic weighing uses Archimedes principle that the amount of buoyant force on object is equal to the amount of water it displaces Divide persons body weight by the difference in body weight in air and underwater to calculate percent body fat Gold standard for body comp lssues high cost not all willing to do it densities of fat and fatfree tissues are variable dependent Whole body plethysmography quotbod podquot measures body volume by measuring pressure changes in a closed chamber after air is injected 0 Larger body volumes displace more air lssues expensive equipment 2500030000 Dual energy xray absorptiometry measures the absorption of two different low dose X rays in a whole body scanner to determine bone and soft tissue mass quotnew gold standardquot lssues expensive quali ed technicians 1520 min perscan BMI is the best low cost no training quick Obesity trends USA 31 Gynoid most common in females pear shape around hips o Android most common in males apple shape more health risks 26 Energy Balance Obesity theories 3 main classes are Genetic Environmental Behavioral Thrifty gene theory some individuals have protection against starvation through fat storage and lower metabolic rates 0 Paci c islanders Native Americans lnuit Setpoint theory each person has a genetically programmed control system which dictates how much fat we should have 0 Leptin theory fat cells secret a hormone known as Leptin which is believed to travel through the bloodstream and targets the hypothalamus to regulate food and intake metabolism 0 Mice research reduced appetite and losses in body weight 0 Fat genes control genes on regulating networks of genes involved in metabolism KLF14 regulates Thrifty phenotype theory those who are exposed to inadequate or uctuating nutrition during early pregnancy and development generate adaptive methods to increase energy efficiency 0 Energy balance 0 Positive balance consuming more calories than you expend gain 0 ln balance consuming the name of calories as you expend 0 Negative balance consuming fewer calories than you expend loss Broad trends in food consumption behaviors Parental in uences on obesity if 1 parent is obese 50 chance both 80 chance 0 Economic in uences on obesity low poverty have highest obes y Basal metabolic rate vs Resting Metabolic Rate 0 Thermogenesis energy cost of digestion nutrient absorption assimilation processing storage and synthesis of protein fat and carbs peaks 3090 minutes after eating contributes 1015 of total energy expenditure 0 Thermic Effect of Food TEM meals with greater caloric content result in a greater TEM 10 of caloric intake 27 PA Recommendations and Interventions PA recommendations for children 60 min or more aerobic 60 min or more vigorous 3 days a week muscle strengthening 3 days a week bone at least 3 days a week lmplementation of PA for children schools has to be fun recess intramural less than 2 hours of media time per day 0 PA recommendations for adults 150 min of moderate intensity aerobic activity 75 min of vigorous aerobics 2 days of muscle strengthening avoid inactivity above 300 minutes per week bene t decreases 0 Metabolic Equivalent of task MET physiological construct expressing the energy cost of an activity as a ration of RMR 0 Moderate 3 59 METs Vigorous greater than 6 METs 0 Relative exercise intensities effort required is relative to an individual s personal tness level 0 Moderate 56 Vigorous greater than 7 0 Pull strategies majority of adult PA promoting efforts rely on individual motivation o improves PA for individuals already inclined to do so unsuccessful at population level 0 Push strategies effort to make the healthful choice default choice ideally forces individuals to go out of their way to make the unhealthy choice 0 Increases engagement
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