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MTSU / Psychology / PSY 1410 / What makes humans more intelligent than other animals?

What makes humans more intelligent than other animals?

What makes humans more intelligent than other animals?


School: Middle Tennessee State University
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Seth marshall
Term: Winter 2016
Tags: General Psychology 1410 Marshall Chapter 7 Intelligence
Cost: 25
Name: Psychology 1410 - Intelligence
Description: These notes cover Dr. Marshall's lectures (March 15 and 17) over Chapter 7 Intelligence. Includes topics such as standardized tests and IQ.
Uploaded: 03/17/2016
4 Pages 54 Views 1 Unlocks

Ch. 7 Intelligence

What makes humans more intelligent than other animals?

What makes humans more intelligent than other animals?

∙ Comparative Psychology  

o Comparing humans to other animals and how they are similar and  different  

 Example: are humans the only species that uses tools?

∙ Some animals can use tools as well

∙ Theory of Mind

o Awareness of one’s own mental process and the mental processes of  others

 Examples:  

∙ Self-awareness

∙ Relationships

∙ Empathy

∙ Communication

∙ Mirror Test

o Self-recognition is a form of intelligence

 Place child in front of mirror with a paint smear across face

Theory of mind refers to what?

 If the child sees itself in the mirror and tries to wipe off the  

smudge, it can be assumed that the child recognizes its own  

reflection as themselves

 If the child doesn’t try to wipe it off, or simply grabs at the  

mirror, they probably do not know that they are seeing  

themselves and they think that it is another child

o Animals typically do not pass the mirror test

 Example: dogs do not usually realize it’s their reflection in a  mirror

 Example: elephants and other very smart animals DO pass the  mirror test

∙ Shared Attention

o When a baby points to something, they want you to look with them at  an object elsewhere

o When you point to something for a dog, the dog will only look at your  pointing finger

Intellectual disability refers to what?

∙ Language

o Humans can speak in multiple languages

o Chimps can speak sign language

 Human working vocab: approx. 10,000 words

 Primate working vocab: approx. 1,000 words (KoKo the monkey) o Critics Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of short-term memory?

 Noam Chomsky

 Steven Pinker

What is Intelligence?

∙ Many different conceptualizations

∙ The knowledge to efficiently use and reason about the world in a flexible  manner in different environments

Cognitive Assessment

∙ Taking a type of cognitive trait and observe it, then make an interpretation of that cognitive skill  Don't forget about the age old question of What type of landform occurs when underground limestone is dissolved by acidic groundwater?

∙ Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911)

o Viewed intelligence as a unitary construct  

o Developed first comprehensive intelligence test

o Innovated use of statistics (e.g. correlation)

∙ James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944)

o Brought Galton’s work to the USA

o Mental Tests and Measurement

 Such as ACT

 Taking an individual’s test results and comparing them to the  “norm group” results, and see where that individual falls  

Features of Standardized Tests

∙ Norm referenced

o Examples:





 IQ: Full Score IQ made of up -  

∙ Verbal IQ  

o Verbal Comprehension Index

 Vocab, similarities, info, comprehension

o Working Memory Index

 Arithmetic, digit span, letter-number  


∙ Performance IQ

o Perceptual organization Index

 Picture completion, block design, matrix  


o Processing Speed Index

 Digit-symbol coding

 Symbol Search

∙ Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III: IQ test for  We also discuss several other topics like Why were settlement houses created?


o Tests both Verbal and Performance IQ

o The Norm Group should resemble who the test is related to

 Can’t compare a 10 year old’s results with a norm group of  

30 year olds

∙ Test Development

o Foundation: reliability and validity

o Statistical reliability or intelligence tests

 Based on test-retest correlations

 .80 or higher is acceptable

 IQ tests are usually in the .85 to .95 range

o Validity of intelligence tests

∙ Normal Distribution

o Bell curve

 Average IQ score: 100  

 68% of people are in the range of 85-115

∙ Below average = intellectually disabled

∙ Above Average = giftedness

o Learning profile of individuals is more important to psychologists  than an IQ score

Intellectual Disability

∙ 50-70 – Mild

∙ 35-55 – Moderate

∙ 20-40 – Severe

∙ <20 – Profound  

How “well” does IQ predict?

∙ IQ and life outcomes

o Correlating IQ and: If you want to learn more check out What does bernini's david sculpture represent?

 School grades (+.50)

 Level of education (+.60 to +.80)

 Financial Success  

 Health

Predictive Validity

∙ Can never be perfect

Interpreting Intellectual Test Scores

∙ Misuses of IQ tests

o Immigration laws

 Unfair – given only in English, not proctored by psychologists,  and not specific for their age/gender/or given circumstances

o Innate intelligence

 Believed in innate intelligence

 Believed in class boundaries based on IQ scores

 <100 = jobs without prestige or monetary rewards

 75-85 = semiskilled laborers

 >75 – unskilled laborers

o Classifying races

 There are differences of education level between different ethnic groups in the US

∙ Nature vs. Nurture If you want to learn more check out Is abortion a state or federal issue?
If you want to learn more check out What are the sexual standards in western culture?

o How do hereditary and environmental forces contribute to IQ  differences?

o They both work together

o Can depend on genetics and how your parents raised you

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