KIN173-Exam3Review.pdf KIN 173
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 173 at Michigan State University taught by Dr. Pontifex in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 67 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Kinesiology in Kinesiology at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
KIN 173 Exam 3 Review General 0 Anatomical position method of observing or imaging the body that allows precise and consistent anatomical references 0 Body erect feet slightly apart arms at side palms facing forward 0 Directional terms 0 Superior inferior o Anterior posterior o Medial lateral o Proximal distal Strength ability of a muscle or muscle groups to exert max force against a R 0 Less than 3 reps l rep max test full ROM in a controlled manner 0 Power ability to exert force quickly amount of work done per unit time o Force Velocity Velocity distancetime Absolute actual external load to express strength and power comparisons on same person 0 Relative the external load in relation to some aspect of body weight to express strength and power comparison made between people 0 Principles of an Exercise Program 0 Overload progressive for a tissueorgan to improve its function it must be exposed to a stimulus great than it is used to 0 Speci city training effects derived from an exercise program are speci c to the exercise performed and muscles involved 0 Components of an Exercise Program Fl39lT Principle 0 F 5 days a week of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or 3 vigorous resistance training of each major muscle group 23 days per week exibility and stretching at least 23 days per week 0 l intensity and duration determine the total caloric expenditure 0 T 3060 min of moderate exercise 2060 of vigorous exercise Stretching static stretch for 1030 seconds Resistance training no speci c duration Strength and power 24 sets 23 min intervals between sets Endurance 12 sets 23 intervals between sets o T Aerobic with oxygen Anaerobic without oxygen 0 Measures of intensity 0 Direct Method Calculates intensity based on V02 max then look at the corresponding HR for that intensity gold standard 0 Zero to Peak Method one of the oldest methods of setting target HR Advantages quick little to no measurements Disadvantages may set target HR below resting levels 0 KarvonenHR Reserve Method HRR HR max HR rest intensity HR rest Advantages better accounts for true range of HR values 0 Ratings of Perceived Exertion useful when HR can t feasibly be measured and intensity is moderate or less Not particularly effective in children 0 Rate of Progression depends on functional capacity medical and health status age goals tolerance to the current level of training 0 Initial Stage prepare for the novel activities and develop an orthopedic tolerance to the exercise stress Warm up for 1015 min 16 weeks 0 Improvement Stage gradual increase in exercise stimulus to allow for improvements and adaptations to occur 48 months 0 Maintenance Stage longterm maintenance further improvements maybe minimal individual may no longer be interested in further increasing the conditioning stimulus Cardiovascular Functions moves blood around the body 0 Blood the body s only uid CT 5L in body 78 of body weight 5 times thicker than water 38 C Plasma 55 of blood pale yellow liquid part 0 91 of water o 2 solutes o 7 proteins albumin maintaining BV and P globulins transporting immune cells and enzymes brinogen forms blood platelet clots Formed elements 45 leukocytes WBCs ght infection platelets erythrocytes RBCs Pericardial sac the heart is contained here Base broad end of the heat is also supported by large arteries and veins Apex pointed end of the heart is directed toward the abdomen Pericardium support the weight of the heart prevents friction o Layers outside pericardial uid inner layer Fibrous pericardium most super cial layer dense CT Parietal pericardium inner layer secretes pericardial friction Chambers of heart Atrium collecting reservoirs and Ventricle pumps o Right ventricle viewed anteriorly sends blood to lungs thin wall o Left ventricle posteriorly sends blood to rest of body muscular wall Blood vessels long skinny tubular structures running throughout the body o 5 types according to their form and function Arteries blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart high pressure elastic walls Arterioles as arteries go away from the heart they then form these smaller vessels have thick layers of smooth muscle tissues to control blood ow Capillaries most distal portion of vessels from the heart smaller branch of arterioles diffusion of gases nutrients and wastes Venules capillaries unite to form small vessels called venules valves Veins venules join together to form this carries blood to heart valves low pressure Valves prevent back ow one way loop Aorta largest artery in the body origin in left ventricle and extends to abs Vena Cava two different vessels which drain into the Right Atrium o Superior vena cava large diameter short vein which carries blood from the upper portion of the body Inferior vena cava long large diameter vein which carries blood from the lower portion of the body Systemic circuit delivers blood to the rest of the body o Arteries carry oxygenated blood o Veins carry deoxygenated Pulmonary artery large artery that originates from the Right ventricle and divides it into the left and right pulmonary arteries Pulmonary veins carry oxygen rich blood from the lungs to the Left atrium of the heart Pulmonary circuit responsible for oxygenating the blood 0 o Arteries carry deoxygenated blood 0 Veins carry oxygenated blood Cardiac Cycle o Right side right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body right ventricle sends deoxygenated blood to the lungs o Left side left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs left ventricle sends oxygenated blood to the body Tracing Blood ow o Vena cava returns blood that is low in oxygen to the right atrium Atria slightly contracts the tricuspid valve opens allowing blood ow to the right ventricle Right ventricle contracts causing the tricuspid valve to shut and blood ow thru the pulmonary vein and into the pulmonary artery o Blood then moves into the lungs o The oxygenated blood returns to the heart thru the pulmonary vein o Blood drains from the pulmonary vein into the left atrium o The atria contracts slightly and the bicuspid valve opens allowing blood to ow into the left ventricle o The left ventricle contracts ejecting blood thru the aortic valve into the aorta oThe heart then returns to its resting Systole contraction during which the chambers expel blood Diastole relaxation during which the chambers ll with blood Heart contracts without stimulation from the nervous system because it has some cardiac cells that can depolarize autorhythmic cells Autorhythmic cells noncontractile selfexcitable APs triggering contraction PNS innervation occurs thru the Vagus nerve and slows down HR restdigest Bradycardia resting HR below 60 bpm from heavy PNS activity SNS innervation occurs thru the Cardiac Accelerator nerves and acts to increase HR Tachycardia resting HR above 100 bpm Sequence of excitation SA node AV node Bundle of His Purkinje bers ECG pattern normal sinus rhythm P wave atrial depolarization slow QRS complex ventricular depolarization O O Q wave septum depolarizes from the inside out R wave depolarization of cardiac tissue descending to the apex of each ventricle T wave re ection of the slow process of ventricular repolarization of cardiac tissue beginning from the lateral wall back to the septum S wave depolarization up along the ventricular walls Atrioventricular block the failure of the passing of depolarization from the atria to the ventricles Premature ventricular contraction the QRS complex occurs prematurely without being preceded by the P wave and is wide and bizarre Ventricular Tachycardia 3 or more consecutive palpations in their chest and feel faint Ventricular brillation completely abnormal depolarization Asystole state of no cardiac electrical activity Cardiac output amount blood pumped by the left ventricle HR SV SV End Diastolic End Systolic FrankStarling Mechanism ventricular contraction becomes more forceful as the cardiac muscle cells are stretched o Doesn t occur in skeletal muscles Ventricular diastole pressure is low Ventricular systole pressure is high Systolic BP pressure generated in the arteries during ventricular contraction Diastolic BP pressure generated in the arteries during ventricular relaxation MAP Diastolic BP 13 Systolic Diastolic During exercise blood ow is distributed towards the muscles away from organs Arterial BP increases with increased exercise intensity 0 Systolic rises progressively diastolic change is very little Vasoconstriction contraction of smooth muscle decreases blood ow Vasodilation relaxation of the smooth muscle increases blood ow Respiratory Functions 02 and C02 exchange between external environment and body 0 Regulation of blood pH sound production olfaction thermoregulation protection Stages of the cycle 0 Pulmonary ventilation the exchange of gases between the lungs and external environment 0 External respiration exchange of gases between the lungs and blood stream 0 Internal respiration exchange of gases between the blood stream and bodily tissues Conduction zone respiratory passageways Respiratory zone gases are exchanged lower bronchioles and alveoli Nasal cavity airway for respiration warms and moistens air lters and cleans inspired air houses olfactory receptors speech Pharynx passageway for air and food throat Larynx 9 erings of cartilage by form the framework of the larynx routes air and food into proper passageways used in voice production Trachea windpipe Cshaped tracheal cartilages conduct air entry into lungs carina marks where the trachea divides Epiglottis routes air and food into passageways rotates inferiorlyposteriorly during swallowing Bronchi airconducting passages which are mucus lined and debris smooth muscle controlled 0 Right primary bronchus is shorter and wider than the left and foreign particles are more likely to lodger in the right one Lungs paired coneshaped organs divided into lobes 0 Left lung Oblique Fissure into 2 lobes 0 Right lung Oblique and Horizontal Fissure into 3 lobes Pleura membrane that encloses the lungs 0 Outer surface of each lung visceral pleura o Thoracic wall and diaphragm parietal pleura Alveoli small thin walled in atable sacs at end of bronchioles 0 Type alveoli form the structure with epithelial cells 0 Type II alveoli secrete and produce surfactant Respiration intercostal muscle and pectoralis major is involved Pulmonary respiration breathing o lnhale active process Exhale passive process Boyle s Law low volume high pressure high volume low pressure 0 When temp is constant the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume lntrinsic factors affecting breathing infection allergic reactions Extrinsic trauma foreign body airway obstruction Pneumothorax air leaks from lung into chest cavity Open pneumothorax open wound to chest allows air to enter the pleural space instead of lungs quotsucking chest woundquot Hemothorax blood leaks into pleural cavity Pulmonary ventilation V the amount of air moved in or out of the lungs per minute V tidal volume breathing frequency Tidal volume TV the volume of gas inspired or expired during each normal ventilation cycle volume of air moved into lungs in a single breath lnspiratory reserve volume IRV max amount of gas that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal inhalation Expiratory reserve volume ERV max volume of gas that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal exhalation Residual volume RV amount of gas left in the lungs after a max forced exhalation Inspiration capacity tidal volume inspiratory reserve volume Functional residual capacity expiratory reserve volume residual volume Vital capacity inspiratory reserve volume TV expiratory reserve volume Total lung capacity IRV ERV TV RV Diffusion key process by which respiration occurs Dalton s Law the total pressureforce exerted by a mix of gases is the sum of the pressures exerted independently by each gas in the mixture 0 Partial pressure of a gas of a gas in a mixture Fick s Law the rate at which gases diffuse is proportional to the difference in partial pressure and proportional to the surface area available 0 lnversely proportional to the thickness of the membrane External respiration alveolar oxygen partial pressure is lower than the atmosphere oxygen partial pressure 0 Partial pressure of 02 is higher in the alveoli than in the pulmonary capillaries so 02 diffuses into blood 0 Partial pressure of C02 is higher in the pulmonary capillaries than in alveoli so C02 diffuses into the alveoli lnternal respiration supply of blood and 02 to cellular tissues perfusion o Parietal pressure of 02 is higher in the arterial capillaries so 02 diffuses into the tissues 0 Partial pressure of C02 is higher in the cellular tissues than in the arterial capillaries so C02 diffuses out of the system Fick Principle relationship between cardiac output 02 consumption and pulmonary circulation 0 Cardiac Output Q volume of 02 consumed arterial venous difference 0 At rest 5 mL of 02 are consumed per 100 mL of blood 0 During exercise 15 mL of 02 are consumed per 100 mL of blood 0 Gas transport oxygen is transported thru the blood steam thru 2 mechanisms 0 2 of O2 in the blood stream is dissolved in the blood plasma 0 98 of 02 in the blood stream is bound to the Hgb in the RBCs OxygenHgb Dissociation Curve how readily Hgb acquires and release 02 molecules into uid that surrounds it o More 02 released shift curve to the right 0 Decrease in PP of C02 increase in pH decrease in temp left Bohr Effect increase in the CO2 content in the blood decreases the ability of Hgb to hold 02 causing more 02 go be released shifting the curve to the right 0 Oxygen dumping Haldane Effect as blood deoxygenates it increases its ability to carry C02 0 CO2 is transported in three ways 0 9 in the blood stream is dissolved in the blood plasma 0 24 in the blood stream combines with amino groups in the Hgb o 67 in the blood stream combines with water molecules to form bicarbonates 0 Normal breathing 1216 bpm at rest Dyspnea difficulty breathing Hypercapnia when CO2 levels build up in the blood 0 High levels of CO2 in the blood are the main driving factor for changing rate and depth of breathing o Hyperventilation rate of breathing that is excessive low partial pressure of C02 0 Hypoventilation if breathing is insufficient for a particular workload abnormally high partial pressure of C02 Skeletal Functions 0 support against gravity hard framework support for internal organs 0 protection of soft tissues protects the brain spinal cord is surrounded by the vertebrae rib cage protects vital organs movement 0 mineral storage mineral reservoir 99 of body s Calcium is stored in bone 85 of the body s phosphorus is stored in bone 0 Formation of new blood cells RBC WBC and platelets are produced in bone marrow Axial skeleton long axis of body skull vertebral column and rib cage 0 Protection support and carrying other body parts Appendicular skeleton bones and upper and lower limbs and the girdles that attach them to the axial skeleton o Locomotion and manipulation of the environment Long bones longer than wider has a shaft and two ends 0 Classi cation based on shape and not size example ngers Short bones cube shaped thin compact bone surrounding spongy bone mass Flat bones thin and usually a bit curved examples sternum skull scapulae Irregular bones complicated shapes spongy bone with a layer of compact bone examples hip bones and vertebrae Compact bone dense solid outer layer with repeating patterns of solid bone tissue organized into concentric layers Spongy bone honeycomb of at needlelike projections called trabeculae packed with red marrow Wolff s Law density of bone correlates with the strength exibility of the bone meet demands placed on the bone Bone alterations Osteogenesis Modeling and Remodeling Osteogenesis production of bone on soft tissues bone is from during embryonic development and how fractures heal o lntramembranous ossi cation o Endochondral ossi cation lntramembranousdermal ossi cation process that forms at bones like the skull mandible clavicle o Cartilage is not present Endochondral ossi cation process that forms much of the appendicular skeleton 0 Developing bones are deposited as a hyaline cartilage model Bone modeling reshaped of the bone can cause large changes in the existing bone structure Bone remodeling differs from other means of bone structure alterations in that osteoblasts and osteoclasts only works on existing bone surfaces 0 o Quiescence resting state of bone Activation Resorption Reversal Formation Haversian system Quiescence Osteoporosis loss of bone mineral density 0 Risk factors sex age ethnicity family history body type low calcium intake tobacco eating disorders alcohol interferes with absorbing Calcium sedentary lifestyle 0 Exercise increases bone mineral density become stronger Bones mechanically loaded to promote optimal bone mass 0 Weightbearing exercise forces you to work against gravity 0 Weighttraining exercise muscle contraction compresses bone 0 Changes in bone density occur in a minimum of 6 months Osteopenia bone mineral density is lower than normal but now low enough to be considered osteoporosis preosteoporosis Vertebral column gives the back its normal posture and absorbs shock o Cervical 7 Thoracic 12 Lumbar 5 Sacrum 5 Coccyx 4 Lordotic curve concave inward cervical and lumbar regions looks pregnant Kyphotic curve convex outward thoracic and sacral regions Scoliosis more than 10 degrees of lateral curvature Musculatory Smooth muscle involuntary no striations ANS internal organs Cardiac muscle controlled by ANS and endocrine systems heart only Skeletal muscle controlled by somatic nervous system voluntary Sliding Filament Theory muscle bers shorten when myosin protein laments pull together actin protein laments Functions of musculatory system 0 Conversions of electrical signals to mechanical movement 0 Creates force production for movement 0 Creates force production for postural support 0 Creates force production for breathing o Creates heat production during cold stress shivering Anatomy of the muscle 0 Epimysium surrounds entire muscle Perimysium surrounds fascicles bundles of muscle bers Endomysium surrounds individual muscle bers Myocyte is a single muscle cell multinucleate Sarcolemma cell membrane of mycoyte Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of myocyte OOOOO Myo brils basic unit of muscle contains contractile protein which forms thick and thin laments called sarcomeres Sarcomeres smallest functional units of myo bril O O o O O Actin thin provides binding site for myosin Myosin thick long with head and tail that binds to actin Muscle Fiber Types Fast bers type 2 anaerobic activity larger alpha motor neuron faster nerve conduction outputs more calcium Ila high intensity le activated when force demand of muscle is needed Slow bers type 1 high aerobic endurance lowintensity endurance Isomeric static no change in length pulling against an immovable object sotonic dynamic O O concentric muscle shortens during force production eccentric muscle produces force but length increases Muscle Receptors O O Enteroceptor receives stimuli from within body Proprioception integration of info from enteroceptors regarding position of body in space Muscle spindles provide info regarding length and rate of change in length of individual muscle 0 O 0 Located deep in muscle mass and attached to tendon endomysium or perimysium lntrafusal bers innervated by the gamma motor neuron sensitivity Discharge evokes stretch re ex allows muscle tone to be regulated quickly Golgi tendon organs provides info regarding amount of muscle stretched and tension 0 0 Located in series parallel with muscle bers located in tendons Prevent muscle damage during excessive force Changes associated with resistance training 0 Neural adaptations Gains during rst 8 weeks are neutrally meditated lnnervates more motor units Increases rate of ring of motor units Improves synchronization Inhibits Golgi tendon organs Increase length and area of motor end plate Increased dispersion of acetylcholine receptors 0 Structural and biochemical adaptations More mitochondria Increased capillary density Increased cross sectional area for type 2 Shift from Type le to Type Ila Hypertrophy increase in size of existing muscle bers occurs in 68 weeks of training 0 Transient tissue edema 0 Chronic structural changes more myo brils actin myosin sarcoplasm Hyperplasia increase in number of muscle cells 0 Muscle bers split longitudinally and grow into ll size muscle bers 0 Muscle Fatigue results in cessation of muscular work or the inability to maintain a given intensity 0 Central fatigue fatigue within brain 0 Causes include Interruption in motor coordination Interference in motor control Inhibition of voluntary effect Psychological factors Pain perceptiontolerance Neural malfunctions Peripheral fatigue fatigue within spinal cordmuscles O O Inability for body to supply energy to muscles to meet demand Causes contractile dysfunction 0 Muscle Soreness O O O Contractions cause restrictions in blood supply and stimulate pain receptors Changes in PH can imitate pain receptors Lactic acid relates to short term soreness DOMS delayed onset muscle soreness not related to lactic acid due to swelling and in ammation
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