KIN445-MidtermQuestions.pdf KIN 445
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Ballog on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 445 at Michigan State University taught by Andy Driska in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Sociocult Anl Phys Activity(W) in PHIL-Philosophy at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
KIN 445 MIDTERM Questions How would a sociologist explain the phenomenon of athletic talent How might this different from the explanations given by scientists from other disciplines in Kinesiology motor control psychology physiology How does this differ from sport media narratives about talent that are commonly heard in the sports media Sociologists study behavior by examining the groups cultures organizations social institutions and processes that develop A sociologist would explain the phenomenon of athletic talent by looking at different aspects of the athlete s life Such as in what neighborhood they grew up in in which state what was the climate what was the family s socioeconomic status How supportive the athlete s parents were if they had older brothers or sisters to help them learn the sport because they too play the sport What school and type of education they received and how were sports viewed at their school Also how many opportunities they got to practice Sociologists examine more of the situations in which the athlete dealt with and not physical and biological aspects That would be more of the Kinesiology researchers that look at motor control psychology and physiology They also look at more of the physical aspects while sociologists look at the behavior The Kinesiology perspective would look at motor control psychology and physiology You could explain motor control by an athlete practicing a lot and experience in competitions as well Psychology would be explained by an athlete having determination motivation high level of con dence and mentally strong to handle difficult situations in the sport when you are losing and put under pressure Physiology would be seen as an athlete having better genes and were quotmadequot for a speci c sport In the sports media reporters are mostly talking about athlete s athletic ability such as how fast they can run or their statistics and not so much about how they grew up and in what conditions Yes of course that is sometimes mentioned during interviews and what not but that is not the main focus the sports media is focused on the sole talent of players because that is what the audience is interested in The spectators are interested in the outcome of games of who is the best team and who wins or loses Given the speci c problem of quothypokinesisquot or children not getting enough physical activity compare and contrast how a sociologist might study this problem compared to a scientist from a different branch of kinesiology choose only one other scientist to compare either physiology motor control psychology How would each scientist examine root causes What are some of the techniques or methods that each of the two scientists might use to examine the problem 3 A scientist would examine the root causes by lack proper healthy education equipment to exercise already too heavy to be active and have energy A sociologist would examine the root causes by SES cultural in uences in uence of video games where you live weather safety convenience A scientist would examine the problem by examining food intake resting energy expenditure physical activity levels A sociologist would examine the problem by examine the relationship between child and family in uencessupport child eating habits and parents A sociologist would look at the situational aspects of why a child is experiencing hypokinesis The sociologist would maybe consider where the child is growing up and in what environment like if their parents or active or inactive If a child grows up a in suburb it may be easier for them to be more active because they will have a backyard most likely but if a child grows up in a city the child may live in an apartment and may not be able to just go outside alone with parental supervision I believe a scientist from the Kinesiology branch of motor control would go a different route and see what motor control problems the children has that is causing the hypokinesis Such as could the child have developmental coordination disorder which can cause obesity which can then cause the child to have low selfesteem and not want to be active Both scientists would use the usual procedure of identifying the problem forming a hypothesis building a research design collecting data analyzing the data and making generalizations They would just be looking at different aspects and form different hypothesis a different research design a different way of collecting data a different way or analyzing data and making different generalizations Kinesiology would focus on motor skills while the sociologist would focus on the behavioral and situational aspects of the problem There are ve truths to understand about all media messages List and brie y de ne each of these truths and then provide an illustrative example from sport media 1 Media messages are constructed scripting we see a ltered lens 0 close up shots of certain players at certain times because it is what we expect 0 we expect to see a zoomedout camera angle during a kick off if a player scored a touchdown they will zoom in on his expression and victory dance 2 Each medium has its own rules and creative language 0 Close up of pitcher is trying to see what he is thinking like when bottom of 9th and bases loaded and 3 balls and zero strikes on the count 0 Close ups will evoke emotion to the viewer 3 Different people experience same message in different ways 0 Certain commercialsmagazine covers are controversial to some people but not to others 4 Media is primarily businessdriven by pro t motive 0 Who owns the big TV networks Disney own abs and ESPN etc 5 Media has embedded valuespoints of view 0 If something makes viewers upset it wont be done 0 Like no samesex commercials or athletes who are lesbian or gay Explain the concept of a media narrative being sure to explain what purposes it serves Describe a media narrative that is commonly seen in sport media What purpose does this media narrative serve o Narratives allow us to gure out the story storyline of an unscripted sporting event 0 Common media narrative spotlighting players during the game who are playing really well underdogs quotCinderella Storyquot In the quotTelevised Sports Manhood Formulaquot article one of the ndings was that white male voices were the voices of authority the majority of playcallers are white men while reporters of other races and female reporters are relegated to sideline reporting In most professions there has been concerted effort to promote diversity yet it does not seem to have changed in sport reporting Is this problematic or not and why or why not 0 I do not really think it is problematic it is not affecting the quality of sport reporting in a negative way I know that women should have an equal opportunity to report so that could be seen as problematic to some people but not to me Women are sometimes used as props or prized for men s successful sport performances or were seen as a sex prop Obviously this is problematic because women are being objecti ed but that is a whole other argument I do believe that in some sports men should be the primary reporters because that sport may be a men s sport or because they have actually previously played in that sport and are retired They just have more experience and more rst hand experiences that would make the reporting more accurate and also more appealing to the audience The men have a voice of authority and also if the men previously played the sport they would be well known by the audience and more trusted if they were a good player while they played the sport Also women s sports just aren t seen as popular sports so that is why there is a lack of interest in female reporters Compare and contrast the UK system of sport governance with high level government control control over funding to national governing bodies on a performance basis to the default system of sport governance in the United States unregulated with limited oversight and little governmental control over funding Speci cally who bene ts most under each system 0 UK government provides funding for sport and that is usually the only money that sport gets 0 So therefore government controls implementation of rules where money is spent Olympic funding obligation to grassroots sports 0 Control over funding to national governing bodies on a performance basis It is less of a monopoly 0 Government bene ts and workers lf workers are happy then they are motivated and loyal and create a high quality workforce Since money is given out on performance basis then the players will put all their effort into it and feel like they have more nationalism and heart because they play for their country 0 US unregulated with limited oversight and little governmental control over funding o Is a monopoly more and all business 0 Wealthy people buy teams and what not 0 Players make a lot of money as well as the owners 0 Sometimes players go on strikes because they think they are not getting paid enough they may not put as much heart into playing because they are just getting paid and it is theirjob while in college its for their school 0 You are the president of the United States and you must make a policy decision when it comes to sport Your options are either a Leave the status quo untouched b Levy a 5 percent sport tax on professional leagues develop a department of sport and physical culture which oversees the USOC and all sport governing bodies Explain and justify your decision It is not about making the quotright choicequot but it is about your ability to present a strong case that justi es your decision use evidence from class 0 Having taxes on professional sports could be very bene cial because then that money could be given to bene t other levels of sport such as youth athletics or community athletics and after school programs 0 Professional leagues so much money its crazy You have been included on a six person 39expert panel for the National Labor Relations Bureau NLRB that has been asked to review the Northwestern University Football Player s attempts to unionize The main question is should college athletes be classi ed as employees or students Detail the main points on either side of the argument determine your standpoint and construct a short statement that explains the rationale for your decision 0 College athletes should be classi ed as employees 0 O O 0 They practice so much 433 hours a week which is 33 more hours than the typical American work week They get to miss class and are excused from assignments and exams because of their matches and tournaments March madness So much revenue is received from college sports jerseys games concessions tickets alcohol luxury boxes alumni events Some big colleges get games televised and make money off that too Much of the revenue does not go back directly into the classroom and goes quotin the hands of a select few administrators athletic directors and coachesquot The application rates go up when schools are good at sports for example us winning the Rose Bowl Athletes are a quotmarketing teamquot Licensing fees on merchandise of their jerseys and what not bring in income like in bookstores Their social media is regulated Have to take a class for public speaking if on basketball or football 0 College athletes should be classi ed as students 0 O 0 They do better than the regular student body overall in school Have more resources like tutors scheduling early take easier classes Given an education housing books for free You have been asked by National College Players Association NCPA President Ramogi Huma to present a case for college athletes to be classi ed as employees not students at a preliminary hearing in Illinois for Northwestern Footballer players This is a big test case and the rst step in a long process toward the potential unionization of college athletes You have been given ve minutes to make a statement on behalf of the NCPA What would be the major points in your statement for classifying athletes as employees What arguments do you think you will face from the opposing standpoint How would you counter those arguments College athletes should be classi ed as employees 0 O O O 0000 They practice so much 433 hours a week which is 33 more hours than the typical American work week They get to miss class and are excused from assignments and exams because of their matches and tournaments March madness So much revenue is received from college sports jerseys games concessions tickets Much of the revenue does not go back directly into the classroom and goes quotin the hands of a select few administrators athletic directors and coachesquot The application rates go up when schools are good at sports for example us winning the Rose Bowl Athletes are a quotmarketing teamquot Their social media is regulated Have to attend press conferences Have to take a class on public speaking if on basketball or football Counterargument that the athletes are given a free education and have many resources to help them succeed as students mandatory study hall hours 10 Professional sports are predominantly owned by wealthy Caucasian males Is that a problem for sport and how do you think sport would change if there was more varied ownership How might a critical theorist explain the need for more varied ownership in sport Critical theory examine how a culture operates and its struggles in the search for a better life for all citizens 0 Theory that looks critically at culture and determines the source of authority that one group has over another 0 Order is obtained through struggles over power and ideologyphilosophystatus quo 0 Sports do not simply mirror society but provide change to society 11 Sports must change to be fair to everyone more democratic and sensitive to diversity Sport can help us improve our outlook toward gender physical or mental disability sexual orientation and physical taent 0 Since wealthy Caucasian males predominantly own sports then I think that s how it should be kept White males probably know most about the sport and that is why they own it and they also have the money as well as the brains for the business aspect White wealthy elitists controls all sports you do not see much diversity at all and de nitely not a lot of women White males are seen as a voice of authority The white rich men who buy sport franchises just use it to promote and market their own business products and become even richer and do not really love the game very few do There are other people of different races that are just as rich but probably don t have the interest in owning a team Diversi ed ownership would bring better understanding for the players because most players come from different backgrounds and socioeconomic classes Maybe if there were different races of owners then there would be a stronger relationship with the team they own and strikes could be avoided because they would interact more and also the players would be able to voice their opinions for high pay or better working conditions There are a number of organizations that use sport as a vehicle for other goals such as enhancing knowledge teaching lifeskills or promoting peace Choose an organization for class and brie y describe its purpose before answering the following questions a Why did this organization use sporthow does the organization use sport to achieve its goals b Is sport appropriate for use in its speci c context C How might you changeimprove the organization to increase achievement of its goals First Tee 0 the organization used golf to achieve its goals which was to impact the lives of young people by providing educational programs that build character instill lifeenhancing values and promote healthy choices through the game of golf sports are just a great thing to get kids involved and active sport is a great way to build character and promote healthy lifestyle choices I do think sport is good to build character and it also helps with life skills you learn to make decisions on your own in an individual sport such as gof You also become more sociable and also more con dent because you know how to play a sport and even more con dent if you are good at that sport It can really help with selfesteem Belonging on a team also makes you have friends Maybe First Tee could have tutors for school work and then if they nish their tutoring then they can play golf 12 Explain the concept of intersectionality in terms that an educated highschool student could understand How does intersectionality impact a person s quotsport behaviorquot that is a child s selection development and persistence in sport Use an example to illustrate your point lntersectionality race appearance ethnicity culture intersect with other characteristics such as cultural beliefs and gender roles Certain sports are only played by a certain races like basketball with black people Certain ethnicities cannot play certain sports like Arab women not being able to work out or anything because that is only what men do so they would not be able to do swimming for example Hispanics play baseball for example so that would be ethnicityculture Children look at their role model and see what sport they played and will play that sport and be interested in it or certain places are more poor so only have basketball courts or baseball or soccer elds and not tennis courts because tennis is expensive At a higher level a coach may put that player in a certain position because of their race like quarterbacks are white and running backs are fast and black and a coach can possibly switch your position even though you ve been a quarterback all your life but you are black and are switched in high school At a young age you are just having fun so maybe a black hockey player wouldn t matter too much but once you get older in high school and what not it could and maybe racism could drive an athlete away from the sport 13 We discussed the concept of White privilege introduced in the Peggy McIntosh article In your own words explain your understanding of what white privilege means Then explain how white privilege might make sport or exercise participation easier for white people How might it work against people of color who are seeking to play a sport or start exercising more An example we used in class was the 8mile split in Detroit White population on one side of the line and black population on the other The averageincome side vs the lowincome side Someone growing up on the lowincome side might not have the same opportunities available to them Their schools might not offer the same sports because they39re considered quotwhitequot sports such as soccer Or the schools might not be able to afford to have so many programs One side might have parks and elds while the other doesn39t So if kids don39t have places to play they might not develop their motor skills as well It39s privilege because just being born on one side of the line can affect your whole lifestyle 0 White privilege bene ts that are not commonly experience by people of other color people of color have more opportunities 0 ln black areas there are more basketball courts rather than tennis courts 1 Explain how cultural factors operate against African American women developing healthier lifestyles You should reference the Hill 2009 article as well as our class discussion Why is it important for health practitioners to have a good understanding of sociocultural in uences on health and physical activity behaviors 0 African American women are seen as strong motherly big bodies big butt 0 Black women are usually poor and have a higher death rate because of violence substance abuse lack of exercise no health care 0 Since they are poor they don t have enough money to buy healthy food and don t eat very well hypertension heart disease diabetes 0 Not as educated so more STDs Sometimes they are single mothers or are seen as strong women and don t need help so they don t show signs of weakness and have more chronic stress and get depressed more 0 Are in bad relationships and domestic violence 0 More abortions more unwanted pregnancies higher rates of infant and maternal mortality less support for raising their children Obesityovereating they do not care about being skinny no anorexic black women 0 Trying to change people s cultures and ways of life is pointless like when Oliver went to West Virginia to try to change the lunches at an elementary school White Appalachian culture is a strong culture that does not let in outsiders really and has a resistance against them Huntington West Virginia was rated as America s unhealthiest city 2 If you were a health practitioner eg physician s assistant doctor physical therapist exercise counselor working with a client who was from a culture different from your own explain what you would do to understand and address your client s cultural differences 0 I would try to observe rst what cultural differences there may be and become a little educated on the beliefs of their culture and then try to ask a question about it next time and see if they have any special requests 0 You can say quotSo that I am aware of your cultural beliefs may I ask some questions Can you tell me what languages are spoken in your home and the languages that you understand and speak Please describe your usual diet Also are there times during the year when you change your diet in celebration of religious and other ethnic holidays Can you tell me about beliefs and practices including special events such as birth marriage and death that you feel I should know Can you tell me about your experiences with health care providers in your native country How often each year did you see a health care provider before you arrived in the US Have you noticed any differences between the type of care you received in your native country and the type you receive here If yes could you tell me about those differences Is there anything else you would like to know Do you have any questions for me Encourage twoway communication Do you use any traditional health remedies to improve your heath Is there someone in addition to yourself with whom you want us to discuss your medical condition Are there certain health care procedures and tests which your culture prohibits Are there any other cultural considerations I should know about to serve your health needs 3 Explain the concepts of hegemony and resistance in terms that an educated high school student could understand Then describe an instance where sport becomes a site for cultural resistance you may want to watch the videos in the February 10th post on the Kin445 course blog In what ways is this sport a way for the group of players to resist the hegemonic dominant culture Hegemony means by which one social group asserts cultural dominance over other social groups the maintenance of quotsoft powerquot 0 Language mass media socioeconomic incentives social institution sports and exercise Example for a high school student would be that some cultures have more dominance over another because of their perceived stereotypes How black people are good at basketball and only they have a chance to make it big in the sport and even football but in only certain positions like not the quarterback now there are some black quarterbacks in college and professional football but still not that many Example of sport as a resistance Fab Five 5 black freshman who were hood 4 Explain the concept of racial stacking in American football in terms that an educated high school student could understand ls racial stacking the result of real physical and genetic differences between players of different races or does racial stacking arise from the acceptance of racial beliefs by coaches parents and players In other words is racial stacking a physiological or sociocultural phenomenon Racial stacking can be explained as placing athletes in certain positions based on racial stereotypes Stereotypes in football would be that black athletes are fast and more athletic than white athletes so therefore they are running backs or wide receivers in football Caucasian people are good quarterbacks because they have the mental ability and leadership skills while black athletes do not have that decisionmaking ability Racial stacking is the result of physical and genetic differences of different races in the NFL that are set by stereotypes Black athletes are more athletic and are faster and stronger due to genetic differences they have fast twitch muscles I also believe that racial stacking is due to the sociocultural phenomenon of the racial beliefs of coaches parents and players Coaches and parents are in uential people in young athletes lives The parents in uence the children because they are the people who enroll the children in the sport and get them started They may put their children in a certain sport because they are following stereotype wanting their children to follow in their footsteps or by analyzing their children s athletic abilities and picking which sport they would excel in the most Coaches are also a huge part in racial stacking It is a longterm impact because the coaches assign what positions each player plays and can choose that by stereotype This can be limiting to the skill set and athletic ability the athlete develops in the long run 5 Perform each of these analyses in paragraph form 1 paragraph for each analysis should be enough to get your major points across A Functionalist analysis of the experience of African American athletes in Division football and men s basketball B Critical analysis of the experience of African American athletes in Division football and men s basketball Then in a nal paragraph compare and contrast these two analyses which is closer to the actual quottrue experiencequot Functionalist theory theory that looks at sport as a social institution that reinforces the current value system in a society 0 Maintaining the status quo of black athletes being the best in basketball and football because they are fast and just so athletic and muscular o It is their cultural destiny to be in the NFL or NBA 0 Role models 0 Stereotypes 0 Critical theory examine how a culture operates and its struggles in the search for a better life for all citizens o theory that looks critically at culture and determines the source of authority that one group has over another 0 Punishments are more harsh if you are a student athlete 0 Social media is monitored 0 Have to take a speaking class for press conferences and interviews 0 Sports provide change to society 0 Sports must change to be fair to everyone more democratic sensitive to diversity 0 Sport can help us improve our outlook toward gender physical or mental disability sexual orientation and physical talent 0 quotTrue experiencequot functionalist theory and maintains the status quo 6 Explain why the use of Native American mascots by professional sports teams is problematic What techniques have owners and defenders of these teams used in order to gain social acceptance 0 Native American mascots are widely used by professional sports teams as well as college high school and elementary school teams Because it is used by professional sports team it is seen as socially acceptable so if it not used by professional sports team then the social acceptability will go down They are the most common in US sport 0 The most common opposition to Native American mascots is because it reinforces the racist stereotypes of Native Americans The two main stereotypes are the bloodthirsty savages that portrays violence and bravery or the noble savage that portrays the primitive childlike silent and part of the natural world type of Native American Owners and defenders of the team say that quotI can think of no greater tribute to the American Indian than to name of a team s warriors after courageous cunning and feared warriors of the Indian nations the bravequot or quotIt makes me aggressive and brings it out and makes me ght hardquot 0 Positive or negative stereotypes it is still bad The owners say they do not intend to offend anyone but to intend to honor and respect the Native Americans and are just having fun and af rming the tradition The resistance of Native Americans mascots is so emotionally charged is because when the activists critique mascots they are also criticizing a form of American identity that is linked to myths about the Western US The stereotypes are based in the past Native Americans do not ght people today People argue that they should be able to have the Native American mascot if they portray it in a culturally authentic and non stereotypical manner 0 Problems you aren t sure how the media or public will see it as and also we don t know what Natives are quotreally likequot
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