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UA - HDFS 101 - NHM 101 Notes- Week 5 - Class Notes

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UA - HDFS 101 - NHM 101 Notes- Week 5 - Class Notes

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Human Development
Course: Intro Human Nutrition
Professor: Libo Tan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: NHM 101 Notes- Week 5
Description: A collection of the fifth week of notes from NHM 101 covering Carbohydrates and Protein!
Uploaded: 09/27/2015
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background image Nutrition  Notes-­‐  Week  5   Carbohydrate  Digestion  and  Absorption     Dietary  Carbohydrates:   •  (small  amounts  of)  monosaccharides:  glucose,  fructose  
•  Disaccharides:  maltose,  sucrose,  lactose  
•  Polysaccharides:  starch,  fiber  (not  digestable)  
 
**carb  digestion  begins  in  the  mouth  
**none  occurs  in  the  stomach  
**most  digestion  occurs  in  the  small  intestine  
 
starch!maltose  
Maltose!glucose  
Sucrose!  glucose,  fructose  
Lactose!  glucose,  galactose  
 
Enzymes  
•  Pancreatic  amylase  
•  Maltase  
•  Sucrase  
•  Lactase  
  End  products=  monosaccharides  (glucose,  fructose,  galactose)     Large  Intestine   •  Fibers  remain  and  attract  water     Carb  Absorption   •  Primarily  into  blood  and  transported  to  liver  
•  Glucose!cells  for  energy  
 
Lactose  Intolerance  Causes  
•  Lactase  declines  with  age:  only  30%  of  adults  have  enough  
•  Lactase  deficiency:  intestinal  villi  are  damaged  by  disease,  medications,  
prolonged  diarrhea   **Most  people  with  it  can  consume  up  to  6  grams  of  lactose  
 
Glucose  In  the  Body     **blood  sugar  and  primary  energy  source    
Body:  
•  Energy  
•  Series  of  reactions  break  down  glucose  
o  Release  of  energy  
background image •  Excess  glucose  stored  as  glycogen   o  Blood  glucose  rises  after  a  meal  
o  When  blood  glucose  decreases,  liver  breaks  down  glycogen  and  
releases  it  into  blood   o  Muscles  break  down  glycogen  to  use  themselves    
If  we  do  not  provide  the  body  with  enough  carbohydrates  
  -­‐burn  fat  for  energy       -­‐red  blood  cells  and  brain  cells  rely  only  on  glucose     **make  glucose  from  body  protein-­‐  glucogenesis    
If  too  much  CHO  
  -­‐excess  glucose!fat    
Blood  Glucose  
  **normal  level  after  fast=70-­‐99mg/dL   •  Blood  glucose  homeostasis  regulated  by  insulin  and  glucagon   o  Both  secreted  by  pancreas  
o  Insulin  
"   High  blood  glucose!insulin  released!more  glucose  from   blood  to  cells!  level  returns   o  Glucagon   "   Low  blood  glucose!  glucagon  released   "   ! signals  liver  to  break  down  glycogen!  level  returns   Diabetes  and  Hypoglycemia     •  Diabetes:  blood  glucose  remains  above  normal  after  a  meal  due  to   inadequate  or  ineffective  insulin    
Type  1:  pancreas  does  not  produce  enough  insulin  
Type  2:  cells  do  not  respond  to  insulin  
 
Hypoglycemia:  
•  Blood  glucose  drop  below  normal  range  
•  Symptoms:  weakness,  rapid  heartbeat,  sweating,  anxiety,  hunger  
  Sugar  and  Health     Intake     •  Half:  natural  sugars  
•  Other  half:  added  sugars  
  1.  Obesity  and  chronic  diseases  
2.  Nutrient  Deficiencies  
3.  Dental  Caries    

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Human Development
Course: Intro Human Nutrition
Professor: Libo Tan
Term: Summer 2015
Tags:
Name: NHM 101 Notes- Week 5
Description: A collection of the fifth week of notes from NHM 101 covering Carbohydrates and Protein!
Uploaded: 09/27/2015
6 Pages 6 Views 4 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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