Study Guide for Test 1
Study Guide for Test 1 COM 107
Popular in Communications and Society
Popular in Communication Studies
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Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 Chapter 1Mass Communication A Critical Approach 1 Culture and Evolution of Mass Communicationpgs59 a Oral and Written Eras in Communications i ii iii Most early societies relied upon oral traditions passed on by poets teachers and sages Manuscripts by monks and philosophers were later used by the upper classes Working classes remain illiterate b The Print Revolution i ii iii iv v vi Vii viii Modern printing emerged in the late fteenth century 1 Johannes Gutenberg39s movable mechanic type 2 Printing Press Early printed material was limited to aristocrats royalty church leaders merchants l Advancements in printing soon made it cheap enough for lower classes The ability to disseminate information quickly and ef ciently led to major social and cultural change 1 Protestant Reformation 2 modern nationalism Lowering cost of printed word became essential in mass production of other goods 1 Led to Industrial Revolution modern Capitalism rise of Consumer Culture The middle class rose to prominence and political importance over time Governments once owned every aspect of printing information Mass publication at the hands of the public has led to increased knowledge individualism Populations could become educated to ll the needs of an industrialized world c The Electronic Era i ii iii iv v vi vii Transformation from industrial print based society to informational one began in 1840 s 1 Arrival of Telegraph Telegraph seperated news from travel making communication almost instant By Civil War military business and political leaders all utilized telegraphs Transatlantic cable laid in 1860 s led to an international dialogue Telegraph led to future inventionsRadio TV Fax Mobile Phones Rise of lm in 20 s inspired a boom in the 50 s and 60 s with advent of TV Internet technologies now taking overMobile phone web pages d The Digital Era i ii iii iv Images texts sounds have been converted to electronic signals New technologies developed too quickly for traditional leaders in communication 1 1992 Pres Campaign saw network news shows lose viewership to entertainment Email assumed some of the functions of the postal service Oral culture reinvented by social media 1 Sites such as Twitter Facebook have become key player in politics e The Linear Model i ii iii Older models of media research envisioned a linear progression of information 1 Senders transmit messages through mass media channels to receivers 2 Gatekeepers become message lters 3 Gatekeepers feedback is used by senders to make changes in media as needed In reality media messages do not usually move smoothly between two points 1 Messages highly likely to spill into one another Senders have little control over how their messages are taken by receivers f A Cultural Model for Understanding Mass Communications Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 i A more contemporary approach to understanding media is the Cultural Model 1 The concept recognizes individuals bring diverse meanings to messages based on their circumstances ii Represents the lack of control senders have over audience reactions iii Consumers end up shaping media messages to support their own beliefs and interests iv Internet and social media have decentralized senders and receivers 1 Anyone can nd anything they want acting as their own gatekeepers 2 The Development of Media and Their Role in Our SocietypgslO15 a The Evolution of Media From Emergence to Convergence i Development of mass media is initiated by cultural social economic circumstances ii Media innovations go through 4 stages 1 EmergenceSomeone tries to solve a particular problem and invents something 2 EntrepreneurialInvestors nd a practical and marketable use for the product 3 Mass MediumBusinesses market the product for consumers 4 ConvergenceOlder media are recon gure in various forms on new media b Media Convergence i The Dual Roles of Media Convergence 1 1st De nition is of technological merging of content across different channels a RCA purchased VTM and introduced machines that played and recorded music b Collaboration helped save radio from TV after loss of content c Radio became dependant on DJ s to play records from the music industry 2 Contemporary media convergence is much broader than simple mergers a All eras of communication reinvent their age of convergence 3 2nd De nition describes a business model that consolidates various holdings under one company a Mergers that created TWC Disney TBS ii Media Business in a Converged World 1 Rami cations of media convergence are best revealed by Google a Google does not produce content b Google nds new and old content for a vast number of consumers 2 Today s converged media has broken down old de nitions of distinct media 3 Google works in a business model where customers can get content anywhere for free a The next challenge is getting people to pay for content and how that system will emerge iii Media Convergence and Cultural Change 1 Before mass audiences would experience shows at the same time everyday 2 Entertainment is increasingly ondemand mixed with media created at home 3 Media multitasking has led to a growth in media consumption 4 Actively engaging with a show via live tweeting connects audiences with the show c Stories The Foundation of Media i Stories that circulate in the media can shape a society s perceptions and attitudes 1 Stories on the Civil Rights Movement Vietnam War helped alter public support on both issues and led to legislation efforts based on how people perceived them ii Audiences look to media for narratives seeking new stories in the digital age 1 l930 sl940 s People went to the movies on Saturday for a double feature and the news 2 1980 s Audiences sat down for network TV sitcoms polished news segments 3 Today Media has gravitated toward reality television iii Cultural blending of new and old ways of telling stories has disrupted and altered the media landscape 1 Ordinary citizens have the ability to take part in stories told in media 2 Varied media institutions and outlets are in the narrative business Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 iv Media stories put events into contexts so audiences can better understand the world 1 We are a narrative species We exist by storytellingby relating our situationsand the test of our evolution may lie in getting the story right d The Power of Media Stories in Everyday Life i The classical view of art is to instruct and uplift ii In the 1900s recently arrived immigrants gravitated towards cultural events 1 Groups appeared to oppose their introduction of foreign elements iii The emergence of TV led to contention between traditionalists and producers 1 Elvis bringing white trash music from Mississippi was seen as poisonous iv Mass media plays an even more controversial role in society today 1 Video games became focus of several investigations after school shootingsColumbine v Despite evidence to the contrary people believe media has a direct effect on people 3 Surveying The Cultural Landscapepgsl627 a Culture as a Skyscraper i An Inability to Appreciate Fine Art 1 Contemporary culture stunts people s ability to appreciate fine art 2 For pro t culture cannot be experienced as valuable artistic experience ii A Tendency To Exploit High Culture 1 Popular culture exploits classic works of art and literature iii A Throwaway Ethic 1 Popular culture is made with a short lifespan 2 Pop culture follows rather than leads public taste iv A Diminished Audience for High Culture 1 Pop culture has inundated the cultural environment driving out high culture and cheapening entertainment v Dulling Our Cultural Taste Buds 1 Popular culture undermines democratic ideals and reasoned arguments 2 Popular media inhibits rational thoughts and replaces progress with the wait for products b Culture as a Map i The Comfort of Familiar Stories 1 The appeal of culture is familiar stories a Super Hero movies revolve around an imperfect person given powers over everyone else tasking them with using them for the greater good b Romantic comedies are two people who shouldn t be in live somehow nding something about each other so mesmerizing ii Innovation and the Attraction of What s New 1 People seek new places to go those aspects of culture showing originality and complexity 2 Culture provides an impulse to go out and explore new places strikeout grow and change iii A Wide Range of Messages 1 Cultural treasures contain a variety of messages iv Challenging the Nostalgia for a Better Past 1 Some critics say society was better off before the latest developments in mass media 2 Some imagined better past is used to shame the present 3 The return to the good old days is a constant amongst c Cultural Values of the Modern Period i Form Follows Function ii The world was a straightforward array of facts and ideas iii Cultural responses found themselves in media Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 l Brave New WorldShowed the dangers modern science and ef cacy posed to individual dignity 2 Modern TimesPointed to technology s tendency to harbour sti ing greed iv Modernization elevated individual expression to a central position v Walter Lippmann s Public Opinionl920 l Advocated a machinery of knowledge that might be established though intelligence bureaus staffed by experts vi Often modernist perspective didn t take into account the historical impact of knowledge d Shifting Values in Postmodern Culture i Changes identi ed by a confusing array of examples 1 shopping malls Nike ads Fax Machines video games ii Populism increasingly valued 1 Contemporary productions are attempts to connect with individuals iii Distinctions between high and low culture now the norm 1 Warhol s Pop Art Bohemian Rhapsody iv Elevated language has mixed into conversational situations v Reality shows blur the line between scripted and unscripted vi There is emphasis on diversity and fragmentation vii Answers tend to be found reveling in nostalgia in rejection of modern rational thought viii There is a willingness to accept paradox l Conservatives have embraced the internet as a means to spread information ix New technologies can isolate people yet bring them together 4 Critiquing Media and Culturepgs2932 a Media Literacy and the Critical Process i Attaining an understanding of mass media requires steps of analysis interpretation evaluation and engagement ii Many forms of media and culture cannot be described by the highlow model iii We should move towards a more critical perspective that takes into account the intricacies of the cultural landscape iv We have to go outside our own preferences and experience the whole of culture to better understand it b Bene ts of a Critical Perspective i Developing an informed perspective and becoming media literate will allow people to engage in debate about media culture as a force for democracy and consumerism ii Competing against democratic tendencies lead to the rise of multinational corporations which control more and more iii Binary terms have less signi cance in a world where boundaries are blurred iv Cultural standards are reassessed v We improve social political economic perspectives 5 Chapter Reviewpg34 a Culture is the set of symbols by which society expresses itself Mass communication is sending those symbols to a large audience via any means necessary Mass Media are industries that produce the artistic works a society consumesThey re interrelated in the sense that culture spawns the need for Mass Media and it in turn requires Mass Communication to send its products and ideas back to society b The changes brought with print to digital helped reassess what as a society and culture deemed important It opened perspectives and gradually evolved the way societies viewed the world c The linear model of communications stipulates that producers make content that must go to watchdogs who decide when to give them to consumers who then give feedback to the watchdogs and ultimately to the producers It s limited in the sense that consumer input is largely absent from the process and largely ignorable when it s not It separates producers from the masses and alienates both groups from each other Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 A medium is created for the purpose of a speci c task From that investors and inventors try to nd practical usage from the object If it is found it is then marketed as a consumer productIt comes to convergance when the media before it must reassess their use to t in to the change the new medium brings Newer forms of media threaten status quo values as a reminder that the status quo changed previous values before them Newer forms of media bring with them a new perspective on ef cacy and result which can alienate those who ve learnt the trade from older media The Skyscraper Model puts culture on a tower with low culture consisting of lowest common denominator entertainment rising in complexity and ingenuity until it reaches the classic artsballet theatre writing It allows for the classi cation of new ideas based on their perceived worth to society but holds bias towards classical forms of entertainment reserving the very top of its classi cation for predetermined works of the past The Map Model stipulates that all creations of culture are inherently equal and related to one another in an ever growing web of ideas It gives respect to new ideas while maintaining their integrity as artistic pieces It does give credibility to ideas that could arguably be rubbish while maintaining everything as a linear progression from another idea Modern values emphasized rationality truth living in the present to experience life Postmodernism stresses a break from the rational mind nding solutions in preindustrial notions of small communities and mystery Paradox in postmodernism is wholly accepted while modernist thought strictly rejects what has no rational use The Critical Process is made by Description Analysis Interpretation Evaluation Engagement Interpretation is the most dif cult as it demands an answer to a So What question It has to prove its importance to society Cynicism is the deliberate imagining of an idea in a way that its worst feature are presented to be mocked Criticism is using the worst features and creating giving feedback on how it can be improved or how the creator could have been successful It s a constructive force The critical process makes a society look into itself and nd out what creates it gives it joy angers it drives it forward It allows for selfdiscovery and in the tone of postmodern thought the ability to nd something outside of a rational answer to societal issues 6 Key Terms for Chapter 1 P QQW999979 p lo o szcvirmossstBHw f39 Communication Culture Mass Media Mass Communication Digital Communication Senders Messages Mass Media Channel Receivers Gatekeepers Feedback Selective Exposure Convergence Cross Platform Narrative High Culture Low Culture Modern Period Progressive Era Postmodern Period Media Literacy Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 Critical Process Description Analysis Interpretation N Flt Evaluation aa Engagement Chapter llAdvertising and Commercial Culture 1 Early Developments in American Advertisingpgs3783 82 a The First Advertising Agencies i Until 1830 s little need for advertising eXisted ii The rst ad agencies were space brokers who sold space in newspapers b Advertising in the 1800s i The rst ad agency NW Ayer amp Son worked for products rather than newspapers ii Each ad placed would be paid for by the company iii Trademarks and Packaging 1 Advertising paved the way for brands to market themselves 2 The idea was for people to ask for a brand my name 3 Most ads were not effective in the short run 4 Prices began to go up because of advertising iv Patent Medicines and Department Stores 1 Half of revenues by ad agencies in 1800s were from medicines and department stores 2 Advertisers were quick to list their dubious bene ts 3 Powerful drugs without regulation soon led to created of FDA in 1906 4 Department stores could advertise themselves and sell brand name goods for cheaper prices 5 Department stores began to overtake smaller shopping centres v Advertising s Impact on Newspapers 1 Advertising became 50 of a paper s space by the early 1900s c Promoting Social Change and Dictating Values i Appealing to Female Customers 1 By early 1900s 7080 of readers were women while men were 99 in charge of advertising 2 Advertising strategies painted women as heroines of the household ii Dealing with Criticism l Criticism of advertising grew as it began to dictate more and more of societal values 2 The Ad Council created to stem the tide of commercial advertisements and create a more positive environment d Early Ad Regulation i BBB created to keep tabs on deceptive advertising ii FTC used to monitor commercial content as well as commercials iii AAAA tried to minimize gov t oversight by stemming use of false advertisements iv Subliminal ads banned by 195 8 2 The Shape of US Advertising Todaypgs3 83391 a The In uence of Visual Design i NonUS designers came to change art direction of many ad agencies ii By early 1970 s agencies had teams of writers and artists to balance word and image iii In uence of MTV in the 80 s gave way to next wave of advertising aesthetic iv By 1990 s ads mimicked drop down menus of computer screens v 21st Century ads have gone for simplicity Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 b Types of Advertising Agencies i MegaAgencies 1 Provide a full range of services 2 4 rms own all of PR and advertising ii Boutique Agencies 1 Smaller agencies who specialize in innovative personalized services 2 Many have been bought out by megaagencies c The Structure of Ad Agencies i Account Planning Market Research and VALS 1 Account planner develops effective strategy by combining views of talent creative and consumers 2 Market researched used to gauge consumer needs a Demographics studied for buying habits likes dislikes then used as targets for ads 3 Psychographics used to group consumers into habits and personalities 4 Focus groups now the main tool of research as it allows opinions to be directly taken into account for 5 VALS measure psychological factors and sees what product suits who 6 Agencies rely heavily on VALS to categorize and prioritize who will be the next demographic to focus on ii Creative Development 1 Teams of writers and artists who create the sketches and scripts to be used in ads themselves 2 Often in con ict with the research side of the business 3 Both acknowledge they cannot predict the certainty of an ad s effectiveness iii Media Coordination Planning and Placing Advertising 1 People who choose and purchase types of media that are best suited to carry a client s ads 2 Advertisers given incentive clauses to meet sales goals 3 Saturation advertising used to meet sales pitch and increase brand recognition iv Account and Client Management 1 Account executives ring in new business and manage the accounts of established clients 2 Oversee budgets and creative direction of the ad campaign 3 Conduct account reviews and see the status of accounts in the agency a Most accounts change after a few years b Before most accounts stayed on an average of 7 years d Trends in Online Advertising i Online Advertising Challenges Traditional Media 1 Many agencies are exclusively online 2 Google received 59 Billion in ad revenue showing that online sources are becoming a more disruptive force on the ad world than previously thought 3 Many companies are putting more emphasis on their online campaigns than their print campaigns ii Online Marketers Target Individuals 1 Internet ads can be speci cally tailored for the individual when online 2 Information is collected off of users daily and used to present more relevant information 3 Smartphones are becoming another subset of the phenomenon as more people buy smartphones iii Advertising Invades Social Media 1 Social media allows products to make pro les that users can support 2 Companies reach out to people who then reach out to peers and inform them of said company Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 3 Sponsored stories and pro les create guaranteed views which ultimately gain it more supporters 3 Persuasive Techniques in Contemporary Advertisingpgs3933 99 a Conventional Persuasion Strategies i Famous Person testimonial ii Plain Folks Pitch iii Snob Appeal Approach iv Bandwagon effect hidden fear appeal irritation advertising b The Association Principle i Products associate themselves with popular approved ideals to sell themselves ii Many ingrained images in society and culture are used to sell products 1 Sexually repressed housewife manly man iii Disassociation as an Advertising Strategy 1 Brands will create smaller seemingly unrelated brands to sell to other consumers a OK Soda from Coca Cola c Advertising as Myth and Story i Ads incorporate myths in ministory form featuring characters setting and plots ii Most stories in ads involve con icts pitting one set of characters or social values against one another iii Such con icts are negotiated or resolved by the end of the ad usually by applying or purchasing a product In advertising the product and those who use it often emerge as the heros of the story d Product Placement i Strategically placing products within a work of art with the intention of it being noticed by viewers 4 Commercial Speech and Regulating Advertisingpgs399407 a Critical Issues in Advertising i Children and Advertising 1 Children are thought of as consumers in training 2 Toys are often marketed while they are watching television 3 European TV bans ads to children while America does not ii Advertising in Schools 1 Channel One sent thousands of TVs and video sets into schools 2 Part of the programming involved ads for products 3 Low income schools were most likely to have the Channel 1 set 4 Ads are likely to in uence children as young as 2 5 The programing was marginally informative and very likely to in uence children to buy unhealthy foods iii Health and Advertising 1 Ads have long reinforced societal expectations of gure and attractiveness 2 Despite the popularity of tness programs models are much thinner than the average woman Some forms of fashion pander to people s insecurities and ideals Ads are increasingly scrutinized for unrealistic depictions of women Obesity remains good for business agencies are in no need to change their practices Tobacco ads are no illegal on television and cartoons There is increasing scrutiny on alcohol ads which target young drinkers Beer companies especially advertise to college students 99 99 The rise of ads for prescription drugs has been linked to the rise in patients asking for speci c drugs in their treatments 10 The potential for false advertising in the medical eld has led to calls for tighter regulation or outright banning of prescription drug ads Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 b Watching Over Advertising i Excessive Commercialism 1 The rise in ads in DVDs internet everywhere has led to a culture of increased commercialization of culture ii The FTC Takes on Puffery and Deception 1 A certain amount of hyperbole is allowed in commercials but to an extent 2 Deceptive ads pass through a form of lter dubious ads are taken off the air c Alternate Voices i Ads can be used to counter the ideals presented by others 1 Truth campaign has led to a decrease in youth smokers 5 Advertising Politics and Democracypgs408409 a Advertising s Role in Politics i Political advertisements ood the airwaves during election seasons ii Most are paid for by campaign committees and SuperPACS iii Early campaign ads featured halfhour infomercials dedicated to the candidates policies iv Same strategy used by Ross Perot in 19921996 and Barack Obama in 20082012 v Most candidates cannot afford to run so many ads due to the price tag xed with each one b The Future of Advertising i Ads will continue to form a necessary part of network airspace due to their revenue ii Society should become critical of what ads have come to represent 6 Chapter Reviewpg410 7 Key Terms for Chapter 11 Product Placement Space Brokers Subliminal Advertising Slogan MegaAgencies Boutique Agencies Market Research Demographics meogpgg p lo o Psycho graphics Focus VALS Storyboard Viral Marketing Media Buyers Saturation Advertising Account Executives Account Reviews Interstitials Spam FamousPerson Testimonial PlainFolks Pitch SnobAppeal Approach Bandwagon Effect HiddenFear Appeal Irritation Advertising N3 F 95939PBTF9 Association Principle Myth Analysis Commercial Speech oo SD Ocrsza Political Advertising Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 Chapter 12Public Relations and Framing the Message 1 Early Developments in Public Relationspgs4l6418 a PT Barnum and Buffalo Bill i Used gross exaggeration to sell anything ii Gained more and more money off of publicity and utilized it to the fullest b Big Business and Press Agents i The press brings with it enormous power to sway the public and generate business ii Railroads used press agents to obtain federal funds iii Businesses would give reporters free services in exchange for better publicity c The Birth of Modern Public Relations i Increased literacy amongst the middle classes led to a less gullible audience ii Ivy Ledbetter Lee 1 Pioneered the use of positive public image to grow as a company 2 After Ludlow Disaster gave a corporate side to the story that discredited the United Mine Workers 3 Changed Rockefeller s image into one of a charitable compromising man iii Edward Bernays 1 Created american propaganda during the First World War 2 Crafted the image of cigarettes as torches of freedom for women in 19205 3 Suggested freedoms threatened hierarchical order it was important for experts to control society 2 The Practice of Public Relationspgs42l43 l a Approaches to Organized Public Relations i PR helps an organization and its publics adapt mutually to each other ii There are companies whose sole job is to provide clients with PR services iii The others maintain their own inhouse PR staffs to handle routine tasks such as writing press releases managing various media requests staging special events dealing with internal and external publics b Performing Public Relations i Research Formulating the Message 1 The most important component of PR is research ii Conveying the Message 1 One of the chief day to day functions is creating and distributing PR messages 2 Press releases are used to release client information to the news media 3 Since the 70 s VNR have been consistently used by smaller TV markets 4 The equivalent to VNRs for nonpro ts are PSAs iii Media Relations 1 PR managers specializing in media relations use promote clients by securing publicity 2 In times of crisis PR spokespeople might be where all the information comes from 3 PR agents recommend advertising to their client when it s appropriate iv Special Events and PseudoEvents 1 Special events raise the pro le of clients to a larger audience a Miller sponsors Summerfest and likens itself as the of cial beer of the festival 2 Pseudoevents are events for the sole purpose of publicity a White House Press Conferences v Community and Consumer Relations 1 PR has to maintain goodwill between companies and communities 2 With good communication a company can become a part of the community and its support will rise 10 Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 vi Government Relations and Lobbying l Maintaining connections with gov t is the only way certain PR groups get connected with the community Government PR specialist monitor laws both favourable and unfavourable DJN Lobbying is an organization39s best attempt to in uence legislation 4 Astroturf lobbying is a phony grassroots campaign that tries to present itself as organic a TEA Party c Public Relations Adapts to the Internet Age i PR rms have used the internet to better connect with consumers ii The near immediacy of the internet has allowed for anyone to access the products they like iii Certain rms will change online information on companies to keep them in good light iv FTC requires online product endorsements to disclose their connections to companies d Public Relations during a Crisis i Crisis requires that companies admitted to the problem and actively try to nd a solution 3 Tensions between Public Relations and the Presspgs43343 6 a Elements of Professional Friction i Undermining Facts and Blocking Access 1 Journalism criticism of PR is that it distorts facts 2 PR professionals block access to key business leaders political gures and other leaders ii Promoting Publicity and Business 1 PR does what advertising would do 2 PR rms with abundant resources can get more done than their lesser known counterparts 3 Money given by big names to PR rms give it better publicity than a workers union b Shaping the Image of Public Relations i PRSA functions as watchdog for PR companies ii Ethical issues have become a major focus of the profession iii Has divided itself into institutional relations corporate communications news and information c Alternate Voices i The multibillion dollar industry remains virtually invisible to the public ii CMD has made it its mission to expose unsavoury business practices 4 Public Relations and Democracypgs436439 a Gov t gures rely on PR to do their jobs with support i Barack Obama used PR in his advantage to generate support for Superstorm Sandy rescue efforts ii Chris Christie used PR to minimize damage after Bridge scandal iii Romney s candid opinion recorded by a journalist led to a drop in his campaign 1 PR has to be on top of what a candidate says 5 Chapter Reviewpg440 6 Key Terms for Chapter 12 a Public Relations Press Agents Publicity Propaganda Press Release Video News Releases Public Service Announcements qurbogog PseudoEvents p lo o Lobbying Astroturf Lobbying k Flack Q 11 Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 Chapter 13Media Economics and the Global Marketplace 1 Analyzing the Media Economypgs445446 a The Structure of the Media Industry i Media industries are structured in one of three ways 1 Monopoly 2 Oligopoly 3 Limited Competition b The Performance of Media Organizations i Collecting Revenue 1 Direct payment involves media products supported primarily by consumers a itunes 2 Indirect payment involves products paid for by advertisers ii Commercial Strategies 1 Price a How high can the price be raised of a product 2 Length Frequency and Tolerance a How long can people tolerate a commercial break 3 Data Mining and Privacy a How much data can a media company collect before it becomes an invasion of privacy 4 Regulation a How much can advertising get away with 2 The Transition to an Information Economypgs44845 3 a Deregulation Trumps Regulation i Rise of monopolies in 19th century led to antitrust laws and limits on corporate mergers ii Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 limited mergers of companies iii Telecommunications Act of 1996 led to unprecedented deregulation 1 A single company could now own an unlimited number of radio and tv stations 2 Telephone companies could now own tv and radio stations 3 Cable companies could now compete in the local telephone business 4 Cable companies could freely raise rates b Media Powerhouses Consolidation Partnerships and Mergers i Until 80 s antitrust rules tried to create diversity in the marketplace ii Most companies skirt regulation by buying diverse types of media iii How is the quality of cultural products determined c Business Tendencies in Media Industry i Flexible Markets and the Decline of Labour Unions 1 Today s information culture is characterized by exibility 2 The rise of a service economy has led to a rise on cheap labour and sweatshops 3 8090 of consumer products fail 4 Unions were circumvented by exporting jobs overseas to China ii Downsizing and the Wage Gap 1 Inequality between richest and poorest has grown since 1970 s 2 Corporate downsizing has led to more pro ts for CEOs and loss of jobs for workers d Economics Hegemony and Storytelling 1 HegemonyThe acceptance of the dominant values in a culture by those who are subordinate to those who hold economic and political power ii Companies can t lead people until people accept and clamour for companies iii Companies have to convince the public that they represent their best interests 12 Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 3 Specialization Global Markets and Convergencepgs455456 a The Rise of Specialization and Synergy i Globalism is tied to specialization l The same principles apply when looking for an audience ii Synergythe promotion of different versions of a media product across the various subsidiaries of a media conglomerate b Disney A Postmodern Media Conglomerate i The Early Years 1 Disney created many famous movies 2 Started his own distribution companyBuena Vista Entertainment ii Global Expansion 1 Purchased ABC in 1995 2 Became owner of ESPN and ESPN2 3 Has built numerous resorts to add to its empire iii Disney Today 1 Now 2 media conglomerate 2 Now a distributor for Dreamworks 3 Purchased Lucasfilm c Global Audiences Expand Media Markets i 80 of US movies don t earn back their costs in US theatres relying on foreign receipts ii Streaming has allowed for movies to make their ways out of the US d The Internet and Convergence Change the Game i The Rise of New Media Conglomerates 1 Amazon Google Apple have turned to more diverse venture to gain money 2 The companies have adapted to changing narratives ii The Digital Age Favours Small Flexible StartUp Companies 1 The strategy for a startup is to nd a niche market connect with consumers get fast swallow up competitors 2 They have to make new products or they will fizzle out 4 Social Issues in Media Economicspgs463468 a The Limits of Antitrust Laws i Diversification 1 Many conglomerates diversify never fully controlling a particular media industry 2 Oligopolies now control the most media distribution and production 3 Independant companies have dif culty breaking into the industry ii Applying Antitrust Laws Today 1 When EchoStar proposed a merger with DirecTV it was blocked because it would have left the US with less spanish language broadcasts to choose from 2 ATampT merger with TMobile was blocked on the grounds it would have given people less options when buying phone services 3 No international antitrust regulations exist b The Fallout from a Free Market i Equating Free Markets with Democracy 1 Commercial executives in the 20 s and 30 s succeeded in convincing the public the free market was in their best interests 2 Criticism of the free market was seen as criticism of capitalism which in turn became criticism of free speech 3 The fall of the Soviet Union was originally seen as a victory for Democracy now it s seen as a victory for capitalism ii Consumer Choice versus Consumer Control 1 Capitalism is arranged vertically l3 Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 2 Democracy is horizontal 3 Despite movement toward consolidation of media industries the fringes are creating ever popular ideas 4 Independent media is increasingly popular c Cultural Imperialism 1 American culture is embraced internationally ii The majority of receipts across the world belong to American companies iii Some defend the imperialism by arguing american ideals should govern the world iv Critics stipulate that american hegemony only bene ts those at the top rather than everyone equally 5 The Media Marketplace and Democracypgs46947l a The Effects of Media Consolidation on Democracy i Merged corporations control more and more of everyday thought ii Politicians in Washington increasingly accept millions from media conglomerates to support their ideals iii Money is spent educating the public on private products rather than informing them of current politics b The Media Reform Movement i Grassroots organizations continue to ght against media conglomerates ii Public debates and disclosures on media practices are not in the best interests of media owners 6 Chapter Review 7 Key Terms for Chapter 13 monopoly oligopoly limited competition direct payment indirect payment hegemony synergy cultural imperialism P qorbogosrg Chapter 14The Culture of Journalisszalues Ethics and Democracy 1 Modern Journalism in the Information Agepgs479488 a What is News i News is the process of gathering information and making narrative reports that offer selected frames of reference ii Newsworthiness is determined by what is most worthy of transmission iii Journalists select their news based on certain ideas 1 Timeliness Proximity Con ict Prominence Human Interest Consequence Usefulness NQWPE JN Novelty 9 Deviance iv News stories contain a healthy amount of con ict to be interesting 14 Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 v News will often feature prominent individuals to raise the importance of a story vi Reporters look for extraordinary happenings to normal people Vii Stories must be refreshing compared to daily life viii Stories must be practical and of consequence to viewers ix Stories that fall out of normality give the audience hope and imagination they perform the best b Values in American Journalism i Neutrality Boosts Credibility and Sales 1 Reporters must nd the objective truth in the stories they cover 2 Personal detachment allows the story to be created in a way that gives viewers the opportunity to craft their own opinions ii Partisanship Trumps Neutrality Online and on Cable 1 The widest audience no longer makes the most economic sense 2 Niche audiences are what media producers produce for 3 Objectivity as a journalistic practice is increasingly lost to partisan reporting a Journalism of Assertion b Journalism of Veri cation iii Other Cultural Values in Journalism 1 Neutral journalism remains a selective and uneven process 2 The process is guided by a deeper set of subjective beliefs not objective ones a The search for truth the attempt to sway opinion the creation of a new society 3 American news reports on topics based on how close or removed they are from american ideals 4 Journalists assume business people compete with one another to create prosperity for all 5 People increasingly favour the small over large suggesting a more postmodern society 6 Idealistic reporters are attracted to the profession because it rewards rugged tenacity iv Facts Values and Bias 1 Traditionally reporters bring forth facts and people construct them to t their realities 2 Bias in reporting is affected by the rise of partisan channels a Conservatives tend that media is liberal and vice versa 3 The assumption is that there is bias in reporting and reporters are out to get their subjects 4 Journalists are looking for narratives of characters 2 Ethics and the News Mediapgs485488 a Ethical Predicaments i Deploying Deception l Journalists have used deception to get stories a Does the end justify the means 2 Absolutist ethics stipulates all members must live by the laws codes of a society 3 Situational ethics stipulates that ethical decisions should be made on a case by case basis 4 Newsrooms frown on deception a A deception could be condoned if it was believed the public needed the information ii Invading Privacy 1 To get the truth journalists live between right to information and right to privacy 2 Media has only so much right to know until there is a criminal element involved a News of the World started scandal when they hired a private investigator to hack into a deceased teenager s phone and delete text messages 3 When deep into a story a journalist has to ask a What public good is being served here b What signi cant public knowledge will be gained through the exploration of a tragic private moment iii Con ict of Interest 15 Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 l Journalists should not put themselves where they stand to bene t personally from the stories they produce 2 For the most part US journalists do not actively participate in politics most do not reveal their political af liations and some don t vote 3 If a journalist has a tie to any group their ability to report would be compromised 4 Fairness in reporting is a journalist s primary obligation b Resolving Ethical Problems i Aristotle Kant and Bentham and Mill 1 Aristotle looked for the Golden Mean the middle ground between extreme positions 2 Kant stipulated that a society must adhere to moral codes that are universal and unconditional applicable in all situations at all times 3 Bentham and Mill promoted the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number and to distribute a good consequence to more people rather than to fewer whenever we have chance ii Developing Ethical Policy l Arriving at ethical decisions involves several steps a Laying out the case Pinpointing the key issues Identifying the involved parties their intents and their competing values Studying ethical models 9906 Presenting strategies and opinions f Formulating a decision 2 Covering the private lives of people requires ethical decisions a Richard Jewell was the FBI s prime suspect in the city park bombing at the 1996 Olympics b He was never charged with a crime and ended suing multiple media companies as a result of the image they made for him i Should the media have named Jewell a suspect even though he wasn t charged with a crime ii Should the media have camped out daily in front of his house in an attempt to interview him and his mother 3 Should reporters follow the golden rule and allow their friends and family to be treated like the J ewells 3 Reporting Rituals and the Legacy of Print Journalismpgs490494 a Focusing on the Present i Getting a Good Story 1 There is a social responsibility to telling the truth but it must not interfere with the well being of someone a The 1980 s Janet Cooke hoaX depended on an 8 year old heroin addict b When it was found she was fabricating the whole story she was immediately let go c The rationale was that anyone else would have taken the boy to a safer place rather than continue on with a story that could kill him ii Getting a Story First 1 Journalists are in a race for facts that often go into tumultuous territory 2 There is a pressure to satisfy public need before anyone else does 3 Earliest reports are not always the best a 2000 Election Count made the media seem unorganized and may have had a hand in John Kerry s defeat that year b 2010 Shirley Sherrod incident had someone lose their job over something said over context l6 Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 b Relying on Experts i What daily reporters know is subordinate to who they know ii News attempts to stay as factual as possible requiring experts to verify iii The use of experts allows journalists to distance themselves from daily experience iv The line between expert and journalist is increasingly blurred c Balancing Story Con ict i Balance requires that all sides of an issue be covered 1 This has been simpli ed into a binary both sides of an argument ii Journalists actively seek a middle of the road position when covering a story iii Balanced stories help disguise journalism s narrative functions iv If you re going to be a mass circulation journal that means you re going to be talking simultaneously to lots of groups that have opposing views So you ve got to modulate your voice and pretend to be talking to all of them d Acting as Adversaries 1 Journalist take most pride in their adversarial relationships with prominent leaders and institutions they cover ii Gotcha storywhen the antagonist is caught doing something bad iii Many journalists assume political leaders are hiding something iv Critics of the industry say it fosters cynicism amongst reporters v The Pulitzer often goes to the reporter who asks ethically charged and open ended questions 4 Journalism in the Age of TV and the Internetpgs495499 a Differences between Print TV and Internet News i TV is less susceptible to ads as they take up time rather than space ii Paper publications have to wait for the story to appear while TV crews can create a story while they wait iii Modern print journalists are expected to be detached while TV is expected to capture the emotion and frenzy of life iv Pretty Face and Happy Talk Culture 1 TV personalities are expected to conform to the ideals of beauty on screen 2 Small banter between them is expected to create attractive relatable personalities v Sound Bitten 1 Audio clips containing important opinions and facts have been used to create con ict within the narrative b Pundits Talking Heads and Politics i Personalities have emerged since cable s beginning to give a personal biased takes on news ii Partisan talking heads ll the niche that is political lines gaining more viewers c Convergence Enhances and Changes Journalism 1 The internet has allowed for media to have a story instantaneously while being able to go back and elaborate on it ii The internet has allowed for a journalist to unwittingly or intentionally copy other people s work iii Demands for journalists now include carrying a digital camera to post pictures along with the story d The Power of Visual Language i The internet acts as a repository for images and video ii News no longer needs to the permission of a gatekeeper to breakthrough Scoops can now come from all corners of the media map and find an audience just by virtue of what they reveal 5 Alternative Models Public Journalism and Fake Newspgs500503 a The Public Journalism Movement i Using people from the community affected by an event has become an unconventional model used by many outlets ii The line between impact and personal reaction is blurred when eyewitnesses are writing the news 17 Media amp CultureMass Communication in a Digital AgeStudy Guide for Test 1 iii Before the internet public journalism served as a response to populations that felt alienated from modern culture iv An Early Public Journalism Project 1 1987 Columbus GeorgiaShowed there was no public forum for which people could chime in and connect with news that affected them 2 The local paper helped organize town meetings to tackled social issues V Criticizing Public Journalism 1 Editors and reporters argue public journalism has been co opted by PR departments 2 Critics feel it does away with detachment a central tenet of reporting 3 Critics argue it undermines balanced reporting 4 It has been suggested that public journalism doesn t address changing economic structure of the news business b Fake News and Satiric Journalism i Satirical news have connected younger viewers to media and politics ii Satirical shows mock the formulas of hard news shows and use it as commentary on the state of media iii Shows the need for journalism to break free from tired formulas 6 Democracy and Reimaging Journalism s Rolepgs505506 a Social Responsibility i Journalists have to acknowledge their social responsibility ii The reader is no less centrally involved than the authors and those of whom they tell b Deliberative Democracy i When journalists are more concerned with antagonizing politicians and less about changing political faults news and democracy suffer alike ii Public journalism offers people models for how to deliberate in forums and then it covers those forums iii People have grown used to their representatives think and act for them iv Journalism should assert itself as a positive force not merely as a watchdog or gatekeeper 7 Chapter Review 8 Key Terms for Chapter 14 a News b Newsworthiness c Ethnocentrism d Responsible Capitalism e SmallTown Pastoralism f Individualism g Con ict of Interest h Herd Journalism Sound Bite j Public Journalism p lo o Brought to you by OKeverything s going to be OK 18
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