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Physics Test Three

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by: Grace Gibson

Physics Test Three 2070

Marketplace > Clemson University > Physics 2 > 2070 > Physics Test Three
Grace Gibson
GPA 3.88

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This is all from lecture.
General Physics 1
Dr. Puneet
Study Guide
50 ?




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Addie Pearson

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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Grace Gibson on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2070 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Puneet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see General Physics 1 in Physics 2 at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 03/17/16
Physics Test Three    Chapter Seven  ● The basic definition of energy is work  ● Work is force times displacement, or the change in kinetic energy  ● Work is a scalar quantity that comes from two vectors  ● You want the component of the force that is parallel to the displacement, which may not  simply be the force  ● If the displacement is perpendicular to the force, there is no work  ● Work may be positive, negative, or zero  ● If the angle of the force to displacement is acute, the work is positive  ● If the angle of the force to displacement is obtuse, the work is negative  ● If you have multiple forces on an object, you can find the work done by the net force  ○ Find the components of the net force that’s parallel to the displacement and  multiple it by the displacement  ● Energy transformations within the system do not change the overall energy of the  system  ● Work Energy Theorem: Work is the change in kinetic energy  ● If force is constant, we can calculate work graphically  ○ Graph force on the y­axis and displacement on the x­axis  ○ The area under the curve is work  ● If force is changing but has several successive constant forces, you can calculate it  graphically as well in the same way  ● We can also calculate a continuously varying force using integration (this is calculus and  more than what we’ll do in this class)  ● Work done by the spring force:   ● Power is the rate at which work is done  ○ Power = work/time  ○ Power is measured in watts or horsepower (1 hp = 746 W)  ○ In cars, use horsepower  ● Two situations may have the same final kinetic energy, but their power is different  because they took different times    Chapter Eight  ● Conservative force: work done by this force is stored as usable energy (like putting  money from your checking account into your savings account)  ● Gravity is an example of a conservative force (by something falling due to gravity, kinetic  energy is created so gravity is a force that has potential to be used)  ● Non­conservative force: cannot be stored as usable energy (like taking money from  checking account and spending it)  ● Friction is an example of a non­conservative force (friction creates kinetic energy when  you rub your hands together but when you stop you can’t get that heat back)  ● When moving an object around a closed path, work done by a conservative force is zero  ○ This is not true for a non­conservative force  ● Work done by friction is negative (decreasing kinetic energy) because friction is a force  against motion  ● U = potential energy  ○ Work = initial U ­ final U  ● Work you do by conservative forces is stored as potential energy  ● You can choose your zero potential energy based on where you decide to start  ● Spring force is also a conservative force  ● Mechanical energy = U + K  ○ Using this formula, and only using conservative forces, initial energy equals final  energy  ○ If there are only conservative forces, mechanical energy is constant  ● Law of Conservation of Energy: the sum of potential and kinetic energy is equal before  and after   ● Gravitational potential energy = mgh (mass x gravity x height)    Chapter Nine  ● Linear momentum: p = mv  ● Unless an outside force acts on it, an object in motion stays in motion and this natural  tendency is called momentum  ● Impetus: the ability for an object to move in that straight line path   ○ Momentum is the measure of impetus  ● Momentum is like inertia in how it resists motion  ● Momentum is a vector whose direction is the same as the velocity  ● Newton’s Second Law of Motion is only true for objects of constant (so most everything  we work with)  ● When mass is changing, force = change in momentum/change in time  ● Impulse: momentary forward force   ○ E.g. kicking a soccer ball   ○ Huge amount of force in a very short time interval  ○ Impulse = force x time = change in momentum  ○ Impulse is a vector in the same direction as the force  ○ Impulse is the area under a force x time graph  ● Change in momentum can be a small force acting for a long time or a large force acting  for a short time  ● Conservation of Momentum Concept  ○ Conservation of Linear Momentum: if the net force acting on an object is zero, its  momentum is conserved  ○ Collision: two objects striking each other and the time of collision is short enough  that external forces can be ignored  ○ Inelastic collision: the momentum of a system is conserved, but kinetic energy is  not conserved   ■ Two objects colliding and moving away from each other  ■ Completely inelastic collision: two things stick together after the collision   ■ Perfectly inelastic: two objects move together at a common final velocity  after collision  ○ Elastic collision: momentum and kinetic energy are conserved  ■ One dimensional elastic collision: moving object collides with stationary  object then stops moving while the stationary ball starts moving (billiard  ball example)  ■ With elastic collisions, we have an equation for kinetic energy and an  equation for momentum so we can work with both of those to make these:    ■ You can put these on your equation sheet   


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