Exam 2 Study Guide Materials
Exam 2 Study Guide Materials Bio 1144
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carly Miller on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 273 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Continued discussion of movement of food sucrose through the plant At the source 1 Companion cells pump sucrose into sieve tube members requires ATP 2 As sucrose concentration increases water concentrationpotential decreases 395 Adjacent xylem with higher concentration of water will quotdonatequot water to the lower concentrated phloem via osmosis Sieve tube members has a higher pressure now so bulk ow will carry sucrose from higher pressure to lower pressure Water will move into STMs by osmosis 4 Bulk ow of sucrose higher pressure to lower pressure At Sink 1 Companion cells unload the sucrose Pump it out of STMs Requires energy ATP to unload the sugar 2 Sucrose is converted to starch for storage in the root cortex outer region from vascular cylinder Storage is potentially long term think potatoes radishes etc 395 Sucrose out of STMs water potential changes so that higher water potential in the sieve tube members STMs have high pressure of water 4 Water will move from sieve tube member to move to nearby xylem via osmosis purely physical process water only diffuses until equilibrium ATP spent only by companion cells to loadunload sugar at the source sink everything else is purely physical no energy Physical processes include bulk ow and osmosis which DO NOT require ATP Bulk ow moves particles by pressurepotential differences Osmosis moves water based on concentration Remember Transpiration vs Translocation Alternation of Geneations l hoi 39hY39S gm wereth quot wtmm 110513 E wa 3W We RN av W t s Mt msls 1 W Minkimns f 01 WWLG P Efcigioiumm f Molpmr 9 M39Hro39i 4 ELWQ Wt W Wo Mahmud W Mi Mi an m Two important processes associated with alternation of generations 1 Syngamy changes chromosomes from haploid to diploid 2 Meiosis changes chromosomes from diploid to haploid 03 V l n I Flower and Sexual Cycle Flowers are only associated with phylum anthophyta angiosperms Flowers come in all sizes shapes colors aromas etc for attraction Meiosis and cytokinesis occurs in the ower converts from sporophyte to gametophyte reduces number of chromosomes Syngamy occurs in the ower fertilization restores number of chromosomes 52 quotIdealquot Flower actual de nition highly modi ed short term shoot system Four sets of highly modi ed leaves in whorls circular pattern at the tip of a modi ed stem Ahdroeu ww pan SW 1d malt homcho SW PM ULES CPUW mm 91399quot Pis ril 39 39 emale household Muccs eggs I med MEX PWLEWPE 332 Mal Modi edquot PM MqJ OFmdi edkam WOWquot b th Mob 51mm ummmwk mo omduces unega IIg MOMQ amm mm Pomhams Ah r Drum quot51mmquot Modi ed mm Andrommvw ngoeuwm m I Itquot Modi ed ream Pediceti receptacle four sets of modi ed leaves are all associated with 2N sporophyte generation Pollen sperm and eggs are associated with gametophyte 1N generation Sexual Cycle Male formation of pollen occurs within the anther of the stamen Anther is a bilobed structure with two pollen chambers per lobe 1N Microwave Molhcrows macaw dividelnhmale quotdaugl aquot alts I39lwmalllm cam Spore undergoes uniMus 4 which c 0 mats wn a mm 39 cqul w 1 MIUW walkout 4 I N qvmmiglc lcells I Parak Wu ospores I ccmnnm my f 500 ZN WWW W Zcellfd PolltnCrmin 05 PMWS 4 Acute Poutn GmmS nme WWW M I Pollen Pmdu act in Hie anHur m M humans Wh dries am my po llcn ka 01FCJ WWM0V WWWr To PuluWMldl u WM Fuvvm POY cim Pollination transfer of pollen to an anther to a stigma SelfPolination transfer of pollen on the same plant same or different owers must be the same plant though lacks genetic variation think inbreed Cross Polination transfer of pollen between owers of different plants Increases genetic variation Plants utilize pollenating agents mechanisms to transfer pollen l Blowing in the wind dust Causes allergies Chances of pollenating another plant is very low not accurate Plants that utilize the wind must produce a ton of pollen many of the stigma will be sticky or cup like to increase chances 2 Water least common Water ows from high to low downhill if water carries pollen downstream it39s very unlikely to meet up with another plant Some plants can use still water to release a pollen sac that gets trapped in a downward facing cup VERY RARE 5 Animals MOST COMMON animals can pick up pollen on fur feet wings beak etc then go to or by another plant and drops some pollen off Plant uses trick and reward plan trick pretty colors and smells reward nectar fountains natures Gatorade Think a hummingbird getting hector touches the anthers picks up pollen goes to another plant for nectar and knocks some in the stigma Nectar color and aroma are the attractants Female ovule development Ovule a future seed located in the ovary inside the pistil inside the pistil are chambers called carpels Ovule inside carpel inside ovary inside pistil remember that angiosperm means coated seed de nitely coated The ovules are attached either to the central axis support beam inside the ovary or to the inside wall of the ovary Ovules are ALWAYS enclosed Each ovule contains one big diploid cells in anthers lO0000s of cells called the megaspore mother cell a a 7 M 4 N Manure M 2 m Masfm yMi39lDSlSOj39hkih iS marlin 39quotWPW WW 3 Mud but mug EmbfbeaL 39Llt Mich ne six Emwo UUAUSII WUMCMSI WW Sac ct plg l g lmhamed LFemaIt Gamemphgit 7 Ampodm all 0 N mm mm 1 IN MdMlorgeb7 Pblmr Num 1 synergid 04 IN mmqu cum 1 99 INmiuvma M berwcm symrgld an M fertilization haploid egg haploid sperm diploid zygote fertilized egg nuclei have fused rumn is a ramp mum pollen grain germinates so that the tube cell produces pollen tube Germination will not occur if the pollen and the stigma are not chemically compatible Generative cell 11T divides to produce two haploid sperm The pollen tube reached the micropyle and enters the little gate It then will chemically digest the nucellus and work its way into the embryo sac Right behind the pollen tube are two tiny sperm fOO 39 Tm mucus QWW Polwmtoe Spam mmwwwnm Mam The pollen tube does not unload the sperm cells into the egg because it would reputure It dumps its contents into the synergid which causes the synergid to rupture to release two nucleus and two sperm into the central cell region The two nuclei are quoteaten upquot digested The micropyle seals itself to prevent the sperm and everything else from being released Integuments reach all the way around Unique to angiosperms Double fertilization one haploid sperm one haploid egg diploid zygote fertilized egg then the second sperm is used gt one haploid sperm 2 haploid nuclei of the large central cell primary endosperm cell single felled structure with set of chromosomes from polar nucleus another polar nucleus and the second sperm triploid In angiosperms what makes this unique is if the double fertilization does not happen spermicide does not reach or egg is a dud then the triploid primary endosperm cell is not created In some plants the triploid primary endosperm cell will be generated no matter what which is wasteful After fertilization the zygote will undergo thousands of divisions to produce a multicellular diploid embryo The primary endosperm cell grows by mitosiscytokinesis and becomes endosperm tissue nutritive tissue provides nutrition to developing embryo mostly stored food in the form of starch not energy ally cheap to produce this If there is no zygote primary endosperm cell will not be produced as to not waste ATP and food Angiosperms are more ef cient because the zygote has to form for the endosperm cell to form Gymnosperms are not as ef cient W I agswxw 0 W 5211 The ovule with diploid zygote inside matures to a seed with a diploid embryo with two seed coats 7 At the same time remember that the ovule is inside the ovary inside the pistil The ovary is also maturing and enlarging with sugar and water and eventually devlops into the fruit De nition of ovules mature fruit with enclosed seedsovules The sugarwater storage is important for the seed to be dispersed Seed dispersing agents 1 Wind dandelion seed with quotfruitquot the fruit is white wispy things on top to help it oat Wind is good if the fruit is lightweight 2 Water good for owing transports downstream coconuts oating from Florida to British isle via water current 395 Animals most abundant Animals will eat the sugary sweet fruit and the enclosed seeds and deposit the seeds wherever they go and attempt to germinate but there39s no garuntee however the chances are better away from the parent plant because it39ll be soaking up all the sunlight water etc Seed germination Seed with embryo is dormant nothing happens During dormancy all cells and the embryo are alive but waiting for the right conditions Dormancy is broken by external environmental air soil day length sunlight etc and internal factors hormones enough food storage The rst group to emerge is the radical which grows down then the shoot emerges and grows upward toward sunlight If all conditions are met the embryo will grow and develop into the sporophyte primary growth primary tissues review these tissues if it lives through second generation it will have secondary growth then produces pore mother cells and continue the alternation of generation patterns Study in pieces Start with sporophytegametophyte Then primary secondary growthtissues listen to recording about how he said to study make study guide based on that Angiosperms Divisions phylum Indeterminate growth plants grow until they die Growth can occur in two ways 1 Increasing number of cells by cellular reproduction mitosis and cytokinesis 2 1Tcreasing cell size Sexual cycle of angiosperms Alternation of generation switch between diploid 2n plant body and the haploid 1n plant body A Sporophyte diploid body 2n Spore producing plant form via myosin Sporophyte is macroscopic big enough to see ex Oak tree pine tree rose Phase certain parts that undergo myosis to produce myospores Sporophytes produce ower or fruits B Gametophyte haploid body In Gamete producing form sperm and egg Microscopic need a microscope to see Pollen is a clump of gametophytes Gametophyte is anywhere from 2 cells Female gametophyte is the embryo sac 397 cells Male gametophyte is pollen 2 cells L 104 hrs Sporophgfr Vi wakmns mlloSlS WOW Sven mm cam sis 05W hm mgl s 2V W Ugoltimn 9n Meio sr WWW P in 09olcm2 i 4 Wt W0 a hlcnus w W m clls Meiosis reduces chromosome number splits in half causes change of generation W restores chromosome number to normal diploid state also causes a change of generation Plant organs Root Shoot leaves stems Development is caused by cell division mitosis followed by cytokinesis more and more cells development Primary growth all plants have primary growth no option elongation of plant organs growing in length by cell division Entails a production of primary tissues Primary tissues 6 primary xylem vascular conducting tissue conducts water and minerals through the plant primary Phloemconducting tissue transports food through the plant epidermis outermost tissue provides protection dermal Parenchyma earliest cells used for storage food and water part of the cortex and pith most abundant collenchyma protection of growing plant organs found inside cortex typically Just inside the epidermis hardened cell walls support scelernchyma protection and support of plant organs that are not elongated or dead plant structures hardest of tissues found outside of cortex Secondary growth expansion of plant organs some plants undergo not all plants only in roots and stems never leaves leads to woody tissues secondary tissues Primary growth in kength Secondary growth in width 2 Major Groups of Angiosperms l lVlonocots exhibit primary growth about 60000 species 2 Dicots primary and secondary growth about 240000 species lVleristems cell factories that are constantly dividing to produce more and more cells Apical meristems RAM root Ali al meristems responsible for primary growth SAM shoot apical meristems responsible for primary growth Lateral meristems quotringsquot of cells in the plant body found in stems or roots Allows for expansion of diameter inside and outside the ring responsible for secondary growth Roots Mostly underground base of the plant Cells are the most mature tissues in the region of maturation C The root will grow sideways or upwards away from water water is down g Functions anchorage base that holds plant in place storage of food and water sunlight to leaves to roots Region of elongation cells get larger and root elongates downward Root tip is usually covered in slime absorption of war and minerals from the soil major function R g 0nly looking at primary growth in the roots 39 Region of cell division if it breaks off no more cells produced lOSUACM idlinle Root in a lengthwise section can see 4 sectionsregions of the root F Root cap protects the root from other roots or rocks if it breaks off r mam 15 M 39 l mmhxma ns39xcle Jane Modermis kl 39mtemal Mfth mm M i W WW6 NMquot WW Fibmus misv uw mm WWW mum mm man 0H d bmnmxng W s mg mwuu WANMm gt4 mm UC mun gt 4 7 Shoot leaves and stems Leaves primary function is to capture sunlight and make food Stems primary function is to hold leaves towards the sun also used for transport Primary growth of the shoot elongation at the shoot tip bud inside the bud SAM Inside the bud 558 in textbook W Hui j W E9457 SW8 NM NV whim W u Chm We a mg or Quidi meos mm mm 1 mm Hme ow Mm ans mva Leaf cross section Primary tissues ONLY WW FmWAS l i lew Wsop H teem 39 rUh 0 O 0 V IONW Epidermis mm QM Km 6 wdwmis om 01 WW 0er WOW 39 NM wan 39bYIMUl mamxmmahm Mum 0 Wm WM m panamt 40 gnu3 173011 5 WWW MI MN Stems Primary growth most are above ground but not always Both exhibit primary growth but only dicots exhibit secondary growth lVlonocots vascular bun less are scattered and dicots are in a ring to make a pith region and cortex region Vascular bundles close up in a dicot m wigWm L13 H88 S I wwm mgwum Lamle mamas om wow I opting km mt1m durum in W Kw Vascular and cork cambians both produce cells inside and outside the rings which causes the expansion All are lateral meristems and produce lateral growthsecondary growth Vascular cambian ring mitosis produces lots of cells inside secondary xylem quotwood of the treequot outside secondary phloem quotinner barkquot Cork cambian ring inside and outside periderm outer bark replace the epidermis and cortex of the stem serves as protection Secondary growth in dicot stems after three years after secondary growth began secondary growth starts late in the rst year see gure 3522 d L X it lt W W mm 5 3 th W from 0 d We 6W mmw cambian 1 Mum mnan 1 mp momma Jamilrm M08 DWKK Compare plant organs Leaves primary growth only 1 Roots monocots primary only dicots primary and secondary Seems both primary dicots secondary Roots endodermis and pericycle Monocots pith and cortex dicot cortex xylem at the core Stems monocots scattered vascular bundles dicots pith and cortex vascular bundles in a ring Primary Growth elongation mitotic activity of apical meristems RAM 88 SAM primary tissues Secondary growth expansion of stem and root secondary tissues vascular and cork cambian Regulation of plant growth Combination of internal factors hormones chemical messengers transported through phloem interact with environmental factors soil temperature etc listen to 130 Hormones control growth germination owering fruiting shedding leaves color of leaves Plant hormones can be either growth inhibiting or growth promoting Inhibiting are dominant in the winter promoters dominant in spring and summer Five hormones all require ATP for transport through the plant 1 Auxins produced in seeds fruits shoot tips stems and leaves Never roots Growth promoter Transported within the phloem tissue animals through the bloodstream effects promote cell elongation promotes shoot elongation promotes the production of wood secondary growth promotes fruit development promotes the production of roots in cuttings inhibits lateral bud developmentnext year39s buds inhibits the abscission of leaves fruits and owers abscissiondropping of because when leaves fall off no more photosynthesis no more food no more growth Auxins focus on growth now not down the road 2 Cytokinins found in coconut milk growth promoting hormones Produced in seeds fruits and roots Effects promotes cell division think of the name produces more cells growth promotes developement of lateral buds antagonistic to auxins lateral buds produce new growth for next season inhibits leaf senescence change in leaf coloring due to chlorophyll break down 5 Gibberellins also called Gibberellic acids largest group in plant hormones 180 growth promoters Produced throughout the plant but highly concentrated in seeds offspring plant already has gibberellins in it Effects promotes stem elongation by stimulating cell division and cell elongation helps in process of primary growth promotes the break down of food reserves in a germinating seed embryonic plant has right conditions it will grow plants emerge out of seed gibberellins are necessary for the plant to have food Rdw vaomlodj 0 WU Wyer o Water enters the seed and causes it to swell and crack the seed coat where more water can get in and eventually allows the embryo to escape Embryo starts to secrete Gibberellic acids which act on the aleurone layer starts on the outside to break the bonds In the outer layer is an enzyme that breaks the cell bonds in starch alpha amylase Starch is broken down to individual glucose molecules which is then used as ATP Basically starch gt glucose gt cell respiration gt ATP biological energy Process is inside the seed so the embryo directs the process releasing the Gibberellic acids based on the amount of water in the soil Advantage of seed plants the embryo knows when the enironmental conditions ar enjoy right 4 Abscisic Acid growth inhibitors found in seeds mature leaves and dormant buds Lateral buds that have been produced are full of abscisic acid to stop it from growing Effects inhibits cell elongation inhibits alpha amylase production by aleurone layer if energy isn39t produced embryo will not grow promotes the production of storage compounds to prevent early germination keep starch as a food reserve rather than allowing it to be broken down promotes leaf senescence promoting degradation of chlorophyll in the fall absisic acid wins over ctyokinins 5 Ethylene actually a gas formed by incomplete metabolism Growth inhibiting hormone but since it is a gas it is not actually transported through the plant Produced in the plant then release through the plant Effects promotes the abscission of leaves fruits and owers trying to get leaves to fall offno more growth interacts with the three growth promoting hormones to regulate cell size and shape if the plant grows too facets cell walls will be thin and the plant will fall over and die promotes fruit ripening the peel traps the ethylene gas produced by the fruit Growth in general from a seed requires Breaking of dormancy stage where it is alive but not growing combination of internal and external factors to cause this Internal hormones stored food absorbed water embryo swelling External sunlight temperature more day length soil moisture Seed consists of seed coats embryo and stored food If the water gets in and causes everything to swell and the seed coats crack and causes ssure allows water in 88 embryo out As the seed coat cracks radical rst root grows down 88 the shoot stem and leaves which grow up Embryonic leaves called cotyledons emerge 1 cotyledon monocot 2 dicot Seedling plant due to mitosiscytokinesis more cells produced as well as cells getting bigger cells increase in size and number Internal development plant cells gt plant tissues gt plant organs Tissues aggregate into a plant organ the plant organs roots stems and leaves make up the plant In order for all this to occur it obviously needs hormones chemicals elements ATP Plant Nutrition things that plants need for proper growth and development Essential nutrients elements of life 16 Carbon Hydrogen FWM CO 391 H2 0 4 19M mummi 0F Mohy MI Oxygen 1395 soil nutrients absorbed through roots follow the pathwaytubing of water xylem A Can be put into one of two list required in larger amount macronutrients and smaller amounts micronutrients 7 l0 0 mg Macronutrients 6 minimum of 1 gram for 1 kg of dry weight of leaves greater than 1 gram 1 1Titrogen 1T component of proteinsamino acids 1Tucleic acidsD1TA 88 RNA coenzymesintermediates in reactions and chlorophyll photosynthesis Potassium K enzyme activator involved with osmosis involved in the opening and closing of leaf stomata Phosphorus P component of 1Tucleic acidsD1TA 88 RNA cell membranes ATP coenzymes Calcium Ca component of cell walls enzyme regulator involved in cell membrane permeability what can or cannot pass throug cell membrane 5 Sulfur S component of proteins coenzyme coenzyme A after glycolysis before Krebs cycle needed for acetic acid cycle 6 Magnesium Mg component of enzyme activate chlorophyll Amtqu Micronutrients Trace Elements 397 less than a 1 10 th of a gram required Molybdenum Mb Required to extract nitrogen out the soil Copper Cu enzyme activator and component of many enzymes Zinc Zn enzyme activator and component of many enzymes Manganese Mn enzyme activator and component of the chloroplast membrane essential to trigger oxygen release Chloroplast has a double membrane Mn must be a component or oxygen cannot escape because Mn allows the membrane to open to allow oxygen out if oxygen gets trapped photosynthesis will shut down 5 Chlorine Cl involved with osmosis and oxygen production in photosynthesis Photosynthetic reactions cannot take place without chlorine because water will not split properly 6 Boron B component of cell membranes and is necessary for DNA replication 397 Iron Fe component of chlorophyll See Hanalowt mummy are M c anltxam 39 Rm is 90310 90310 90310 Transport Within Plants moving materials through the plants nutrients food water etc Formal de nition Movement of water and solutes in plants Conducting tissues phloem and xylem Water 88 soil nutrients through xylem Food carbs and hormones phloem Importance of Water Photosynthesis requires water to split to generate electron and release oxygen Provides support for plant organs no water no support no photosynthesis Minerals dissolved in water in order to ow cannot ow without water Elongation and individual cell growth require water Chemical reactions Average plant cell is about 90 water plants do not have a skeleton only a cell wall full cells act like an internal skeleton Solvent for most substance dissolves things a Solution a mixture of two or more molecules b Solvent usually a liquid dissolves the molecules in lesser concentration more abundant greater concentration c Solute lesser amount of molecules that gets dissolved or broken up in the solvent Movement of water and solutes through the plant Water includes water and soil nutrients moves through xylem Food includes carbohydrates and hormones moves through phloem Physical properties of water Polar molecule By de nition no charge but it is polar because hydrogens create a partial positive charge while the oxygen creates a partial negative charge Hydrogen bonding H connected to an electronegative atom can be Hygroden bonded to another electronegative atom Each water molecule can Hbond to 4 other water molecules in pure water Cheats a tight net 006 Hm Water exhibits cohesiveness it sticks or adheres to other water molecules Also exhibits adhesiveness sticks or adheres to other molecules cellulose 1Tatural temperature stabilizer Transport medium because it ows easily high viscosity Water is the best biological solvent Mercury is the best solvent in general Water has three forms with at least one at all of earths temperature range solid ice liquid vapor Principles of Water and Molecule Movement Physical process no energy expended in these processes 1 Bulk Flow movement of molecules in response to pressure or gravity Gravity things moves from high to low Pressure cell pressure from high pressure to low pressure 2 Diffusion movement of molecules along a concentration gradient from high to low concentrations Something is keeping a separation Two plant cells the cell walls are keeping the separation between cells gradient one has high concentration the other is low The water will diffuse from the highly concentrated cell to the lower concentration cell 395 Osmosis the difusion of water across as selectively permeable membrane Membrane of a cell is a gate keeper restricts materials coming in out of the cell except water Water has free reign to come and go Water will go from high concentration to low concentration Membrane cannot restrict water ow but it is selectively permeable so it can restrict solutes in the water Water moves trough osmosis solutes do no move via osmosis MM 0416 CCIIBwillbeM3a1 0H1 mum U Movement of Water 88 soil nutrients through the Plant Transpiration cost or expense a plant pays to live on land Example corn plant requires 55 gallons of waterover 90 days of tips water 2 of water is used for mantienance of plant photosynthesis elongation etc 98 is lost in transpiration Large trees could use 100 gallons of water during growing season but only 50 is lost to transpiration Actual de nition loss of water vapor through the stomata of the leaf Water goes through roots stems then leaves and evaporates through the leaves because it is heated by sunlight The leaf is the organ of photosynthesis sunlight energy gt metabolic energy transpiration is also done by the leaf Photosynthesis requires water to split and form an electron chain When guard cells are open water and oxygen are let out and carbon dioxide is let in when they are closed holds water and oxygen in but no carbondioxide gets in WW HAMNS LU W39 12 WV 933129 5 9m m Guard ails p L S MMLDS39EJ 0 H20 WWW Lngid O 0 WWW EPIJEI MS l D3 03 H30 m 01H Mechanism of Opening and Closing of the Guard CellsStomata 1 Daytime sunlight early in the daylight carbon dioxide is low in the leaf so the leaf will be full of water and stomata will open 2 Guard cells pump in potassium requires ATP increased solute ion concentration gt water will be in lower concentration they can39t both be 100 ultimately for this step the solutewater concentration changes Water from the xylem via osmosis to the guard cells which ll them to full capacity turgid Guard cells swell up and open the stoma water and oxygen out and carbon dioxide in Pump out the potassium requires ATP water moves out guard cells shrink stoma close water and oxygen are trapped and carbon dioxide is locked out 0 0399 Cause of transpiration water loss is sunlight energy major energy source causes heat Leaf gets heated by the sunlight as it warms vapors form guard cells swell stoma opens water and oxygen out and carbon I dioxide in photosynthesis again and repeat Water will move cell to to cell down the concentration causing a lower concentration in the mesophyll which results in a quotpul quot by osmosis from the next cell in the leaf xylem attached to stem xylem attached to root xylem buried in the soil water is quotpulledquot into the root xylem and up the the leaf to participate in photosynthesis This is called transpiration stream unidirectional ow water does not ow back advantage of cohesiveness and adhesiveness to the xylem no ow back Transpiration Stream water in soil with nutrients gt root epidermis gt root cortex gt root xylem gt stem xylem gt leaf xylem gt mesophyll heated up evaporates gt vapor gt atmosphere m WWW M k 7 H10 Q0 S CAT Mechanism Once the stomata are open guard cells are turgid this is a fully physical process Water molecules are being pulled one at a time C cohesion water molecules are tightly bound together don39t separate easily A adhesion water adheres to other polar molecules cellulose Water molecules are bonded together and somewhat bound to the walls water does not go back down T tension pull due to initial loss of water by evaporation from the mesophyll 1To energy needed after stomata are opened Energy needed to evaporate water comes from sun plants to not pay to evaporate the water Translocation movement of solutes food carbs hormones Similarities between transpiration and translocation properties of water and that39s it Differences A Translocation moves food and solutes through water bidirectional top to bottom or bottom to top involves phloem tissue requires ATP expenditure by the plant B Transpiration moves water only unidirectional involves the xylem tissue does not require energy from the plant comes from sunlight energy In plants food is dissolved in water into the form of sucrose double sugar Sucrose is always transported from a source location with an excess carbohydratesleaf to a sink location where a carbohydrate is stored or neededroots Mechanism for how food is moved Pressure Flow Hypothesis Sucrose ows via water from source to sink Higher pressure to low pressure Phloem tissue has two types of cells associated with it 1 Sieve tube members kind of like soda cans sacked on top of each other 2 Companion cells like fork lifts load and unload sugar in and out of sieve tube members require ATP SWSQJ 5M XI glam Simmcmlmlnm CmePamcm CdlS UDJv l Kw g 1 Companion cells pump sucrose into sieve tube members requires ATP 2 As sucrose concentration increases water concentrationpotential decreases 395 Adjacent xylem with higher concentration of water will quotdonatequot water to the lower concentrated phloem via osmosis Sieve tube members has a higher pressure now so bulk ow will carry sucrose from higher pressure to lower pressure What phylum does angiosperms belong Phylum Anthrophyta What type of growth do plant show Intermediate Between the Sporophyte and Gametophyte which is haploid and which is diploid Sporophyte Diploid 2N Gametophyte Haploid 1N What are sporophytes Macroscopic diploid portion of the plant that are spore producing dominant part that produces owers and fruits usually asexual What are gametophytes Microscopic haploid portion of the plant that contain 2 7 cells that produce gametes sexual reproduction through pollen male gamete and embryonic sac female gamete What is Syngamy Restores chromosome and changes the generation During the alternation of generation what reduces chromosomes and changes the generation Meiosis What are the plant organs Roots stems and leave What organs make up the shoot Leaves and stems What is mitosis cytokinesis Cellular reproduction What is Primary plant growth Plant growth that occurs in all plants that is the elongation of plant organs roots stems and leaves What is the type of growth that is the EXPANSION of plants organs that only occurs in woody tissues roots and stems Secondary growth What are the two types of Angiosperms Monocots and dicots What type of growth do monocot only exhibit Primary growth What type of growth do dicots exhibit They exhibit both primary and secondary but mainly secondary growth Which type of Angiosperms exhibit 270000 species and which have about 60000 species 270000 are dicots which are more common while monocots have about 60000 species What are meristems The cell undergoing cellular division constantly primarily for grown Where are the meristems located Shoots and roots What are the 2 types of apical tip meristems RAM root apical meristem and SAM shoot apical meristems RAM AND SAM undergo what type of growth Primary growth which is just elongation What are rings of cells in stern or roots that undergo expansion growth secondary Lateral meristems What is the function of lateral meristems Absorption of h20 and minerals in soil storage of food and water and anchorage What are the four regions of the roots Maturation mature into tissues Elongation root elongate cell enlarges Cell division constant cell division Root cap protect of root apical meristem What are the 4 major parts of the plant cross section in their order from inner most to outer most Vascular cylinder Endodermis of cortex Cortex Epidermis of cortex What are the two parts of the vascular cylinder Xylem and pholem What is Phloem Conducts food What is xylem Conducts waters and minerals ln dicots and monocots what do the structures of the xylem and phloem look like In monocots xylem and phloem go side by side in a circular path and are about the same size There is a pith in the middle ln dicots there is a huge xylem in the middle and small phloem in the circle area What is a taproot system 1 main root with many branching roots What is a brous root system A root system where there is the main root is broken off with many branching What are the parts of the shoot Leaves photosynthesis amp Stems support leaves and aid in transports What type of growth do the shoots show Primary growth What is a new shoot called A bud Where are buds located Inside the SAM shoot apical meristem What is any point where a leaf stem or bud arises A node What is the area between nodes where elongation occurs An internode How does a dicot leaf look Net venation branching networking How does a monocot leaf look Parallel venation large veins that don39t touch What type of growth do the stems exhibit Primary growth What do dicots stems growth exhibit They are primary and secondary growth that has a ringed vascular bundle Which type of angiosperm exhibit primary growth only and has scattered vascular bundles monocots growth What produces secondary growth produces cells in a RING growth pattern The vascular cambium Another word for secondary growth is expansion Another word for primary growth is elongation What starts late in the rst year before plants stop growing for the winter Cork cambium TF vascular amp cork cambiums retain cell division properties 2 produce rings of 2 tissue TRUE Where are secondary tissue located in terms of the cambium ring Toward the inside and outside so the stem is extending outward What 2 things make up the lateral meristem Vascular cambium and cork cambium Xylem conducts water and minerals Phloem conducts food How can you tell how old it is by looking at the secondary growth Secondary xylem What often happens to the one ring of secondary phloem It gets crushed due to it weeks cell tissues What happens as the plant gets older Growth gets smaller What is the periderm Everything between the phloem and the other layer Chemicals produced in one part the transported to another region to cause a response a hormone Another word for chemical messengers Hormones What are the 4 main functions of hormones Speci c mostly internal signals primarily transported in the phloem tissues in plants internal interact with external environmental factors What are some external things controlled by hormones Growth seed germination owering fruiting and shedding leaves What are the 2 types of hormonal growth Inhibiting amp promoting Promoting hormonal growth seasons Mostly in spring and summer Inhibiting hormonal growth seasons Fall and winter What do hormones require to transport ATP energy investment What are the ve hormone groups Abscisic acid Auxins Cytokinins Ethylene Gibberellins Where are auxins produced Shoot tips leaves fruits and seeds but NEVER EVER EVER in the roots What are some side effects of auxins Promote cell and shoot elongation stem expansion fruit development and production of roots of the stems What hormonal group is concerned with growth right now Auxins What hormonal group is concerned with growth now and later Cytokins Where are cytokins produced Roots seeds and fruits Effects of cytokins Promote stem elongation through cell elongation and divisionnow promotes the developments of buds later inhibit leaf senescence no pigment no food no growth leaf senescence the breakdown of pigments in leave for dormancy Where is gibberellins mostly concentrated at Even though they are found throughout the plant gibberelins are mainly found in the seed they are passed on in the embryonic part of the seed to promote growth of the embryonic cell into seeding and plants What is Abscisic Acid A growth inhibitor hormone found in leaves seeds and inactive buds that effect it by inhibit cell elongation and alphaamylase production in seeds It promotes leaf senescence and the production of storage compounds in seeds What is Ethylene A growth inhibit hormone that sometimes isn39t consider a hormone but it isn39t transported within the plant as other hormones however it still effects growth by promoting future ripening promotes abscission of leaves fruits and owers and well as interacts with 3 growth promoting hormones to regulate cell size and shape What does the growth of seed require Breaking of dormancy through combination of internal and external factors Internal factors from growth from seed requires Hormones stored food h20 absorption and embryo swelling External factors that growth from seed requires Sunlight temperature increased day length and soil moisture What are the 3 things that a seed contains Seed coat Embryo stored food What happens to the radicle or rst root as the seed coat cracks lt emerges and grows down What is the second step in seed coat cracks after the radicle grows down The stems and leaves the shoot grows up and cotyledons embryonic leaves monocots have 1 and dicots have many emerge with the embryo Tissue an aggregation of cells for a common function Organ composed by 2 or more tissues Organism formed by organs True or false tissues make up cells which make up organism that are composed of organs False cell then tissue then organs What are the two types of stimuli that plants responds to Internal and external What produces cell elongation transported away from the lighted side of plants Auxins How many essential elements are necessary for plant growth 16 What three elements must all plants have Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen The 13 elements that come from the soil are used for what They are used for normal growth and development What are the 6 macronutrients Nitrogen Potassium Phosphorous Calcium Sulfur Magnesium N nitrogen Component of protein nucleic acid and enzymes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis element of Chlorophyll K potassium Involved in opening and closing of stoma of leaf P phosphorous Component of nucleic acids ATP and membranes Ca Calcium Enzyme regulator necessary for proper cell wall formation involved with membrane permeability S sulfur Component of protein and coenzymes for cellular reproduction Mg Magnesium Enzyme activator and component of chlorophyll What are the trace nutrients Molybdenum Cu Zn Cl B Fe Mn Molybdneum Assists the plant in nitrogen uptake Cu Functions as an enzyme activator necessary for reactions to occur quicker Zn Enzyme activator component of many different enzyme Mn Enzyme activator component of many different enzymes Cl Important for osmosis and ion balance within clews transported between cells to alter ion balance easy to move this is necessary for oxygen production in photosynthesis involved in splitting oxygen molecules B Component of cell membrane necessary for the replication of nucleic acids Fe Component of chlorophyll What three macro and micronutrients are important for chlorophyll 2 macronutrients are N and Mg The micronutrient is Fe Solution A mixture of 2 or more molecules Solvent The molecule in the greatest quantity of a solution that dissolves other substances and is usually a liquid Solute Present in smaller amounts and is the one that is being dissolved What percent of the plant is water 90 True or false Nearly all chemical reactions occur in water produce water or use water True Conduction The movement of food and water Importance of water Conduction and ow and support for plant organs water molecules are broken so photosynthesis can occur How is water and minerals moved in a plant Xylem How is food carbs and hormones moved in a plant Phloem What is the universal solvent Water Polar molecule Has a positive end and a negative end ls water a polar molecule It has a negative end oxygen and a positive end hydrogen but it is a neutral molecule and exhibits hydrogen bonding Water is cohesive and adhesive it sticks to other polar compounds such as itself and others polar molecules such as cellulose What is the most abundant starch in the world Cellulose Cellulose Major component of plant cell wall What are 3 principles of water and molecule movement Bulk ow diffusion osmosis What is Diffusion The movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to low concentrations along a concentration gradient What is bulk ow The movement of molecules in response to pressure or gravity from high pressure to low pressure What is Osmosis The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane some things can in and out of it until it equal on both sides Do osmosis diffusion and bulk ow use ATP energy No What is transpiration The loss of water vapor though the stomata the leaf due to evaporation though the mesophyll tissue What is the cost plants pay to live on land Transpiration How many gallons of water do corn plants require and how much is lost by transpiration 55 gallons of water and 98 is lost by transpiration and only 2 is used for normal maintenance What are the major functions of the leaf Photosynthesis and transpiration What is the function of guard cells To regulate the stoma by controlling water loss What happens when guard cells are closed They are holding water in What happen when guard cells are open Water is owing out oxygen ows out and C02 ows out too During the daytime C02 is low in the leaf What is it being used for The stomas are closed and water is being lost After C02 leaves what do the guard cells pump K potassium by pumping it in there it requires ATP energy and it changes the solute and water concentration What does turgid mean Swollen Water from the xylem is moved into the guard cells by what process Osmosis What happens when the guard cells swell They open After the guard cells swell and the stoma opens what happens K is pumped out water ows out the guard cells shrink and the stoma closed back What cases water loss Sunlight energy What order is the transpiration stream in Soil water which goes to the root epidermis into the root cortex which goes into the root xylem xylem the conductor of water in the plant which his moved through the plant to the leaf39s mesophyll photosynthesis and then moved into the atmosphere What drives transpiration C A T cohesion water molecules stick together adhesion adheres to cellulose tension pulling of water molecule to water loss by evaporation no ATP is used to pull What is translocation The movement of solutes food and hormones What are the 3 key difference in translocation and transpiration Translocation uses phloem instead of xylem Translocation requires the use of energy and translocation can flow up and down instead ofjust up What two things make up phloem tissue Sieve tube members and companion cells What are sieve tube members The only plant cells that lack a nucleus What are companion cells Cells that unload and load sieve tube members What are the 4 sets of modi ed leaves in an ideal owers Calyx Corolla stamen pistil Calyx Protects unopened bud not photosynthetic Corolla Attracts animals Stamen Androecium or male part that produces stamen Which is the male part androecium or gynoecium Androecium What is the pistol Female part or gynoecium that produces the egg What are androecium and gynoecium referred as Fertile leaves Pedicel peduncle The stalk of the plant Receptacle Where the 4 sets of modi ed leaves pistol stamen corolla and calyx are attached too What parts are diploid 4 sets of modi ed leaves Pedicel receptacle How many anthers are on the stamen 2 pollen chambers with 2 on each chamber What is pollination The transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma Selfpollination Transfer is within the same ower or between owers on the same plant Cross pollination Transfer between owers of different plants increases genetic variation What the 3 main pollinating agents Wind animals water Wind as a pollinating agent pollen grains are extremely small and they are produced massively Animals as pollinating agents most common method as a trickreward like the bees to which are attracted to the nectar color and aroma The bee gets food and plants get pollen moved as bee moves ower to ower passing by the anther picking up pollen and the stigma dropping off pollen Water as a pollinating agent some plants use the current to allow pollen to be carried downstream to the stigma Ovule future seed that is enclosed within the ovary of pistil
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