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Date Created: 09/27/14
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039 mqcom om umltoooomn Emmmmxu Zs m j m Lwmix ltw m YDCC A mtJm W lrk 1 Umltmou3mm umltooomnxUE amp W m 1 d m Lgt mo9 ncmimO6mNmom umltooo9mn 3 cm 2 2p mDMwpu4m W N P a y w 99 2 Ex 1 Q A 0 v y J P umltoomo Umltooom vmum5 4 2 r e C y im T W1 ml mo8 umltooonmsa 4 sLr m Oom vmltnoouwm 4mom 9 k r wL AM 2amp ma 9e323n W ri1m U 3 W m L Qum L Q Km 0 ya x Z p U E SE J ES mwn8 31ampnaTamw pn S E mTT I92 umltooomm6 Uo wmmmmqo daoan p 8 8 m rT ltuo mwH X P p g w f mxgtzrmm go H 0 A mm up 1 W i m 54 B QC P 4 PT W x 0 mg i au53i m yg m T h 0 3 hwy u o Q 41 0 P x L W p an a J n r I I W Oumm2om Umquoto K E rumm m 62 o 6 ltuo mmm 3 m Smmm mgm ltltmlt 4 mxgtltnmmM Q A srosamn cSa 3 kt4g F 0I U as amp wg u PLum f amp W i Z52 rm 1 mF 1153 tam im m2 2 58 on 3 E cAL f 3 z Sm CRK ma E i mmmmmqo ltm onm 5 ilipittfr I Phi History and Stcicticie of Psychtiitagy PS39L l It ilt i3 1quot WU s oti methods to fit i rtot39esor I c rctort The scientitic method employs different type A conduct research Each method has unique advantage3 and disadvantages What method a researcher uses depends on what questions heshe is trying to answer Ail research is based on systematic observation and rules of evidentoe S Descriptive Studies Descriptive Studies tr if hf 1 Case Studyigte4mm mi s P 0 E xx t r7rrr39 i39 i V 6 r G i 0 3 i av 7 S M i 0 39 H L AF ti rt Iii v I L 39quot quot 10 39f tr Wow h m f 39 i 07 9 07 Observational Studies 2 hJquotm 39 r quot N9hr rarii3 ti39c o b orv 33 e G ii 35 3 t i01i 2 a i i 531 f rf 39 if rs r rrr gt ia 139 e1quot 4 o rt i it irv c5s 39 ii i 0x03 TU Obggmirj 397 W itib i 51ri3 I fn J in E 7l3939 ruE J i1 39r quot6 E1 i tr is 3 H 4 fquotitv riJ S l W 1 Z f nr 39 P 3 Tests assessments s x I saggy Standardized UniRaym pr1Muu Pi Ear s y 1 4 q 39Norms s Standard J95 iviojixid Em zia F 35 L3 39Reiabiity quotiSame I Simdiiu was xi Vaiiidiity IS 46amp4 rv1 qSurquotrr5 iuhm 11127 M933U f in SurveySJseIf report ri fkJquot H121 I be 51 Hfhd5 0j arm rzmcldu f it A 1 liLptCt39 I Thi History and Science of Plychology n L tltGYt I00 i l t39ul I i 0l39 Le reton Problems with surveys PP P z X Y PZ l 0 l Z quot Tl l 0 39 Pm quotWvrssJ39quot r 39i ffquot 12 tart i 0Ns Foimt er B39a H403 H 1293 Wv We t Y 39 w Z gm Population and Representative Sample Population who WM Wq 0X sMJ 1 5 Y ff n Y one El quot ayT A U mama mar tL Representative Sample quotgt quot39 U it 4 w W quot uiA errvitr if V 3V is Correlatlonal Method U Correilationz a descriptive method 1 sS U T p 0un quot1 39 i A H 7 quot 1 I en l39 quot ha 3 L I 397 i an Correlation Coiefficieint P S GQ i o J f 3mjp aih a ii i zegiw PAL Q igk ift T39i v I fr Q to jg iigxf quot it 21 M are Lf t W R P i quotquotfquotvquotr V p O 7 if I P K ii Correlation coefficirent can range from 1 L 1 A coqrreiaittion coefficient of zero means H42 i5 NO re gt wr1 M w aJ V inn Hess a L iI i The Histiorynnd ofiitai W e LquotiiLlL u W0 C W 0E 3 1 0 I C39T5 Il 39lBmIun WO as C T C t of Positive and Negative Correlation P Coefficients 39 Let S say we have a Correlation Coefficient of 080 for height and weight What does that number mean AS lira 55 U10 iwr upykl cams 0 P05 CW6 etnoi Perm wt E22 not trm Lets say we have a Correlation Coefficient of 073 for depression and grades What does that number mean AS d ftirfWIOH incmoir39s du neg p S Cautions about Correlations P rejahorsvep mwimtk does rrai 5usiwinaicmad Wutt re W A 3 upwr e Q up dwri O M LuJE J g M 395 O CDVquotquotquot 39 39ld N YCl M amphm EXAMPLES A A e lt comah39m term TV Mite t ADD wwa ltC0yy gfran ice are T esatfsaicgirme gto5 5 3 39v1hgL is p J Mm p F mi wiwz av a dr5e rw H H A r Ggtndamph39 n h M Wquot txpe rl IT 8 H113 5 0F pF G er of 0391 C I e B Mums awest MW C Independent Variable iveraher uavi The W M is cmivviied or manrpwaev Lquotl11ptei39 li lquotliie lolistory and Sciiiejncie 0fPsycl1iol l siquot iF S 1quotL l lDL 0in39 100 T lrquoti39iail i39isior l t Bl I39 ll0l1 0quot TH Tfaw 0ee ilLiiri Dependentlfariable DV J quot lil var fiat is lrW i ii if we rg ii b J b Experimental Group ii 7iiquot 739 Cl lit P l l9 2l if Ciil h b SZ Control Group i Z e eT Y 0 b 0k ii T Kp r 7 Random Assignment it re Rift W564 F1539 Qrr43939fjp f r quoti1ll p X X J W Z an I Placebo a fake treatment or inactive suabstalnce Experimenter Effects i wiser cl l39f5ftrftli7f unmntiim2iTl it T P Z L quoti i P Z r 39farJ li 7 r rm rfTi li 1 i39l Double blind StLidiy J N Hwr H i rfgegzlrgi r lrmr T HAQT gxpcnm hioi cfro pt NM cO U T i5 1 I f 397 ii tS inf flit 1 sf 1 i P R Example of a Formal Experiment Let s say we would like to 5t ueTcfll Tf the elfeicitis of caffeine on study hebiite We have 20 college students who have volunteered to participate in the s tUdTV Werandomly assign 10 students to the experimental group and 10 stuiclents to the control group The experimental group will be given 4 oeffeirie laden beveragesi while the control giroiup is gwein four beverages with no caffeine The J students do not know if they are Qeimngi 3 Caffeine laidiein Tbeiieirage or T3 placebio one with out czalteiirieii The isitiudieints are then pleced in a room to study for one hour while ireeeaiclheiris who do not lmow which smdenit was in which group observe their study h abllIS researchers are mEaSlLll39ll Ig what is being measured l u A lmaiwliiiiir Cm 9 re ii3 i cifquoti TTTT at 9 mug 3 li 0 500 roll l fig J 2 quot1 3 T V3 i it 3 gt v Pitt T T H0 taaira t J 6 H in la Rgmambgr the W lnidependent vTeria ble is what is marilpuleted and the DV dEpE39l diTeln LVaT Tabile 5 b Li i39393al lj quoti m our caffeine and tTlTl1ldly hTalJlts examhplgt ceffeihe is the independent variable heoauise it IS what we researghigrs are mariipiilating Stucly at its IS the dependent variable because it is what the WV riwgit 39 H lTiTTTTT R TIA V 39ti i i llii t tl it l iiiiil quot LquotrIllL 39c k Chiittigt A l iltli lt ll 3 t it it q rt 7 4 p G I if N i t it ii V 1 Q IH ili i39Mr f fFy lA A Ii by p j Ethics in Research with Humans F ieeyclomyytromr coercion cannot force someone to participate in at psych XDBlmell lft 39 tllfolmed C0ns ent the research participant must be aware of any risks that might be involved l also must be aware that they can change their minds and withdraw from the experiment at any time lim ited Dtieceptiyori due to the nature of some studies it is necessary to deceive the research participiants to some clegree Participants must be told everything that is reasonable for them to know before the experirnent takes place The deception cannot involve anything that would sway the y A 11 rye 4 participants to paniciparte i 5quot 7quotquot 5y iquotyi 9quotJquotquot 539 Ft Le te quote set l V0 j quot39i A P They must be f illy debriefed after the experiment is over Ade uate Deiybrlietini participants have the right to know the results of the study Corifidentialit researchers must keep eveirything they learn about the participarits confidential data is reported but not about indiividiialr subjects unless their identity is cronfidentiiral s i 39i quot quot b C rat quot at T Ethics in Research with Animals snare win lhlecetssity the study must be it can tsigniticantly advranrice our M tTpl ll f Knowledge Health aniirnals must be kept in good health HUlml3l7l s s every effort must be made to minimize cliscomfort to the animal surgeries must be perliormecl unc ler anesthesia euthanasia must be painless b l 9 quot3quot iri f Sluplplemeenutlalll Chapter I Info Psychological statisltics l N 7 0 What is a Di tlrlilJutlor1l I k i V E E 0 E i ji p 6 Measures of CentralTendJeLy FT 0 Statistic that ldentifies the central location of sample data GOALlTol find a slngle store that best represleram the entire set of scores Values Tm the middle of the distribution are usually the most representative Mean Median Mode 0 0 Mleanli Sum of scores cllvlded by the number of scoresl also called the axeragyewl Sel lSl1lVE to extl39ern e values Exam eeeleAverage ilncomle surveyed 24 people rl24 l2 people make 325000 a year I2 people malte 40000 a year 255000 X l2 300000 40000 X I2 Z 480000 Mlealn 2 780000I 24 32500 a year Loollt what happens if we lntlude just l extreme acere I2 peeple mallte 25000 1 year l l people make 40000 a year and l perscm malltes l 000000 a year 25000 x l2 3 00oo0 40000 X l2 44aoo00 e l w3939 0 I 00000000 x I luDOOJ1Q Mean l740000l 24 725000 a year t Median and Meade I T T be Store that divides the CllStl lbUtIOl l equally 50 of slccwes belowl the medianl 50 b vel F Mode Scorle that occurs with the greatest frequerlcy M d l 0 lar rJn Iquotquot quot 5 fn 39 39w 1Mmlt l um Mam mqug Madman W Equot Mmgnu I 39f39quotquotm39l1iH 1 If I all iJJwluquot lltK lquotV Median la mldulle a number urn my Jg W gymm ryt dly yybmwnn Il I yquotquotll l39lllC l lIl ml rlw lI ulMllnH p I y 394 i E 71 pl 5 0 1 Wrllftl 4 Pit 1aurttvlV irnibIhty ii A xv H itul iw39 lquot lit clegree to Wl llC39li sozores In 1 distl Ihution are spread out or ClLlSL l E3l logetl391er Ii i ii tlllli R ll e 39 1wrllll k lHwat i b ill lL illll39 l39 7 JlIquot11fill quot 39i it1l ilIIquot39r in RH dip MlHquotut7hU 3 Huuviit ny J T S tand3ard Deviaition SD ezlthe most commonly used measures of viariability SD the average distance frorni the mean Smell SD small variance Large LSD 2 Iargei variance iv Hypothesis Testing i State your hypothesis in 2 alternatives Null Hypothesis T 0 States 1 at them Will be no clnhgt in lllL popiilntinn l y39kill n 39439 iquot i IL y saying that your hypothesis is NOT tW lle nmyVjIU 39i W lmd no u quotllt tquotl tlm e lquot4 no i39ulitiwmlnp between variables fQ Alternative Hypothesis H St1tes that tlnrre Will be 71 tli1imn ill the ptWi wk Wm i W EF J l hypothesis is correctyour W hat an effect l lM Ilquott is 1 trlimm siW me M l1i391 i l l l39llil lll739 H rm llll vnwl eulilint gm nu Sl ImI Ir lquot Eliflliiquotll E3glillaI peopllle ll 1 him llliiiil l a wallalilis ll 1 WAY sIi39inrte2r lhin l Cgllll Hquotquot peoplie l lypDl IE SlS Testing Set the alpha level 4 Prebabiility that the value that we found in our sample is due to chance at 05 there is El 5 chance that the mean we found is due to chancein other words it is most likely NOT due to chance and therefore our hypothesis is true H is true I l Notei in jiourniznl article5 siljpha is noted as p value Example 3 lt 05 lelyppotlhesis Testing 4 Make a dgecisiori based on your sample data are your results likely or unlikely clue to chance Accept er reiect the hull hyPQ tlhi eSls iEximpe i had eachl of you tallte an IQ test with a licensed psyclhelogist and calcullated L1 rnean of yaur lQs Mean lQ for this class 2 I25 Mean for the general popullatilonl I 00 Our mean was here our results are NOT due to chance you really ARE smarter n 3413 3 341335 0 3 mo us no 145 QE2m W wa ltT 2599 L Qmamsnm wmltQQE4 nmm3 mn 0239 N mooolt Q sa m V2mltogm mltm mB uOmm ZTmltom mltmm3 AOZmV dew w AM ml 1 LxE mvmm Tzmiocm mltmw3H 2mgt3 P 5 1 hmult mamp w W h m n rm 14 Eo mSmwo m 2 wm1umTm 2m 4 32 wmn xx mo3mn 2wH4 Fn 3m kw v u H L F x P a h F J4 4 xs P4 gtEoon 2m ltd k i 0 Ti pW 0 x C 75 W Ply 1aJ 1 L T mltlto mc nzsmmozm 3 Em gt3oo 2m nvJC 7 rnu a Lu c L 4 2 31 f f a a H Cl 2 lt f A 3 P 7 1inI J Q Q a tJAh p as 3 U b 5 P kq KV 11 d was ah an A 3 Q r s s V7 r x 1 J X L K W xi i 0 p h Q 0 fU umm 3hmn 2m H P 5 u 1 1 H HiJ4 a M 1 Q 1 rA J P l 0 G I W3 3 x 7 an V J cJL x J a m W 4 r m a x w 0 E j K hi W a u R 25 zmltom mltTmn3 uoEqm lluI wIn IaL in null Pu W TT K u K 0 R g k imrm 7 Q dtmE a wIl IlalI nr ilillllavu I F zmom mnzm3mmm1m zm U 7 A o gt mumo mNma am Em ooacQm 3ocmmm o m gmjgojzm mltmHm3 ma nomm Eqmm 3moa umm a A J paw O p K T wj m p V ampxus W w E e PD 9 H Ti V Pt pY kw suohas 3 gaging K 0 L M Qaznzam E H E A E 3 4 C23 55 4 Q 2 a WnTn mltmUmmsnmyajm E r 3 s Tr D V moEmm my mltmumm x p akiwq f mltmno ltmmommc1gaxw e Na p q W g T x mi kw zmEomm3Emqm m1 P C z9 K 2 Sum TV 3 m K V 7 momgoa mmm m WaH K 5 I05 Zmgozm um A A A L A mama 3mm Y Z arm 9 m1 PM p m5wampm OW 3m o um3mmc1 3m w 0 mmmbDa9E Wx p Z 17 pu Eai 9 Q1 ME 99 Y 36 gt020 u2mwm gKm1u3 H Q tci h 3 15 J P Y H I wnmo 1 g 11 2 Hr T J uaax13 pk 1 E i DS C 1 fmi FR l hJ U J U F T M umnm 2 zmo2wmm k wJ W3ommomm 2 D B 3 3 SN ma sn S gtmw3Qm a amma sQ ampm3amp u 4 H cmw E 7 E rt naamp 1 cr T E y1 TmwnS OTmnmmm no mx 6Elt Swami rI6m 3mHm Eojojmmmfmmj 2 mm oc1MAgEm mm E 5 R q L A u m3supm I I J an f KMKP aw 0Tmmum AoTAA Cmmm 3mOlt ms A 3 My c1wHu Sommwmm Du3 z H1vTVq R w6omm mmH a 5 R K I A amp M Tuom gtmmonmm o mqmmm p V 0 M a Ujmmm Om mm9 vw4 9 A L L P w mx w av E T 1 i 3 4aquot 0 4 B t uampmaMn m mo3mBmmmolt mmm 3 Z JwMZV Qmx q fw N r t a 521 E A L um j PA Mk g r 5 E ism W Q J TmT3om m ocmm M m 0 m3mlt mcn82oomx ltltmo4m mammu mH Q Onnvm oumm 35 ltmm Towo1TmxMcLm L A wm ltEmn wm KN W qdaN eawuA ommum mmummm LrOoom 3oltm3m mza mmm m oz ouuomm mamm 3 Em 83 n x M2 p x y i T Oopm omom rZmltm wmm oozzwozsa go m3mummm LmTmnmMm 23m2o mag mlto8Nmm molt2 Wum2ltmm m3mtjmqmm rmmm2 mtmomNmo w Po W V 1 p o v 0Hr v Tltf t Daru Pn o r 5t 5t 5t 25 cF he 4 3 5 s 4 Pn A T r 212 f R 1 3 f wmHgt ltwnmmmTu w T h X3 u N ax a m o p 3d iEi wt E NM n 9 a 7 z n F 1 l quotta l pilptcr 2 Biology of Mind Chapter 4 Genetics up n quotU A p5139i tilOGY 100 V M Lpml gigs irnj 39114 CM tvwli G 39LW J pmfessor LeBreton if quot e quot The Cerebral Hemispheres Handedness 5 Brain di erences suggest hemispheric specialization and development f handedness is related o 83 of population is right handed 0 14 of population 0 leftahandecl o 3 is ambidextrous L LEFTHANDERS p Corpus eallosum is l l larger awilaar 2 p t l 25 million more nerve fibers Two sides of brain are less specialized Higher rates of learning disabilities and mental disorders 5 l Less lrangtuage loss when injured and more llkelyto recover L Artists musigcians and political leaders more likely left handfe d QOQOOQ Plasticity F ifl Q P 7 or lir21quott lrt lr 3 quot7 39 7 39 39394 1 T 0v WI girl 5 r 7 A Gender Differences in the Brain at tiny differences Men have more neural connections in right hemisphere o May explain superior ability spatial tasks to Women have more neural connections in emotional centers or May explain superior ability to perceivfe emotions Navigational lilnforrnation Kquot Women use right parietal cortex and right frontal cortex r U o lvlen use left hitpvploearntpus p J P it Sound Processing t 9 Both use different areas to process location of sound 3 Men CAN tune you out Women hear feverythingl V Weir 3w rfkj CiF V our W K are p5 is if Umhw 4 am Swan 9055 9 tquot I t 3 A 1 at quoti jA1 Vd3 J ii l Ut3l1tiCS t linptc r 2 Biuliogji of M llquotlL L39l1iptir l39 SY ll lt0irY ltitl P l L I l39r i s iH L II lcBrcton Chapter 4 Genetics Nature vs Nurture Thorriedike in the actual race of ifet Watson Give me a dozen healthy infantsl ll guarantee to take and train him to become any type of specialist l might selectrega penchants tendencies a bilitiesand race of ancestorsquot he chief determining factor is heredity any one at random rdless of his talents 1 E l a A u i J J FL K I or I I C 3 Q It 339 Truth is in between but not necessarily in the midd s to one degree or another Nature and Nurture account for alrnost all human trait Genetics G i M C 1 P7 l Fit r 7 P Z enes quotl P A ll quot rquot 0 9 Ur 9 P J alJ 6 7rquotquot L TQ ff 5 m 3 k F i r NfJ amprsij M I N quotquot39 R n W P l i a Pairs of chroimosorneisf P S 9 Dominant Dominant sr if at Dominant Recessisve A 1 i Recesswe Recessrive p J V1 E7 J I I is V I W V H 8 M i 1 T I F ii 0 s E5 f l 3 J u Caution most human traits are ihfiuen p o i F iced by moretnan one gene Behavioral Genetics E i y8 P P 5 I K A D L quot H i Our 6 J3 V 1fa m 3 PK 39Herlita oi lito p i p l 33939 VMAQ l quot l p0 A v 6 r 9 3 b4wDii rj U is M J is 1 V I f V I x r i Eit ii ifn 9 wig Pa if A in M 3 Iliiilngayjlrt Mind Chapter 4 Genetics it it ill um llU miii liBrclon Twin Studies and Adoption Studies ivlilfrnxliiir i0l11r lJ6i4 lJli y V M 3 Twin Studies Monozygotic TwiniSEjy111J39 lm T H ii iififrw an J2 Fir 2 Dizygotic Twins yquot39r lr39 ll i7 iVl T7 t Ea rna if Vquot O i If i If s ii I 91 lt39fiVJ Adoption Studies H A Compare correlations of traits of the adopted children with their biological sparerits and their adopteol parents If correlation is higher with the biological parents it suggests heritability iileight vs Table mariners in ll 49 W E i iltll fi 1 P iii n i 5 quotf 39 i F i r T 0 ax 0 l Intelligence W rm i 3A fnquotifai3 I I lnherited L i I J r b 5quot VA 3 quot39 p quot f W o Correlation ratesiifor lntelligencerz p Ivlonozygotic twins quot 39 l lvi Dizygotic twins f 4 Siblings p M Unrelatecl 1 39 it O quot3 Shows STRONG genetic link Schizophrenia nheritedffl39li KJi m ri iiA t i I33 quoti 39ii p A 0 Correlation rates for SChiZ0p3hreinia r quotquotiquotquot Q Uquotquot lquotT K squot 39 hr var 5 n V W W 7 I Chipitei39 2 Biology 01quot iMinti ChapteI 4 GBHWCS l S t C HOL0GY i00 i mt39ssuriLeBretoin I 0 L M 1 to Mono Zyg0tictwiins 3 ii P w Dizygotic twinsi Siblings 0 0L 4iJ39397 e 1 A T quott v quot 1 J 0i i7F t39it i39quot39L 5 5 A i J H iv 439 P y i k i 0f rev 5Itshows a definite genetic link for s chizop hrenia Homosexuality A A J Inherited i ii I i i P A i i quot39 Identical Twin Maleszfi F 39 5 i i Fraternal D Nlales H R p p p w J a i J W quot7 ix39iquot 939 71 l i 39 Unrelated Mates raised in same house P Shows a definite genetic link iPsyvchoiogicaI Disorders Linked to Genetics W i i I I1 Ii 7 NV y r r J2 rs H WU Woikrssor Lci rcign quot 393 quotA ilgt Qhlldhood CDl il lIL ti2 Play llehiivior J 2 yezirs 0 6 gam i mi 2 Zrwrsi P ra ei Phil s I iquot rem A o 39 f F 7 i MVt39 P3 1 1 g L L hlzldren act In isefvlg pied U l s Li lll iHl this slaggc gm nds F Y 1 Growth and Development Continued 39 Middle Childhood 71 I ieiai s pC 4 Z 1ri1mih 0k siiowe139 hut eominu Fonnal cduieatiion hedging Soociz1LDeMib5rI the end of this stage peeirs are becoming very important iwosi friemjships are SELWE SEEK ed iinprmfeiiieiit in strength and coordination Adolescent Dievehmment Rapid physiieai growth amid Change Peers become almost more iiiiporizini than parents End of adioiesceince is unclear Adiiitliood only begins when estabiis and adult work patterns hed adult relationships 39 Adolescent Dev C111 iI 1UECi1 se Puberty o L L ii is ir M a T F r F I D i w 339 quot 339 quotquot w 1 J In 6 p 4 3 K 39llm v N iquot Tquot 139 If A Primary Sexual Charaeterisities ijji ijls ovuiatioii anddnenstruatioii Menarche 1 iiieiistiruai period 12 yrs 6 months Boys p1 0dUC i1Un ot sperm cells 14 mars Physiieai changes lead to iI39lCl EaSECi interest in sex and sexual desire y s i a v s i P k M f I ii quot W or I i39 iii 1 3 i W 5 i A o p quot9 Lihu 1 ii ii 05 h e Jior W Va El II S 3 L i i 39i f 3 Adoiesce1i1Dev Continued Secondary Sex Characteristics 9 G1IquotiS2 CiL39A Lnfiii tl ifi39 5 3iiA 13JF I f W7qi1 39 C 51 mmMfl hrSiai airixmairiie M W35 mmrg frl 99 M i ipf 5 iii jiiiii iyST 3i5 1Wquot5 z J 3i C514dP6 A r i L Faa Ioiiaz kwii s p N W ox oiwb A 39 45 g Y s Jr undo am L 2 T A A aAmrAAA b t AAA AA CAA A TAAAA 1 p A A A AHA AA AAAAAA A AA A A A we 1 r 4 A A A r AAA AZ AZAATA AAA A 7 A AA 3 Z AAAAAFE ArAAAn A A A AA 0 AA3AE ArAAAAAAA A A A A 0 AA t AA A AAA AAiALAAAA A m A A A A Pm AA A AAA 7 aAAAAAAA wAAAAHAAAAAAAAAAA AAA p r A AALAI r P A Ar AAAAu 3 Z A 3 A AAAAAAAAAA TmmT 7A A A AA AA A A AA A A A A A AA W AA A A A An f A A An AAAA AAtAnAAmAAA AAAAAAAAAaAnW AC A AAwA AAAAAAAuA 15 AAewm ACAAw S 73 fAAAAA AAfAAAmA ArAA1 A wAA Emma A2503 3AA U xiomzdwa A A A NC A at Ar1 Pin fA g T AA TWH AAAAA AAAr A nAAEAAAAAM AmAAAA A AAAAAAAA AAAAA AAAAAAAAmAAAsAAAA 0 AAAAA AAAAA cA AA En EAAn 3 AAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAA AA p p A A A u A A y 0 A amp A AJArAAAAAA 7 An AMA Z 2 AA A Aa S E xA mm AAm mmgw mm AAAAAA P AAJAdA M593 1 A AcAAA AAAAAAAerAAAA A A A A A P fA 0 AAnAmuEu mama A AAAAAAJAA urA AA AA AA A A A AA A A AA A AA w rAAA A A A A E AA F A 0j 85 mmAAnAmEQom WA EmEQ 355 AnmHB3AA HEB EAAAAAAAm 303 mE2 2mom B 3m N Am A 2 AA AAAAAA AAAAAMAuE w war Q1 A9AAAAALAAAAAAA R AwmAAAAHAA Em mAwoAu3AmAom nEEAm wmz 93 533 cgm m mam mltmAA 9 Boos HA mltw mam P o5AAm AAAam L mEmmAAEEm mm mAlt3 I AEmmEmo Wm ltm3 mosltm E 5 Am mn A AAA A A L A 1 5 AA A A A 3 A AmAmam5AmAEHA m EAmoQAmAoamp 35 mm no A Oo2m8O Aum aA magma 0 my m pS 0t P xi A P W A AA AA a 27 lS 39l39 ll39ll39l l l t IlquotLmur lL l39lfLquot lUl1 hen put in different sized 39 14 Ir t 5 jquot P can reverse ctli filll m e dmPlL 7 I um t39 H 39 397 I quot391 I V V U P id I tim1 abilny to reeotgnm that VOlUITl rel 81 and shaped containers 9 can be reversed NJ hanged even W gr W quottlquottquotquot t g 3 Formal Operational Stage llwl J F0 J 1 4 gm 1 c lquot r ii to ill 9 lL lquotl39 ldf lllEl i 53 W quot I 39 Ll llquot iv Aggiolegge rgw igoeelntrism believing that they are the focus oat everyone s attention lself consciousness stems from this g T W A U8 wlggg imii egfgi belie yerything they do and that others are thinlraing of them Li glger gr1g1llgbl5i intense investment in their own though experienced what they are going through if that everyone is watching e ts believing that no one else has ever Cr1t1que of P1agetquots Theory bilities One studied showed that hize with other children influences on development because these were Some believe that Piaget underestimated ehildren s ta infants can imitate facial expressions and that toddlers can sometirnes synipat Some believed that he underestirnated genetic and cultural ER not well understood in his time 3 Piagetfs theory is respecte develotprnental psychology d and influential It has generated countless tayenues for research in Erilsons Psychosocial Stages LE1 1zrhtdrmy 3 Jdu Its t 3 Trustt Versus Mistrust jl xjtri 0 as 3 ll r p to alyla w t fl r lo Vt tr p 02 p0 Y t qY J l V l g 37 I iejquotquot 3 Q J Ml S H t l s p M to quotJ 39l v quot139 Autonomy Versus Shame and Douht quotfL W5 A P L l y 0 at yo ti 1t rJtiVt ft gry5gja JW W 7 g M W X W H E 3 g f X it o in39 I i I t 1 t39quot ijquot llquot7 tquot39 quottrquottt lf h L 3f lMl at Kt Iv 43rliquot 7 l at y r r 3 l hi J W WU K J6 mil tie W7 e K ll riim P i la la Ll9 l t 439WM it MW BY iv Initiative Versus Guilt fiielpiV mdw mm id l W l i quot V Y rquott lquot 7 iquotW l 1 tftih r 3lnlJ tri I or i l J K s in d dqyw y JV gown Jed 0V aware 2 S ti 6 SV Wt yg quot391lFt ll quotttr tafquot l lz39rquot39quot llal Y lL Ll krill e P Jlrf l P4 tr ll21 l lm f l l lrt amy eta hfl 3r quottmi 9t9ll W lmlill Vi 39 W W i if M c 5 h L t A r gt1 P D Pq 7 e 39239 Identity Versus Rule Cdhfusionll llZ0 D6 jp5 t39L quot lttlt li39l t l t St39L7I quot llteBretun sb Irnlustry Versus lnferioritv U3 2 Eff f s 1 W Moll lea rm 7quot l ll M 4 es 6 wlue F if d nl l Cr tj 1 Intimacy Versus Isolation t w39 tr W l l l J V M llltizaattt Y it H l fig ll Z 1 4 lGenerativity Versus Stagnatien 1 P Y as w quot A if 2 J S 8 Viv H nS r ti 7 9 2Z 1 a 5 E J l Jolt ll quot r C3l t i ll 1 1 39 9 1 39 pk pk pk m6 m6 m6 X l F P U 39 4 Ego Integrity Versus Despair in g l 5l V any p U A l quotll I tlla l i6 hi s4 rad p i i l sinquotl V l Q l 5 5 2 H Critique of Erillts0n s Stages Some believe that Erikserfs stages are limiteda that it is the dillleult to put an entire lifetime into stages The psychosocial stages do not explain how penple earn gm hacl in an t2LlI39llLquotl Slilgt tlliklt 1 Sit jcear old having an identity crisis Also the stages assumes that CVt39l39yUltI gnes in the same lmler at 139elt1tixel the same time in life T z P t In ine E1riks0n s stare them extremel t n1lquotluuntu1l l his is tlw Inst tl1rtm39 to emttttme thmu p the s y 3 A A T E lifespan and include adulthood and old age It IS mttutwely easy In LlI1LlL I 2lLll1Ll and tatppltly to ynttrl own lite gt 5 s p E E 7 V 0 Death and Dying The nal stage of development Older adults think about death more often than ytuItger adultst 39 Older adults tend to be less l39rightened hy death than ares ynttnger adults 1 memo EgtTo H59 E 5 u og wEm5 moa Ta E 050 838 mgtBo2 EU 0 83 MB mgt2 m E Joni 3 mTOZ 2 ooamoz Emu u w uzw mace m5T E E Eamp E0 3mEEmM mgtEo Fzoucma E on a 3 PE 33 omo S Emu muToE Em docm zm oETooT mTEgto T T vmU Aagtmmn 2 2150 Em QED uuETTmTo T No30 W0 cosms m 05 gtgt mumTmTo S 03 r c com6m 2TnmgtE wTm5wmm TmWm w ampE 3nTmToow gs mowzm Qmcc omn me hmoT ommma 2 TBuT mu wawu m T T A T TquotTTwTTTHT aT4w E w m T T T Exp uwEwmm m Tw Trx hnwT 6 Y 6 PU T 3 T K L o T TT E A J 0 P T T ampltqgTTWmAw mwTmqm TTTTampT mT Tx T xTTT Cotw TB woznam To m E 3 w R V T cms efv mmTom5v ao mzm rs T5 5 E5 55 U8 boat a 8 c HT T TT Ty P T T T T T T 4 T TT T TT mosom oTn E3 uaoa mEwmm 1 A r T Tww 3 Eu uamm m ms ugtm 2 8 hm yea musutumxo u oum m2moEaTZ I Hmm 8 Emuw Emm maomm ms mzmm u T f TT 3 j wE Sun T ToTT2m3 Hommup oi 2 ugtm aws 3 m 3 wEgtm E55 any
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