Principles of Genetics Notes, Exam 1
Principles of Genetics Notes, Exam 1 BIO 198
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ann Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 198 at University of Rochester taught by SIA E in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS in Biology at University of Rochester.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Chapter 1 Genes the physical units of heredity that are composed of defined DNA sequences that collectively control transcription and contain the info to produce RNA molecules Chromosomes single long molecules of double stranded DNA that in plants and animals are bound by many different kinds of protein that give them their structure and can affect the transcription of the genes they carry 0 homologous pairshomologs pairs that sexually reproducing organisms chromosomes tend to occur in Homologs have the same genes but typically have different alleles of the same gene Haploids used to describe something that only has one copy of each gene 0 ex Bacteria and archaea Nucleoid localized region in bacteria cells that are meant for their chromosomes since they do not have a nucleus 0 archaea species can have similar chromosome organization to either bacterial or eukaryotic cells 0 Diploid when the eukaryotic genome contains two copies homologs of each gene 0 Polyploidy used to describe the genome composition of species that contain more than two copies of each chromosome 0 ex plants Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain genetic material each carries one or more copies of its own chromosome 0 have evolutionary history of their ancient parasitic selves developing an endosymbiotic relationship with their eukaryotic hosts Cytoplasmic inheritance used to identify the random distribution of mitochondria and chloroplasts among daughter cells 0 Mitosis cell division process that produces genetically identical daughter cells 0 Meiosis cell division process that produces reproductive or sex cells gametes o gametes of diploid species are haploid and contain one chromosome from each of the homologous pairs of chromosomes in the genome 0 union of haploid gametes during fertilization produces a diploid fertilized egg that begins mitotic division to produce the zygote Phenotype observable traits of an organism Genotype genetic constitution of an organism Alleles alternative forms of a gene LUCA Last Universal Common Ancestor all life on Earth share a common origin 0 All life descended from a common ancestor and is divided in three major domains Eukarya Bacteria and Archaea derived from the research of Carl Woese and his colleagues in the mid 19703 derived it from evolutionary theory that closely related species will have more similarity in their rRNA sequences than will species that are less closely related DNA the hereditary materialmolecular substance that conveys and stores genetic information in all organisms o certain viruses use RNA as their hereditary material causes biologists to argue that viruses are not alive 0 In living organisms DNA has a double helix structure aka DNA duplex All organisms express their genetic info by a two step process 0 1 transcription process in which one strand of DNA is used to direct the synthesis of RNA 0 2 translation produce protein structures Modern genetics has three major branches 0 transmission geneticsMendelian genetics study of transmission of traits and characteristics in successive generations 0 Evolutionary genetics study the origins of and genetic relationships bw organisms and examines the evolution of genes and genomes 0 Molecular genetics study inheritance and variation in nucleic acids DNA and RNA proteins and genomes The understanding of DNA was key to two fundamental areas of inquiry o How DNA carried the diverse collection of genetic info present in all living organisms o How it replicated 1950s James Watson and Francis Crick solved the puzzle of DNA structure 0 Rosalind Franklin was one of the principle sources of info used by Watson and Crick used X ray diffraction imagery to examine the crystal structure of DNA 0 Used info from Franklin and EnNin Chargaff to devise their DNA model Chargaff s Rule percentages of A and T where approx equal to one another and the percentages of C and G were equal to one another as well 0 hypothesized that DNA nucleotides are arranged in complementary base pairs DNA nucleotides are made up of three principle components 0 5 C deoxyribose sugar 0 a phosphate group 0 one nitrogen containing nucleotide base ATGC These nucleotides are linked together by a covalent phosphodiester bond between 5 phosphate and 3 hydroxyl nucleotide bases are hydrophobic hydrogen bonds form bw the the complementary base pairs Complementary strands of DNA are antiparallel the polarities of the complementary strands run in opposite directions 5 to 3 and 3 to 5 0 replicates through a semiconservative mechanism semiconservative bc each new duplex strand is composed of one parental strand and one daughter strand 0 DNA strands elongate only in the 5 to 3 direction 0 Central dogma of Biology statement describing the flow of hereditary info 0 Two important categories of RNA that are NOT translated o rRNA makes up part of the ribosomes o tRNA carries amino acids to ribosomes 0 reverse transcription used by retroviruses 0 Template strand DNA strand from which the transcript is synthesized 0 RNA polymerase pairs templatestrand nucleotides with complementary RNA nucleotides to make new transcript in the 5 to 3 direction 0 Coding strand the complementary partner of the DNA template strand 0 RNA 0 ribose sugar 0 phosphate group 0 one of four nitrogenous bases AUCG Transcription process in which the enzyme RNA polymerase uses the template strand of DNA to synthesize RNA transcripts o promoters most common kind of DNA sequences that control transcription recognized by RNA polymerase and direct them to a gene are not transcribed 0 ends at the termination sequences Nearly all eukaryotic genes are divided into exons and introns junk DNA 0 Bacterial genes and some archaeal genes are suspected to have introns Removal of introns in euk mRNA and other mods before translation happen in the nucleus Translation process where the genetic message of mRNA is converted to amino acids 0 amino acids joined together by peptide bonds covalent make up all or part of a protein 0 occurs at ribosomes sets of three nucleotides codons specify the amino acid at each position of a polypeptide 0 begins with the mRNA attaching to ribosome in a manner that places the start codon in the proper location start codon read by ribosome in 5 to 3 direction 0 tRNA carry the anticodon o Ribosomal proteins catalyze the peptide bond formation 0 translation continues until stop codon genetic code mRNA codons specify amino acids 0 contains 64 codons 61 gt amino acids 3 gt stop codons Genomics the field that focuses on the sequencing interpretation and comparison of genomes of different organisms Genome sizes are usually identified in terms of megabases Mb where 1 Mb equals to 1 million base pairs Human Genome Project was completed in 200 o 45 transposable genetic elements 0 26 noncoding introns o 15 protein coding exons Transcriptomics the study of transcriptomes gt the complete set of genes that undergo transcription in a given cell 0 Metabolomics the study of chemical processes involving metabolites o proteomics the study of the proteome gt the complete set of proteins encoded in a genome o methodology for examining large numbers of proteins at once systems biology focused on contributing to the comprehensive understanding of complex biological systems 0 Richard Dawkins evolutionary biologist that stated that life is a river of DNA flowing and branching through geologic timequot 0 Theory of evolution all organisms are related by common ancestry and have diversified over time 0 proposed by both Charles DanNin and Alfred Wallace independently in the late 1850s 0 DanNin s principles of populations 0 Variation exists among the individual members of pop with regard to the expression of traits o Hereditary transmission allows the variation in traits to be passed from one generation to the next 0 Certain variant forms of traits 2 higher survival rates 2 more survivors more offspring of those survivors 2 increase in the frequency of that variant form in the population 0 Progressive phenotypic changes in a population is paralleled by genetic changes 0 Biologists identify four processes of evolution 0 natural selection 0 migration 0 mutation 0 genetic drift the random change of allele frequencies due to chance in randomly mating populations 0 Modern synthesis of evolution gt name for evolutionary theory with results from experimental mathematical and molecular pop biology o Evolutionary biologists study evolution through morphological and molecular evolution of populations and organisms o similarities and differences can be depicted in phylogenetic tree Phylogenetic tree branching diagram that shows the ancestor descendant relationships among species and other taxa ex tree of life Construction cladistic approach sorts species into cladesmonophyletic groups based on shared derived characteristics or synaptomorphies The Phenetic amp Cladistic criteria of relationship differ if evolutionary rates are unequal Lizard Crocodile Bird Phenetic Clad iS tiC Elirde h eve evclved quickly E since their divergence I from CI39IIICIZIIIiiIE39S C quota E Crocod e synaptomorphies occur through homology gt the presence of the trait or nucleic acid sequence in a common ancestor homoplasmy convergent evolution leads to unrelated organisms showing similarlooking traits paraphyletic group branch of phylogenetic tree missing a particular trait or sequence include some of the descendants of a single common ancestor occur when one lineage loses a trait retained by descendants or when one lineage develops a new trait not found in other descendants of the common ancestor Morphologic characteristics Backbone Four Fur Live legs mllk young 5 Taxon 8 Human g 5 Q E a Gorilla E T5 U E g Wolf U U U 8 E U 4 g Kangaroo 5 E 2 39 g g 39 U Platypus cu 5 39 gt U Crocodile Salmon 0 outgroup taxon or group of taxa related to but not included within the clade in question 0 ingroup species within the clade of interest 0 phylogenetic trees based on molecular characteristics are constructed the same manner as those based on morphological characteristics Chapter 2 0 transmission genetics aka Mendelian genetics studies and describes the patterns of how genes and traits are transmitted from parents to offspring o Mendel s Modern Approach o superior insight data gathering techniques allowed for Mendel to be able to make hypotheses which explained his data 0 fortuitous choice selection of pea plants easy for a skilled botanist to manipulate and crossbreed 0 Experiments were done to test blending theory the characteristics of the progeny are mixtures of the traits of the parents basically characteristics of progeny were split 5050 between the traits of the parents ex black cat white cat grey cat 0 Mendel s experiments were ahead of his time because they were based on proving whether a hypothesis was right or not aka the scientific method quot 0 five features that distinguished Mendel s breeding experiment controlled crosses bw plants use of pure breeding strains to begin the controlled crosses experiments choosing of dichotomous traits quantifying results use of replicate reciprocal and test crosses o Controlled crosses bw plants 0 pea plants contain both ovule and anther gt self fertilization o Pea plants are also capable of cross pollination pollen from one plant used to fertilize the ovules of another Mendel used artificial cross fertilization now known as controlled genetic cross 0 pure breeding strainstrue breeding strains strains that consistently produce the same phenotype o P generation parental generation gt F1 generation first filial generation gt F2 generation second filial generation gt F3 gt etc o Replicate Reciprocal and Test Cross Analysis 0 Replicate crosses repetition of the same cross several times in order to produce several thousand copies of the same F1 F2 F3 generation 0 reciprocal crosses same genotypes are crossed but the sexes of the donating parents are switched ex plant providing egg in 1st cross is used for pollen in the reciprocal cross 0 Test cross used to find the genotype of one of the parents the one with an unknown genotype crossed between one unknown and one known
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