study guide test #2
study guide test #2 PSY 110
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alex coffman on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 110 at Illinois State University taught by Cathleen Campbell-Raufer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 2 CHAPTER 5 Classical conditioning eg extinction higherorder conditioning generalization US UR CS CR Classical conditioning A type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another Extinction in classical conditioning the weakening and eventual disappearance of the conditioned response as a result of repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus without the unconditional stimulus Higherorder conditioning conditioning that occurs when conditioned stimulus are linked together to form a series of signals Unconditioned response a response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus without prior learning Unconditioned stimulus a stimulus that elicits a specific unconditioned response without prior learning Conditioned stimulus a neutral stimulus that after repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus becomes associated with it and elicits a conditioned response Conditioned response the learned response that comes to be elicited by conditioned stimulus as a result of its repeated pairing with an unconditioned stimulus Generalization in classical conditioning the tendency to make a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus Learned classicallyconditioned taste aversions Taste aversion the intense dislike and or avoidance of a particular food that has been associated with nausea or discomfort Ex If you ve ever thrown up after eating a certain food with a very distinctive taste or smell weeks afterward the smell alone can cause a wave of nausea Shaping an operant conditioning technique that consists of gradually molding a desired behaviorresponse be reinforcing any movement in the direction of the desired response thereby gradually guiding the response toward the ultimate goal Positive vs negative reinforcement any event that follows a response and strengthens or increases the probability that the response will be repeated any pleasant or desirable consequence that follows a response The termination of an unpleasant condition after a response which increases the probability that the response will be repeated Positive vs negative punishment the removal of a pleasant stimulus or the application of an unpleasant stimulus thereby lowering the probability of a response a decrease in behavior that results from an added consequence a decrease in behavior that results from a removed consequence Learned helplessness a passive resignation to aversive conditions that is learned through repeated exposure to inescapable or unavoidable aversive events Operant conditioning a type of learning in which the consequences of behavior are manipulated so as to increase or decrease the frequency of an existing response or to shape an entirely new response Watson amp Rayner s 1920 Little Albert amp the White Rat experiment wanted to prove that fear can be classically conditioned 11month old albert showed fear when a hammer would strike a steal bar near his head As albert would reach for the white rat Watson would strike the hammer this was done many times By the end albert was scared at the sight of a white rat alone and would cry Five days later the fear generalized and after 30 days the fear was less intense but still there Watsons conclusion conditioned fears persist and modify personality throughout lifequot Schedules of reinforcement a systematic process for administering reinforcement Fixedratio a reinforcer is given after a fixed number of correct nonreinforced responses Variableratio a reinforcer is given after a varying number of nonreinforced responses based on an average ratio Partial reinforcement effect the typical outcome of a variable ratio of reinforcement in which a slow rate of initial learning is coupled with resistance to extinction Fixedinterval reinforcer is given following the first correct response after a specific period of time has elapsed Variableinterval a reinforcer is given after the first correct response that follows a varying time of nonreinforcement based on an average time Bandura s Bobo Doll experiments Bandura thought that aggression and violence on television programs and cartoons increase aggressive behavior in kids Bobo doll 3 groups of preschoolers one group watched an adult punching kicking and hitting a 5foot in ated bobo doll with a mallet while saying aggressive phrases imitated aggressive behavior and nonimitative agression the second group watched a nonaggressive model who ignored the doll and sat quietly showed less aggressive behavior the third group control were placed in the same setting with no adults later this study was shown as a video and the groups exposed to the aggressive behavior CHAPTER 6 Information processing theory a framework for studying memory that uses the computer as a model of human cognitive processes Atkinson amp Shiffrin s information processing model of memory Their model is the three memory systems The three memory systems sensory memory the memory system that holds information from the senses for a period ranging from only a fraction of a second to about 2 seconds short term memory the component of the memory system that holds about 7 items for less than 30 seconds without rehearsal also called working memory long term memory the memory system with a virtually unlimited capacity that contains vast stores of a person s permanent or relatively permanent memories The three memory processes Encoding the process of transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory Storage the process of keeping or maintaining information in memory Retrieval the process of bringing mind information that has been stored in memory Chunking a memory strategy that involves grouping or organizing bits of information into larger units which are easier to remember The levelsofprocessing model the memory model That describes maintenance rehearsal as shallow processing and elaborative rehearsal as deep processing Ways to test memory Tests with remembering what was seen trying to memorize zip codes or other codes and seeing if you can remember reading an article and answering questions about it Contextdependent memory the tendency to encode elements of the physical setting in which information is learned along with memory of the information itself Statedependent memory the tendency to recall information better if one is in the same pharmacological or physiological state as when the information was encoded Memory as reconstruction Reconstruction an account of an event that has been pieced together from a few highlights Autobiographical memories recollections that a person includes in an account of the events of his or her own life Ebbinghaus research His studies were with 2300 nonsense syllables for his material and himself as the participant He would memorize random syllableselj bhyetc by repeating them over and over at a constant rate of 25 syllables per second He repeated a list until he could recall it twice without error he called this mastery He recorded the time or trials it took to do this and then when he would forget he would record the amount of time or trials it took to relearn He compared the relearned trials with the original and found out the time saved Curve of forgetting the pattern of forgetting which shows that forgetting tapers off after a period of rapid information loss that immediately follows learning Memory failures encoding decay retrieval two kinds of interference Encoding failure cause of forgetting that occurs when information was never put into long term memory Decay theory the oldest theory of forgetting which holds that memories if not used fade with time and ultimately disappear altogether Interference cause of forgetting that occurs because information or associations stored either before or after a given memory hinder the ability to remember it Proactive information or experiences already stored in long term memory hinder he ability to remember newer information Retroactive new learning interferes with the ability to remember previously learned information Retrieval failure not remembering something one is certain of knowing Longterm potentiation blocking an increase in the efficiency of neutral transmission at the synapses that lasts for hours or longer Does not happen unless the sending neurons and he receiving neurons are activated at the same time by intense stimulation Amnesia a partial or complete loss of consciousness brain damage or some psychological cause Retrograde a loss of memory for experiences that occurred shortly before a loss of consciousness Anterograde inability to form long term memories of events occurring after a brain injury or brain surgery although memories formed before the trauma are usually intact and short term memory is unaffected Dementia a state of mental deterioration characterized by impaired memory and intellect and by altered personality and behavior Infantile amnesia the relative inability of older children and adults to recall events from the first few years of life Maintenance rehearsal repeating information over and over again until it is no longer needed may eventually lead to storage of information in long term memory Elaborative rehearsal a memory strategy that involves relating new information to something that is already known The two serial position effects Primacy effect the tendency to recall the first items in a sequence more readily than he middle items Recency effect the tendency to recall the last items in a sequence more readily than those in the middle The misinformation effect erroneous recollections of witnessed events that result from information learned after the fact The DOOR method of remembering Getting information out of memory requires little more than opening the door to a mental closet and pulling out a needed item CHAPTER 7 Concept a mental category used to represent a class or group of objects people organizations events situations or relations that share common characteristics or attributes Formal concept a concept that is clearly defined by a set of rules a formal definition or a classification system Natural concept a concept acquired not from a definition but through everyday perceptions and experiences Heuristics analogy meansend Heuristic a rule of thumb that is derived from experience and used in decision making and problem solving even though there is no guarantee of its accuracy or usefulness Analogy heuristic a rule of thumb that applies a solution that solved a problem in the past to a current problem that shares many features with the past problem Meansend analysis a heuristic strategy in which the current position is compared with the desired goal and a series of steps are formulated and taken to close the gap between them How algorithms differ from heuristics Algorithm a systematic step by step procedure such as a mathematical formula that guarantees a solution to a problem of a certain type if applied appropriately and executed properly Algorithm will always have a solution to a problem while heuristic may have a solution but it may not be useful or good Functional fixedness the failure to use familiar objects in novel ways to solve problems because of a tendency to view objects only in terms of their customary functions Mental set the tendency to apply a familiar strategy to the solution of a problem without carefully considering the special requirements of that problem Confirmation bias selective attention to information that confirm preexisting beliefs about the best way to solve a problem Artificial intelligence the programming of computer systems to stimulate human thinking in solving problems and in making judgments and decisions Artificial neural networks computer systems that are intended to mimic human cognitive functioning The five components of language Phonemes the smallest units of sound in a spoken language Morphemes the smallest units of meaning in language Syntax the aspect of grammar that specifies the rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases and sentences Semantics the meaning or the study of meaning derived from morphemes words and sentences Pragmatics the patterns of intonation and social roles associated with a language How different species communicate with each other amp with humans In one experiment a chimp was taught 160 sign language words Sea mammals apparently communicate with a system of grunts whistles clicks and other sounds Dolphins are trained with hand signals by humans Parrots can mimic human language and they can recognize shapes objects and colors The linguisticrelativity hypothesis the notion that the language a person speaks largely determines the nature of that person s thoughts G factor spearman s term for a general intellectual ability that underlies all mental operations to some degree vs 5 factor specific intellectual abilities Achievement tests a measure of what a person has learned up to a certain point in his her life Aptitude tests a test that predicts future performance in a particular setting or on a specific task Test standardization establishing norms for comparing the scores of people who will take a test in the future administering tests using a prescribed procedure Reliability the ability of a test to yield nearly the same score when the same people are tested and then retested on the same or an alternative form of the test vs validity the ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure The StanfordBinet Intelligence Scale This used mental age to determine if children were bright or had an intellectual disability binet compared children s mental and chronological ages First test to make use of the Intelligence quotient an index of intelligence originally derived by dividing mental age by chronological age and then multiplying by 100 but now derived by comparing an individuals score with the scores of others of the same age The IQ formula mental age divided by chronological age multiplied by 100 What an average IQ is 100 The standard normal bellshaped curve large populations are measured on intelligence or physical characteristics such as height and weight the frequencies of the various scores usually conform to a bell shaped distribution Terman s study of the gifted geniuses 1528 gifted students were selected and measured at different ages throughout their lives Almost all of his gifted students excelled in intellectual physical emotional moral and social categories They also had better mental health than the general population Developmental disability IQ amp incidence intellectual disability condition in which an individual has scores below 70 on a standardized intelligence test and displays adaptive functioning significantly below that of others of the same age Galton s views on intelligence Started the Nurturenature debate He concluded that intelligence is inherited nature Environmental in uences on IQ the Flynn effect Flynn effect the consistent improvement in IQ scores over time When the standard of living improves IQ gains How heredity in uences IQ Most studies show that blacks score on average about 15 points lower than whites on standardized tests Stereotype threatclaude steele when minority individuals hear discussion of group differences in IQ scores they may assume that their own intellectual ability is inferior to individuals in the majority group This makes them disengage which gets them lower scores Other tests show that teachers and parents should be more concerned about helping each student reach their potential Gender differences in cognitive abilities The few gender gaps that exist are very small Hedges and Nowell looked at the results from the national assessment of educational progress and females outperformed males in reading and writing while males did better in science and math although girls get higher grades than boys in all subjects Girls are more likely to take an effortful approach to schoolwork Some studies show that hormones can affect this Other studies say that its due to differences in brain structure and function Researchers find that males tend to do better in spatial abilities in general Emotional intelligence the ability to apply knowledge about emotions to everyday life Management expressing emotions appropriately engaging in activities that cheer us up or make you feel better To effectively manage our the give and take in social relationships we have to manage our feelings and be sensitive to others Divergent thinking the ability to produce multiple ideas answers or solutions to a problem for which there is no agreedon solution vs convergent thinking the type of mental activity measured by IQ and achievement tests it consists of solving precisely defined logical problems for which there is a known correct answer The four steps in the creative process Preparation searching for information that may help solve the problem Incubation letting the problem sit while the relevant information is digested often below the level of awareness Illumination being suddenly struck by the right solution Translation transforming the insight into useful action Ways to measure creativity The unusual uses test ask respondents to name as many uses as possible for an ordinary object Consequences test test takers list as many consequences as they can that follow some basic change in the world Remote associates test RAT test takers propse a single word link for three seemingly unrelated obj ects ideas
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