Chemistry 111 Exam 1 Study Guide
Chemistry 111 Exam 1 Study Guide 73766
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristi Leslie on Sunday September 28, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 73766 at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see Chemistry 111 in Science at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 09/28/14
First Exam Study Sheet Chem 111 Sections 3 and 4 Fall 2014 No units other than scienti c ones will be used ie no ounces gallons or other units not used in scienti c research Students should know all conversion factors between scienti c units 1000gkg lOOOmLL 100 cmm 1 mLcm3 density of water 1 gmL etc The same periodic table posted on Moodle from the OWL Book will be provided Topics in the book or lectures not mentioned here WILL NOT be covered on the exam 1 De nitions of elements compounds atoms and molecules Element substance that has only one kind of atom Compound a substance that has more than one kind of atom Atom smallest individual unit of an element Molecules group of atoms held together by chemical bonds 2 Conversions between the Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales K C 273 C K 273 C can be negative K can t be 3 De nition of density calculations using densities Density the relationship between volume and mass 4 The components of atoms their charges and their weights for neutrons and protons in atomic mass units not in grams 5 Description of an atom locations of the subatomic particles protons positive electrical charge mass 1 amu neutron no electrical charge mass 1 amu electron negative electrical charge mass O amu 6 De nitions of atomic number and atomic weight mass number Atomic Number all atoms of the same element have the same number of protons Atomic Weight number of protons number of neutrons 7 How to nd the numbers of neutrons protons and electrons in atoms and in monatomic ions 8 De nition of isotopes and the use of isotopes atomic weights and average atomic weights in calculations Isotope elements with a different number of neutrons Atomic Mass abundance of isotope 100 X mass of isotope 1 abundance of isotope100 X mass of isotope 2 9 Approximate locations only in the periodic table of metals and nonmetals 10 Groups in the periodic table how the elements in a group are related vertical columns similar in chemical and physical properties and same of valence electrons 11 Periods rows in the periodic table how the elements in a period are related represent trends changes that occur from left to right are called periodic trends 12 Definition of allotropes why allotropes occur in some elements atoms are bonded differently and arranged differently in space 13 Definition of electronegativity Electronegativity the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself measure of the attraction that an atom has for electrons in a bond that has formed with another atom causes unequal sharing of electrons in a bond gt changes electron distribution in the bond atoms of equal electronegativity form covalent bonds 14 How electronegativity varies across rows and down Groups in the periodic table increases up and to the right of the table 15 How to determine whether bonds between atoms are more ionic or more covalent using electronegativity How to determine bonds between which two different atoms are more ionic or more covalent using electronegativity Ionic Bonding ions held together by electrostatic attraction Covalent Bonding atoms held together by shared electrons the farther apart the elements are on the periodic table the more ionic 16 Determining the relative strengths of ionic bonding from the magnitude of the charges on the cations and anions and from the distances between the cations and anions Coulomb39s law force k nene d 2 ions charge increases gt attractive force increases and vice versa as distance increases force of attraction decreases greater the ions charge the smaller the bond distance stronger ionic bond higher melting point the less insoluble the more ionic 17 Definition of covalent bonds two atoms sharing some electrons from their electron clouds 18 Definition of cations and anions how atoms become cations and anions nding the formulas of ionic compounds by balancing the charges of their cations and anions Cation positive charge become a cation by losing electrons Anion negative charge become anion by gaining electron 19 How to nd the number of valence outermost electrons of atoms from their positions in the periodic table Why this can be done nd it by the group number electrons are located in concentric shells around the nucleus which are most stable when lled with eight electrons each the only exception being the rst shell which is lled with two 20 How to nd the characteristic or most common charge of an ion from the element39s position in the periodic table 21 Names formulas and charges of important polyatomic ions see Ions list on Moodle page 22 De nition of an acid and a base not their names or examples of them Why hydrogen atoms bonded to some elements are acidic and hydrogen atoms bonded to other elements are not Acid 23 De nition of an organic or carboxylic acid 24 Carbonic acid formula how it is formed in Water the speed of its formation the reason the amount of it is increasing in the oceans and Why this is a problem see lecture materials 25 De nition and value of Avogadro39s number de nition of a mole number of atoms of any element whose weight in grams is equal to the element39s atomic weight in amu 26 Determining the atomic Weights molar masses of atoms from their atomic weights given in the periodic table Calculation of molecular Weights molar masses of molecules from their molecular formulas 27 Using atomic and molecular weights to determine the number of grams andor moles in a given amount of a compound Conversion between grams and moles of substances 28 De nition of empirical molecular and structural formulas 29 Determination of the percent composition Weight percentages of compounds 30 Determination of empirical formulas from percent composition of compounds 31 Determination of molecular formulas from empirical formulas and molecular weights
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