Biology 109 Test 1 Study Guide
Biology 109 Test 1 Study Guide BSC 108
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leslie Anne Mall on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Biology Test 1 Review What is biology gt Biology is the study of life What are the three domainsgroups of life gt Eukarya gt Baceteria gt Archae What are the 4 kingdoms in Eukarya gt Animalia gt Plantae gt Fungi gt Protista What are the properties of life They have order They regulate themselves homeostasis The grow and develop They use energy They respond to the environment They reproduce Populations evolve VVVVVVV How do you de ne something as living gt Anything that is complex and made of chemicals gt Something that needs to eat food What are some common themes in biology The scope of life molecules essentially create everything Organisms exchange matter amp energy within ecosystems Cells are an organism s basic unit prokaryotic amp eukaryotic Continuous life is based on DNA chromosomes have DNA which have genes Diverse life forms exist 3 groups of life domains Evolution responsible for the unity and diversity of life VVVV VV What is the scienti c method and its components gt It s used to explain or answer questions about data gt Observe gt Question gt Hypothesize gt Predict gt Experiment gt Analyze What is a hypothesis gt A tentative explanation for an observation What are the components of a hypothesis gt You either support or reject the hypothesis with data gt Not all hypotheses can be investigated scienti cally gt It must be testable What is a theory in science gt Theory much broader in scope than a hypothesis gt They become widely accepted through extensive evidence What are the limits of science gt Science is not the only way to understand nature gt It cannot address every question posed by man gt Religion and art are other methods What is an element gt A substance which cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions gt 92 naturally occurring elements What is an atom gt The smallest unit of an element that has all its properties What is an atom composed of gt Protons neutrons neutral electrons e gt Atomic number proton number gt Mass number atomic weight protons neutrons gt Neutral atom electrons protons What is an ion gt An element that has gained or lost an electron What is an isotope gt An element containing different numbers of neutrons How are isotopes and fossils connected gt Half life and radioactivity living through fossils What is energy gt The capacity to do work make a change in matter gt Potential stored energy in the bonds gt Kinetic doing work released when bonds holding atoms together are broken What is a neutral atom gt An atom with no charge gt The number of electrons the number of protons What is a trace element gt They are required in very small accounts but you cannot live without them What is a radioactive isotope gt The nucleus decays giving off particles and energy gt Uncontrolled exposure can harm living things by damaging DNA How many electrons are found in the 1st energy shell 2nCI energy shell 3 gt 1 2 electrons gt 2 8 electrons gt 3rd 8 electrons What s the difference between atomic number and mass gt Atomic number number of protons gt Atomic mass number of protons number of electrons What are the different types of chemical bonds gt Covalent sharing electrons between atoms the strongest 0 Single sharing one pair of electrons 0 Double sharing two pairs of electrons gt lonic the attraction between positive and negative ions moderate gt Hydrogen unequal sharing of electrons the weakest What s the difference between ionic and covalent bonds gt lonic bonds moderate strength is the attraction between positive and negative ions gt Covalent bonds is the sharing of electrons strong What is the beginning material in a chemical reaction gt Reactants What s the ending material in a chemical reaction gt Products Why can water absorb a lot of heat gt High heat of vaporization the breaking of hydrogen bonds Why does ice oat gt Water freezes expands and oats due to the formation of a crystalline structure gt It is less dense than liquid water What is the ecological importance of ice oating gt If ice didn t oat everything would freeze and therefore life would not exist below the surface Differences between solutions solvents and solutes gt Solution a liquid that is a homogenous mixture of 2 substances salt water gt Solvent the dissolving agent water gt Solute the substance that is dissolved salt Properties of water gt Hydrophilic water oving polar gt Hydrophobic water fearing nonpolar It won t dissolve easily in water What is pH gt A measure of the hydrogen ion H concentration in a solution What is an acid gt Releases H to a solution gt Hydrochloric acid gt 0 l 6 What is a base gt Accepts H and removes them from solution gt Sodium hydroxide gt 8 l 14 What is a hydrolysis reaction gt Polymers are disassembled to monomers gt Bonds broken with the addition of water What is a dehydration reaction gt The removal of water gt 2 molecules are covalently bonded through a loss of water molecule What are the four basic macromolecules gt Carbohydrates gt Proteins gt Nucleic acids gt Lipids What are the characteristics and properties of these molecules gt Carbohydrate 0 Contains C H and O in ratio of 12 0 Stores energy gt Lipids 0 Complex group of molecules 0 Hydrophobic not water soluble o 3 types triglycerides phospholipids steroids gt Proteins o 5 types structural storage contractile transport enzymes 0 Form 3D shapes that are important for protein function gt Nucleic acids 0 Provide the directions for building proteins 0 DNA and RNA 0 Genetic material organisms inherit from parents What are the building blocks of macromolecules above gt Carbohydrates sugars gt Lipids carbon and hydrogen gt Proteins amino acids gt Nucleic acids 5 carbon sugar phosphate group nitrogenous base Examples of each macromolecule gt Carbohydrates starch molecules in pasta and bread gt Lipids Oil gt Proteins beans meat nuts gt Nucleic acids What is high fructose corn syrup gt Used in beverages processed foods cereals baked goods gt Leads to obesity What are trans fats considered unhealthy gt Raises bad cholesterol levels What is an organic molecule gt Carbon based molecules What is the difference between a simple and complex carbohydrate gt The chemical structure gt How quickly it is digested and absorbed gt Also known as simple sugars and starches Know the difference and examples of mono di and polysaccharides gt Monosaccharides simple sugars o Glucose sports drinks 0 Fructose fruit gt Disaccharides double sugar 2 monosaccharides Dehydration o Lactose sucrose gt Polysaccharides long chains of sugars 0 Starch Who stores glycogen Starch What monosaccharides are they made from Why or how are they different gt Glycogen animals gt Starch plants gt Different because part of different types of cells What is the difference between a saturated amp unsaturated lipid gt Saturated no double bonds solid comes from animal fat gt Unsaturated 1 double bonds liquid comes from plant fat What is a phospholipid gt Related to dietary fats but have two fatty acid tails What is a peptide bond gt Bond between 2 amino acid units in a polypeptide gt Formed by a dehydration reaction What are the roles of protein in the cell gt Provide support gt Provide amino acids for growth gt Help movement gt Help transport substances gt Help chemical reactions Who won the Nobel prize for the Nature paper describing the double helix gt James Watson gt Francis Crick What are the differences between DNA and RNA gt DNA is a double helix gt RNA is single stranded gt RNA uses uracil instead of thymine What are the bases in DNA gt Adenine A gt Guanine G gt Cytosine C gt Thymine T What are the bases in RNA gt Adenine A gt Guanine G gt Cytosine C gt Uracil U How do the bases match up in a DNA strand In an RNA strand gt DNAATGC gt RNAAUGC What is a cell gt Either prokaryotic or eukaryotic gt Have plasma membrane cytosol cytoplasm chromosomes and ribosomes Know the three types of microscopes amp which each sees gt Scanning electron microscope SEM cell surfaces gt Transmission electron microscope TEM internal cell details gt Light microscope LM living cells What is the cytoplasm gt Cytosol gt The area within the membrane not including the organelles What is the plasma membrane composed of gt It s a barrier gt Made of a phospholipid bilayer lipids and proteins What is the role of proteins in a cell membrane gt Important for transporting substances and can function as enzymes or receptors What is the plasma membrane called a bilayer gt It s a double layer of phospholipid molecules What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells gt Prokaryotic Bacteria and archaea older smaller no nucleus cell wall gt Eukaryotic plants fungi animals What are the characteristics of prokaryotic organisms gt Rigid cell wall gt Lacks a nucleus gt Lacks internal structures surrounded by membranes What are organelles gt A membraneenclosed structure with a specialized function within a eukaryotic cell Know the organelles and their primary functions gt Nucleus houses the DNA eukaryotic gt Endoplasmic reticulum proteins rst made on ribosomes 0 Rough ER modify membrane amp secretory proteins produces new membranes after synthesizing in packages into transport vesicles 0 Smooth ER produces lipids houses enzymes that detoxify foreign molecules gt Golgi apparatus re nes stores and distributes the chemical products of cells gt Lysosomes sac of digestive enzymes in animals breaks down large molecules destroy harmful bacteria break down damaged organelles gt Central vacuoles plants store nutrients absorb water pigmentspoison possible gt Mitochondria cellular respiration produce ATP eukaryotic gt Ribosomes protein synthesis where proteins are made Where is the RNA made gt Nucleus Where are proteins made gt Ribosomes What organelles make up the endomembrane system gt Endoplasmic reticulum gt Golgi apparatus gt Lysosomes gt Vacuoles gt Nuclear envelope Which organelles contain DNA gt Mitochondria gt Chloroplasts Why do they have their own DNA gt It encodes some of their proteins gt Evidence that they evolved from freeliving prokaryotes in the distant past How do cells move gt They move through the cilia and agella What is the difference between cilia and agella gt Cilia move in a coordinated back and forth motion gt Flagella propels the cell in a whiplike motion
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