Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide PSYS 001 - B (14772)
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PSYS 001 - B (14772)
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Grace on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYS 001 - B (14772) at University of Vermont taught by Susan Karen Fenstermacher in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychological Science in Psychlogy at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
PSYS001 Exam 2 Study Guide: Units 5,6, 9 & Bb2 UNIT 6: Learning Learning: the relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that is the result of experience Memory: the ability to store and retrieve information over time Cognition: the process of acquiring and using knowledge Classical Conditioning: Pavlov’s Dog; explains the acquisition of reflexive responses that are controlled by stimuli that precede the response Operant Conditioning: responses that are controlled by their consequences; stimulus comes after behavior Extinction: reduction in responding that happens when the CS is presented repeatedly without the US Spontaneous Recovery: the increase in response to the CS following pause after extinction Generalization: the tendency to respond to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus Discrimination: the tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical Little Albert Experiment Unconditioned Stimulus: loud noise Unconditioned Response: fear Conditioned Stimulus: rat Conditioned Response: fear Example of generalization would be Little Albert being afraid of other small animals like a rabbit or mouse Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Explains the acquisition of Antecedents, behavior, reflexive responses that are consequences controlled by stimuli that Responses that are controlled precede the response by their consequences Reflexive behaviors are Behaviors are deliberate influenced Stimulus comes after behavior Conditioned stimulus precedes unconditioned stimulus Phobias: are we predisposed to have certain phobias? Phobias can arise from classical conditioning—food phobias (if you get sick you’re not going to want to eat that food) o probably initiated through classical conditioning and maintained through operant conditioning Skinnerian Terminology According to learning theorist BF Skinner, behavior is maintained by its consequences Reinforcement: increases the rate of occurrence of behavior Punishment: decreases the rate of occurrence of behavior Positive (+): something that is added Negative (-): something that is taken away TYPES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING Frequency of behavior subsequently… Increases Decreases As a result Stimulus of the Added Positive Positive Punishment consequen Reinforcement ce of the behavior Stimulus Negative Negative Punishment Removed Reinforcement Positive Punishment: you pet a skunk, you smell bad, you learn not to pet skunk Positive Reinforcement: evil baby video, parents use laughter as positive reinforcement Negative Reinforcement: Thomas has wet hands after washing them. He rubs them in the towel and the water is now removed from them. He knows that every time he doesn’t want his hands to remain wet he can use a towel to get rid of the water. He now uses a towel every time he wants to remove the water from his hands. Negative Punishment: A third-grade boy yells at another student during class, so his teacher takes away "good behavior" tokens that can be redeemed for prizes. Payoffs are… Increases Decreases Reinforcem Time Passing Fixed Interval Variable Interval ent Derived as a function of Number of Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Responses (produces most amount of responses) Fixed Interval: paycheck distribution Fixed Ratio: Workers at a widget factory are paid for every 15 widgets they make. This results in a high production rate and workers tend to take few breaks. It can, however, lead to burnout and lower-quality work. Variable Interval: Typically, you check your email at random times throughout the day instead of checking every time a single message is delivered. The thing about email is that in most cases, you never now when you are going to receive a message. Because of this, emails roll in sporadically at completely unpredictable times. When you check and see that you have received a message, it acts as a reinforcer for checking your email. Variable Ratio: Players have no way of knowing how many times they have to play before they win. All they know is that eventually a play will win. This is why slot machines are so effective, and players are often reluctant to quit. There is always the possibility that the next coin they put in will be the winning one. Violence/Aggression Based on Video Games Avatar = villain vs neutral vs superhero o Amount of chili sauce vs amount of chocolate sauce Video games sold vs youth aggression o Negatively related (increase in video games, decrease in youth aggression) o Predisposed behaviors that are more susceptible to violent video games: Increased neuroticism Decreased agreeableness Decreased conscientiousness Unit 5: Sensation and Perception Transduction: turning energy detected by the sensory organs into nerve impulses (action potentials) Photoreaction: vision Mechanical Reaction: hearing, balance (proprioception), touch Molecular Reaction: taste, smell (doesn’t go through thalamus) Absolute Threshold: the intensity of a stimulus that allows an organism to just barely detect it Just Noticeable Difference: change in stimulus that can (barely) be detected o Weber’s Law: the just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of original intensity Signal Detection Theory Perceiver’s Response Simulus “yes” “no” Present HIT MISS Absent FALSE CORRECT ALARM REJECTION Meta-Cognitive Awareness Think I’m Right Was I “yes” “no” Right? HIT MISS You were You were FALSE CORRECT not ALARM REJECTION Sensitivity: individual’s true ability to detect signals Response Bias: behavioral tendency to respond with “yes” Ego Depletion: finite energy for making decisions o higher amount in morning, less at night o sensitivity decreases, response bias increases as day goes on So if you were a criminal being charged for some crime, you would want the judge to make a decision in the morning so they are less likely to say “yes” to being guilty What Are the Senses? Vision Smell Taste (gustation= experience of eating) Touch Hearing Proprioception (balance) VISION Light waves Sensitivity Color= wavelength Brightness = amplitude Lens: focuses light onto the retina Pupil: opening that allows light to enter the eye Iris: controls the size of the pupil Cornea: protects the eye and begins to focus light Retina: contains photoreceptor cells Process of Vision 1. Light entering the eye triggers photochemical reaction in rods and cones at the back of the retina 2. Chemical reaction in turn activates bipolar cells 3. Information is sent to visual cortex via thalamus Rods: peripheral vision, black and white, detect low wavelengths (dim light); approximately 20,000 rods Cones: color vision, fine detail, bright light; approximately 5,000 cones Visual Perception Necker Cube o Feature detectors: specialized neurons in the visual cortex that respond to strength, angles, edges, movement; work in parallel to recognize objects Gestalt: meaningfully organized whole o Figure-Ground Ambiguity o Similarity: similar things grouped together o Proximity: nearby things grouped together o Continuity: perceive smooth, continuous pattern o Closure: fill in gaps Depth Perception: involves judging the distance of objects from us o Visual Cliff: shows that we are born with the ability to perceive depth Binocular Depth Perception: (ocular motor cues) o Convergence: inward turning of eyes required to focus on objects less than about 50ft away Monocular Cues: only need one eye o Linear perspective: far away = convergent, as parallel lines recede from us, they appear to converge (train tracks) o Position: high = far away o Relative Size: closer = bigger, smaller = far away o Interposition: something blocking view of another thing, the blocker is perceived to be closer o Light and shadow: closer= more reflected light o Arial View: closer = clearer Muller-Lyer Illusion *The bottom looks larger even though the lines are the same size Carpentered World Hypothesis: worlds with corners o Near-far o Object constancy TOUCH Basic skin sensations: pressure, heat, cold, pain (PHCP) Complex skin sensations: wet, itch, tickle, heat (WITH) o Wet: cold and pressure o Itch: repeated pain o Tickle: pressure nearby o Heat: hot and cold Gate Control Theory: 2 types of nerves and spinal cord o small bundle- send pain sensation o large bundle fibers- on/off switch (gate mechanism); can activate through massage UNIT 9: Intelligence Intelligence: the ability to think, to learn from experience, to solve problems & to adapt to new situations 5 Components Important for Creativity 1. expertise 2. Imaginative thinking 3. Risk taking 4. Intrinsic interest 5. Working in a creative environment (supportive) Intelligence Types (Gardner) Linguistic- writers, poets, effective public speakers Logical/ Mathematical- scientists, engineers, computer programmers Musical- musicians, singers, composers Spatial- painters, architects, sculptors Kinesthetic- dancers, athletes, race care drivers, mechanics Interpersonal- industrial and political leaders, effective supervisors Intrapersonal- psychologically well-adjusted people Naturalistic- botanists, biologists, naturalists Emotional Intelligence 1. Accurately perceive emotions in others & self (identify) 2. Use emotions to facilitate thinking 3. Understand emotional meanings convey their own pattern of possible messages & actions associated with those messages 4. Manage emotions General Intelligence “g:” the common construct that is inferred by performance on intelligence tests’ various skills o Fluid: capacity to learn, solve problems (decreases with age) o Crystallized: learn to date, accumulated knowledge (increases with age) Specific Intelligence “s:” specific skills in narrow domains o Verbal comprehension o Abstract reasoning o Perceptual speed o Information – level of knowledge of commonly known facts Triarchic Model (Sternberg) 1. Creative intelligence- divergent thinking (multiple answers) 2. Analytical Intelligence (intelligence test)- convergent thinking (one right answer) 3. Practical Intelligence (g, basically) Convergent Thinking: the “right” answer Divergent Thinking: many answers (think Divergent Series) IQ = (mental age/chronological age) x 100 Clicker Question: When looking at the ratio of female-to-male students across the dimension of IQ test performance there are more women in the middle and more men in the extremes. Why?- sex linked traits which males are more vulnerable to Non-Biological Factors that Affect Performance Education Stereotypes Stereotype threat Environment Social Facilitation/ Inhibition: when were around other people, performance can be affected Presence of others leads to arousal which leads to a dominant response. If the dominant response is the correct response, this leads to social facilitation, if it is the incorrect response, this leads to social inhibition. Stereotype Threat: being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one’s group; leads to performance decrements Environmental Effects parents Tiger Mom Non-Cognitive Factors Academic behaviors Academic perseverance Academic mindsets o Self-efficacy o Incremental theory o Entity theory Learning strategies Social skills Bb Article 2: Practice: you get better at doing something over and over Transfer: getting better at one thing improves performance on something else Study done on fluid intelligence Evidence of practice and transfer effect Quizlet Link: https://quizlet.com/emkunsman/folders/psys001-test-2
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