Bio Exam #1 Review Questions/Notes
Bio Exam #1 Review Questions/Notes biol 208
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly O'Neil on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to biol 208 at Towson University taught by Dr Firestone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 182 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Biodiversity Exam 1 Review Questions Notes Chapters 2022 Homologous structures 9 are structures in two or more species that originate as the same structure in a common ancestor Convergent evolution 9 depends on natural selection to independently produce similar phenotypic responses in different species or populations Conditions necessary for evolution by natural selection 9 1 there must be variation among individuals within a population 2 variation among individuals must be related to differences among individuals in their success in producing offspring over their lifetime 3 variation related to lifetime reproductive success must have a genetic heritable basis Biological species concept 9 groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductively isolated from other such groups a species is composed of populations whose members mate with each other and produce fertile offspring focuses on the ability to exchange genes 9 problem with this concept includes many species reproduce asexually Prezygotic isolating mechanisms 9 prevent the formation of a zygote prevents a viable zygote from being created mechanisms could be ecological behavioral temporal and mechanical isolation 9 mechanism include courtship rituals habitat separation seasonal reproduction 9 becomes stronger as the result of reinforcement Postzygotic isolating mechanisms 9 prevent normal development into reproducing adults prevents a zygote from developing into a viable and fertile individual Ecological species concept 9 focuses on the role of natural selection and differences among species in their ecological requirements Reproductive isolation 9 required by the biological species concept Allopatric speciation 9 involves geographic isolation of some kind Natural selection 9 can enhance the probability of speciation enhance reproductive isolation act against hybrid survival and reproduction Chapter 23 Taxontaxa 9 species or higher level groups such as genera or families Synapomorphy 9 a derived character shared by clade members ex hair is a synapomorphgy in the chart like a character trait Plesiomorphies 9 ancestral states Symplesiomorphies 9 shared ancestral states Homoplasy 9 a shared character state that has not been inherited from a common ancestor exhibiting that character state can result from convergent evolution or from evolutionary reversal ex like salamanders and frogs on the chart they re on their own little wing Monophyletic group 9 includes the most recent common ancestor of the group and all of its descendants ex the archosaurs entire group to the right RCA and all descendants Paraphyletic 9 includes the most recent common ancestor of the group but not all its descendants ex dinosaurs RCA and some descendants 9 some species are more closely related to species outside the group than they are to some species within the group Polyphyletic 9 does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group ex flying vertebrates no RCA 9 a taxonomic group that contains species that have similar phenotypes due to convergent evolution Chapter 28 Prokaryotes Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes 9 1 unicellularity prokaryotes are mostly all single celled most bacteria appear to be capable of forming a complex community of different species called a biofilm 2 cell size the size of prokaryotes varies tremendously 3 nucleoid prokaryotes do not have a membrane bound nucleus instead they usually have a single circular chromosome made of DNA and histonelike proteins have plasmids 4 cell division and genetic recombination binary fission prokaryotes don t have a sexual cycle but they do exchange genetic material extensively horizontal gene transfer 5 internal compartmentalization cytoplasm in prokaryotes do not have extensive internal compartments and no membrane bound organelles instead plasma membrane is extensively in folded and respiration and photosynthesis take place 6 flagella prokaryotes do not show the 92 architecture instead they re composed of a single fiber of the protein flagellin rigid and spin like propellers whereas eukaryotes whip 7 metabolic diversity prokaryotic cells are the only chemolithotropic organisms meaning that they use the energy stored in chemical bonds of inorganic molecules to synthesize carbohydrates Differences between bacteria and archaea 9 1 plasma membranes all prokaryotes have plasma membranes with a fluid mosaic architecture 2 cell wall bacteria cell walls are made up of peptidoglycan and the cell walls of archaea are made up of oseudomurein 3 DNA replication archaeal initiation of DNA replication is more similar to that of eukaryotes 4 gene expression archaea have more than one RNA polymerase Basic forms of prokaryotes 9 rods cocci and spirals they have a tough cell wall and other external structures Unique characteristic to archaea 9 ether like phospholipids Associations with prokaryotes 9 horizontal transfer of genetic info a lack of internal compartmentalization a cell size of 1 um The three domains of life 9 consist of three different basic cell types Chapter 29 Protists 0 Characteristics of protists 9 cell surfaces vary widely extracellular material may cover the plasma membrane have several means of locomotion protists mainly use flagella or pseudopods for locomotion although many other means of propulsion are found have a range of nutritional strategies protists include phototrophs heterotrophs and mixotrophs capable of both modes produce asexually by mitosis budding or schinzogony and sexually are the bridge to multicellularity colonial protists may be the precursors of multicellular organisms o Eukaryotes 9 organized into six super groups that contain protists excavate Chromalveolata archaeplastida rhizaria amoeboxoans ophisthokonts Chapter 26 page 516 Photosynthetic revolution 0 Early atmosphere 9 had C02 but no oxygen oxygen was added through the evolution of photosynthesis and was added to the ocean and atmosphere providing an environment conductive to the evolution of cellular respiration
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