Unit 1 Study Guide
Unit 1 Study Guide Biology 210
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carter Buuck on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 210 at Linfield College taught by Anne Krutchen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 138 views. For similar materials see Principles Of Biology in Biology at Linfield College.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
O OO 0 OOIIOIIO IIIOIIO Unit 1 Studv Guide 1 What is life What are the molecular prerequisites for life Under what conditions is life hypothesized to have begun What is the early history of this planet Life is determined by something having the ability to produce energy grow adapt and evolve and have a way to protect itself Life began by abiotic synthesis of small organic molecules like proteins and amino acids These joined together to form proteins and nucleic acids Finally these joined together to form protobionts which had a membrane that allowed for a cell to maintain a different internal chemistry than its external environment Life could begin under conditions demonstrated by Stanley Miller s experiment in which H20 the sea was heated and vapor entered the atmosphere The atmosphere contained a mixture of hydrogen gas methane ammonia and water vapor Sparks were discharged to mimic lightning and finally a condenser cooled the atmosphere raining water and dissolved molecules into the sea flask Earth s sole inhabitant from 3521 billion years ago were single celled organisms prokaryotes Stromatolites are fossilized bacteria and sediment that are often used to date the beginning of life 2 What is natural selection How does it lead toward new forms of life Natural selection is the process of one organism and its selected traits have a better chance of surviving as opposed to another organism and its selected traits It leads to new forms of life by leading to adaptive evolution which acts on an organism s phenotype physical traits that gives it a better chance of survival and passing that mutation onto its offspring 3 What are the major biotic and abiotic factors that control where and how an organism lives Biotic Temperature Cells freeze at O C and proteins denature at 45 C Mammals and birds use energy to regulate internal body temperature Sunlight Light intensity and quality affect photosynthesis Water absorbs light so photosynthesis can only take place near the surface Deserts experience a more direct sunlight which causes for more intense temperatures and stress in desert organisms Water Availability in habitats is important in distribution of organisms Desert organisms developed adaptations to survive with very little water Salinity Salt concentrations affect organisms through osmosis Few terrestrial organisms are adapted to high solute environments Water moving out of cells because of high salinity outside Control osmosis to prevent shrinking 4 What is energy What are potential energy kinetic energy chemical energy and thermal energy Energy is something s ability to do work 0 00 0 00000000000 0 O 0 00000 Potential energyEnergy that matter possess because of its location or structure KineticEnergy associated with the relative motion of objects Thermal energy Heat Kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules Chemical energy Potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction 5 What are the laws of thermodynamics What is free energy What are endergonic and exergonic reactions How do these laws control what chemical reactions occur fst LawEnergy cannot be created or destroyed only transferred or transformed 2nd Law Every energy transfer increases the entropy of the universe Free energy is a system s capability to do work when temperature and pressure are uniform as in a living cell The measure of a system s instability and its tendency to move to a more stable state During a spontaneous change free energy decreases entropy increases A process is spontaneous and can perform work only when it s moving towards equilibrium Endergonic reaction Not spontaneous Energy required Absorption of free energy Exergonic reaction Spontaneous No energy required Release of free energy 6 Why do atoms make bonds What are hydrogen bonds What are covalent bonds What are polar covalent bonds What are ions What are ionic bonds Atoms bond to fill their outer valence shells so that they can become more stable Hydrogen bonds Bonds involving a positively charged hydrogen atom and a negatively charged counter atom or molecule The weakest type of bond Covalent bonds Bonds that share electrons Polar covalent bonds Bonds that have a difference in electronegativity and have oppositely charged ends lons The two resulting oppositely charged atoms that occur when one atom anion takes an electron from the other atom cation lonic bond The transfer of electrons 7 What are the four properties of water that support life on this planet What causes each of these properties and what are the consequences of each on life Cohesive behavior Cohesion is the ability of water molecules to stick together because of their polar charges Adhesion is the ability of water molecules to stick to other things as well This allows for water to move against gravity in plants Ability to moderate temperature Water can absorb heat during warm weather and release heat when their is cold weather It can absorb and release large amounts of heat without having a large change in its temperature 000 O OOOIIO OOOOOOOOOOOOO 00000000 This high specific heat of water is caused by hydrogen bonding When hydrogen bonds are created heat is released When they are destroyed heat is absorbed The high specific temperature minimizes fluctuations to within limits that permit life Heat of vaporization The amount of heat needed to evaporate 1g of liquid Evaporative cooling The original surface of the evaporated substance cools down and helps stabilize temperature in organisms in bodies of water Expansion when freezing Caused by H20 molecules and hydrogen bonds become more organized when freezing so it allows them to expand and float If water could not float it would sink to the bottom of the ocean floor and freeze the oceans Versatility as a solvent Has a polar charge so it is able to dissolve solvents Forms hydration shells around ions and breaks it apart 8 What are the seven important functional groups What are examples of each one Allow for interactions between molecules Hydroxal Ethanol Methyl 5methyl cytosine Carbonyl Acetone Carboxyl Acetic acid Amino Glycine Phosphate Glycerol phosphate Sulfhydryl Cysteine 9 What are carbohydrates What is the structure of alpha glucose How are alpha and beta glucose molecules bonded to form starch or cellulose and how are those differing bonds important Carbohydrates serve as fuel and building material Sugars MonosaccharidesFructose and glucose Disaccharides Lactose and sucrose Polysaccharides Cellulose and starch glycogen and chitin Func ons Fuel Strengthens exoskeletons and plantfungal cell walls Stores glucose for energy 6 Prime ring OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO O OO O 00 10 What are lipids What is the structure of a fat molecule How are different fats classified Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules Non polar because made of long carbon chains and carbon is not very electronegative so hydrogen has no partial charge Func ons Important energy source Lipid bilayers of membranes Component of cell membranes cholesterol Signals that travel through the body hormones Triacylglycerols Glycerol backbone and 3 fatty acid chains Phospholipids Phosphate group and two fatty acid chains Steroids Four fused rings with attached chemical groups Saturated Solid at room temperature Straight tail Unsaturated Liquid at room temperature Bent tail 11 What are phospholipids Why do they make excellent membranes Phospholipids are a phosphate group with two fatty acid chains They can have a mix of saturated and unsaturated tails They make excellent membranes because they re a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fats which make them a perfect consistency for a membrane to allow things in and out but still be able to hold shape 12 What are nucleic acids How do DNA and RNA differ How are polynucleotides formed Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary information Polymers made of monomers called nucleotides Carries protein coding instructions from DNA to proteinsynthesizing machinery DNA is a double helix has deoxyribose sugar H and has the nitrogenous pairs CG and AT RNA is usually single stranded has a ribose sugar OH and has U in place of T A polynucleotide is formed through phosphodiester bonds that help make the backbones of the antiparallel helixes The bond between the phosphate attached to the 5th prime and the OH attached to the 3rd prime 13 What is the RNA world hypothesis What evidence do we have to support it 14 What are amino acids How are polypeptides formed How does primary structure of a protein control secondary tertiary and quaternary structure Amino acids are the monomers of proteins 0000000 00 O 0 They all contain an alpha carbon that has as an attached hydrogen atom an amino group H2N a carboxyl group C02H and a side chain R group Polypeptides are formed when two amino acids carboxyl groups line up and create a covalent bond peptide bond One end of a polypeptide has a free amino group N terminus and a free carboxyl group C terminus Primary Amino acids lined up Secondary Beta pleated sheet has two amino acids interacting with one another through a hydrogen bond From the backbone not the R group Alpha helixFormed helix Tertiary Polypeptide backbone takes shape by forming different types of bonds between R groups Quaternary Multiple polypeptides that come together to form one structure 15 What are enzymes How do they speed up reactions A macromolecule that acts as a catalyst which is a chemical agent that helps speed up chemical reactions Enzymes speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy needed to produce the chemical reaction Heat is needed to speed up reactions but the heat needed would denature proteins and speed up every reaction and not just the ones that are needed and that is what makes enzymes so important 16 What is the structure of DNA and how do we know that it is the molecule of inheritance Double helix 10 bases per turn AT CG DNA composition can vary from one organism to the next Organisms that live by vents in the bottom of the ocean have an extra 3rd hydrogen bond between base pairs that make it a stronger bond that cannot be destroyed by the high temperatures DNA is the molecule of inheritance because it is much more stable than RNA RNA s extra hydroxyl group makes it unstable because it will tend to cut itself and therefore allows for DNA to replicate quickly and more consistently 17 What is transcription How does information get from DNA to mRNA The synthesis of RNA from the genetic information of DNA AUG starts the process Initiation After RNA polymerase binds to the promoter the DNA strands unwind and the polymerase initiates RNA synthesis at the start point on the template strand Elongation 0 COO 0000 O O The polymerase moves downstream unwinding the DNA and elongating the RNA transcript 5 3 In the wake of the transcription the DNA strands re form a double helix Termination Eventually the RNA transcript is released and the polymerase detaches from the DNA 18 What is translation How does information get from mRNA to an amino acid chain Translation is the synthesis of a polypeptide using the information in the mRNA During this stage there is a change in the language The cell must translate the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA molecule into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide Takes place in ribosomes Initiation mRNA binds to a small subunit through base pairing tRNA bind to AUG start of mRNA Small subunit made of RNA that allows it to the nd the start coding and form base pairs so mRNA can bind with tRNA Elongation tRNA is placed in the P slot of ribosome tRNA in the middle P slot passes amino acid chain to tRNA in the right A slot Both tRNAs then move over one slot to the left and the original tRNA is placed in the E slot and is ready to ejected from the ribosome
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