Personality-Study Guide 3
Personality-Study Guide 3 PSYC 332
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by AlexaR. on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 332 at Northern Illinois University taught by Burchtold in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Exam 3 Study Guide Consciousness Conscious what you are aware of right at this moment objective Preconscious what we voluntarily draw into awareness iUnconscious mental activity that we cannot become aware of subjective m Primitive source of drives and urges Sel sh impulsive pleasure loving take the money Egg Realistic mediates between Id and Superego Can I get away with stealing it or should I return it possible reward Superego critical moralizing thou shall not stea Defense Mechanisms the ego uses defense mechanisms to deal with upsetting material Repression is the primary defense mechanism repress within memory Dis lacement yell at wife when mad at boss Rationalization come up with explanation Reaction formation replace hostility with kindness Projection project negative traits on others Sublimation chop wood when angry Denial keep experience out of memory Cognitiveunconscious perception memory learning decision making These basic cognitive processes do not need consciousness to occur Serves an adaptive ftmction freeing up cognitive resources Psvchodvnamicunconsciousness Successor to Freud s views Emotionally laten con icts wishes desires and fantasies Serves a defensive function that protects one s self concept and maintains emotional wellbeing Effectiveness of subliminal messages not effective direct appeals work better Implicit memory knowledge activation without awareness Vicarious conditioning behavior is conditioned without you realizing it Declarative knowledge memory for facts information attitudes Procedural knowledge executing sequences of behavior without conscious attention signing name tying shoes driving car Methods for measuringunconscious all subjective Free association spew out answers dream analysis projective techniques ink blots Meaning of song empathy Repressed Memory Overall conclusion therapists may unintentionally implant false memories through hypnosis Social Needs amp Motives Characteristics of Needfor Achievement concern with a standard of excellence meeting a goal doing well in a competition Involvement in a unique accomplishment such as an invention Taking personal responsibility for success or failure Discouraged when not reaching a goal Enjoy task where they are personally responsible for results Set challenging but realistic goals Want performance feedback Entrepreneurship Needfor Intimacy concern with trying to establish maintain or restore a positive emotional relationship Prefer warm close communicative interactions with others Spend more time thinking about relationships Report more pleasant emotions when around other people Rated as sincere natural Enjoy dyadic relationships Make more eye contact smile laugh start conversations Need for Power Want positions of authority elected office law enforcement clergy executive teacher psychologist Active in uential in small groups Career success in power related positions but not interpersonal ones Argumentative accumulate prestige possessions Don t deal well with frustration and con ict can lead to greater illness heart disease and early mortality Sex Differences in the different needs women are higher on need for intimacy NO difference in average levels of need for power although men are prone to impulsive and aggressive relationships MaslowisHierarchy Components Physiological needs safety and security needs love and belongingness needs selfesteem needs selfactualization Lower needs must e satisfied befor we can proceed to higher needs Protective Test Characteristics Thematic Apperception Test TAT Ambiguous pictures presented to a participant for interpretation Perceiver to project their needs when interpreting the picture Reliability tends to be lower than traditional selfreport measure Improved with multiple administrations and standardized scoring keys TAT and questioneers aren t correlated because they measure different types of motivation Implicit motives are better predictors of long tenn behavioral trends What it s like about empathy Need for Cognition Characteristics of need for cognition re ects the extent to which individuals are motivated to engage in effortful cognitive activities Processing of messages idea evaluation elaboration Can lead to attitude change Increased Appreciation of debate College students high in NFC report having higher Life satisfaction Greater susceptibility to the creation of false memories Positively correlated with openness and conscientiousness Negatively correlated with neuroticisrn Locus of Control Situation Perception InterpretationPlans goals desires Reaction Cogn39 itive elements of personality Field dependence where you seek inferrnation the environment or from the self Dependent trouble seeing the forest from the trees Social Independent can spot embedded gures in the background Hard science Learned helplessness evil dog study dog just learned to take the shocks because he couldn t escape This is why people are in abusive relationships Cure outside perspective and a new source of optimism Pain tolerance Reducer high pain tolerance Augmenter low main tolerance Associated with sensation seeking Self ef cac Beliefs in onequots performance on a task High selfef cacy associated with better student and training performance Can be in uenced by modeling Learning optimism adversity failure or stressful event Beliefs what are your thoughts Consequences notice how these make you feel and behave Locus of control Person s perception of responsibility for the events in their life Internal Locus of Control Characteristics blame the self 7External Locus of Control Characteristics blame outside sources Outcomes largely depend on forces outside of personal control Protective from potentially damaging attributions Components of Emotional Intelligence awareness of one s own feelings and body signals Self awareness Ability to manage and regulate emotions Emotional labor Control of one s impulses Selfregulation Decode social and emotional cues of others Field dependence Leadership guide people with a cool head Goal Orientation Performance goal orientation wanting to do well Learning Goal Orientation want to learn and master the material Promotion focus concerned with advancement growth and accomplishment Prevention focus concerned with protection safety and the prevention of failure Impression Management and Political Skill Po litical Skill the ability to understand and in uence others at the workplace Political Savviness an NATE understanding or ability of how to in uence others Hurnan Capitol the collective skills knoWledge or other intangible assets of individuals that can be used to create economic value fer the individuals their employers or their community Identi cation what is my human capitol 39 Translation how does capitol gained from one source translate to another Self SelfConcept Individuals beliefs about themselves Who am 1 Cultural Differences western individualistic cultures emphasize personal characteristics Asian collectivistic cultures emphasize socialrelational aspects of the self Gender Differences women emphasize relational aspects of the self more than men Men emphasize personal aspects of self ActualIdeal Self the degree to which our actual attributes match those that we weould ideally like to possess Related to depression and bulimia Actual Ought Self the degree to which our actual attributes match those that we feel it is our duty or obligation to possess Related to anxiety and anorexia Selngf cacy how well you believe you can perform a task Opposing Processes SelfiVeri cation need to maintain a coherent sense of self SelfEnhancement desire to think of and present ourselves more positively You prefer a favorable evaluator if you have a positive self concept and negative if negative Self Esteem Individuals feelings about themselves Am I a good person Silver metal winners are less happy than bronze cause they were so close Health amp OHP Maior stressors death of friend divorce jail marriage red pregnancy moving daily hassles weight concerns in ation taxes crime losing things over worked COR theory variables recovery from work Relaxation Detachment Mastery Control NOT sleeping in Pessimism Op timism fewer illnesses and doctor visits faster recoveryrehab longer life expectancy greater self ef cacy Personality variables and healthrelated behaviors Sensation seekin 39 risky behaviors Hardiness Secure attachrnent style and need for af liationgreater social support Sense of coherence understand their own resources Conscientiousness regular exercise and eating habits Optimism decreased stress Personality and shiftwork Introverts tend to have an earlier circadian rhythm extroverts better suited for shiftwork Personality andburnout chronic fatigue can lead to job dissatisfaction turnover low job performance ny pie A Aggression hostility competitiveness sense of urgency Experience more negative emotions create more stress Associated with coronary artery disease and heart attacks Typ e B Relaxed less time conscious less driven more adaptive Able to put things in perspective better More resilient to stress and less likely to damage their health Type D high negative affectivity and social inhibition Eat less sensibly spend less time outdoors seek out healthcare less let things get them down more often Personality and PTSD personality changes the nature of the relationship between two other variables External locus of control predisposes you to PTSD Internal locus of control gives you less of a chance Hardiness Retraining stressors to be less threatening Commitment sense of purpose positive meaning Persistent and resilient Control events are controllable Challenge see stressful events as opportunity for growth Physical reaction to stress resistance body adapts to stressor and exhaustion lowered resistance susceptibility to illness Related to health locus of control NOT self monitoring or need for cognition
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