IT WONT LOAD WHAT THE CRAP. Other: IT IS NOT WORKING AND I JUST PAID FOR IT
CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS PUBLIC RELATIONS
I. Defining Public Relations
a. The management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its success or failure depends.
b. A strategic communication function through which organizations adapt to, alter, or maintain their environment for the purpose of achieving organizational goals. II. Strategic Campaign Planning
a. Thoroughly understand your organization or client.
b. Learn as much as possible about your publics (audiences).
c. Set goals and objectives based on understanding and knowledge.
d. Develop a plan to carry them out.
III. Key Words
i. Activity is intentional. It is designed to influence, gain understanding, provide information, and obtain feedback from those affected by the activity
i. Activity is organized. Solutions to problems are discovered and logistics are thought out, with the activity-taking place over a period of time.
i. Effective PR is based on actual policies and performance. No amount of PR will generate goodwill and support if the organization has poor policies and is Don't forget about the age old question of 3 fundamentals of islam.
unresponsive to public concerns.
d. Public Interest:
i. Activity should be mutually beneficial to the organization and the public. The alignment of the organization’s self-interest with he public’s concerns and
e. Management Function:
i. PR is most effective when it is a strategic and integral part of decision making by top management. PR involves counseling, problem solving, and the We also discuss several other topics like who founded Chinese Nationalist?
We also discuss several other topics like Who is Theodor Roosevelt?
management of competition and conflict.
i. What’s happening now?
1. What is the problem or situation?
a. Feedback from the public, media reporting and editorial
comment, analysis of trend data, other forms or research,
personal experience, and government pressures and regulations. If you want to learn more check out What is Social Class?
i. What should we do and say, and why?
1. As advisors to top management, make recommendations on policy and what actions should be taken by the organization. Once the policy is or
action is agreed on, PR staff begin to plan a communications program
that will further the organization’s objectives. They will set objectives,
define audiences, and decide on what strategies will be used on a If you want to learn more check out who is William Jennings Bryan?
specific timeline. Budget and staffing are also major considerations.
i. How and when do we say it?
1. PR personnel execute the program through such vehicles as news
releases, media advisories, newsletters, internet and web postings,
special events, speeches, and community relations programs.
i. The effect of these efforts is measured by feedback from the same
components that made up the first step. The cucle is then repeated. The success or failure of the poicy or program is assessed as a way of determining whether additional efforts are needed, or whether new issues or opportunities must be addressed.
V. Other Terms for the Process
a. Public Affairs We also discuss several other topics like Does love make us happy?
b. Corporate Communication
c. Marketing Communication
d. Public Information
e. External Communications
VI. What Does PR Include
c. Media relations
e. Employer/member relations
f. Community relations
g. Public affairs
h. Government affairs
i. Issues management
j. Financial relations
k. Industry relations
l. Development or fundraising
m. Multicultural or diversity issues
n. Special events
VII. Changing Focus of PR
a. Public relations is a strategic management function.
b. More professionally and socially responsible
c. It “uses the science” (communication theories)
d. Less emphasis on reporting and media relations
e. Increased emphasis on spoken and interpersonal communication; personal influence model
f. Increased range of public relations work and functions
VIII. Strategies, Objectives, and Tactics
a. Strategies are approaches to produce outcomes. A strategy is something you do. b. An objective is what you want an audience to do.
c. Tactics are specific actions, usually involving media, that produce outputs. A tactic is a message vehicle or channel.
IX. PR vs. Journalism
ii. Advocates position
iii. Segmented audience
iv. Many channels
i. Reporting and writing
iii. Mass audience
iv. 1 or 2 channels
X. PR vs. Marketing
i. Generates goodwill
ii. Builds relationships
iii. Third-party endorsements and coveratge
iv. Establishes image
i. Generates sales
ii. Product, price, place, and promotion
XI. PR vs. Advertising
i. Does not pay for space
ii. Less control
iii. Both external and internal
i. Pays for ad space
a. A mix if advertising, promotion direct marketing, and PR. Results in a coordinated and integrated communication plan.
b. Advertising attracts the market’s attention and PR supports what the advertisement and builds relationships with customers.
XIII. How PR Helps Marketing
a. Introduce a revolutionary product
b. Create awareness and attention
c. Announce innovative ad campaigns
d. Create customer demand
e. Explain complicated or controversial product (home AIDS test)
f. Product recalls
g. Dispel rumors or image problems
XIV. PR Advertising
a. Issues Advertising
b. Image Advertising
c. Advocacy Advertising
d. Corrective Advertising
XV. The Growth of PR
a. Influence of democracy and public opinion (transitional public relations) b. Increased expectations for corporate social responsibility and sustainability c. Growth of large institutions
d. Increased conflicts among groups (activist, special interests, more points of view) e. Increase in media outlets and communication technology
f. Globalization and internationalization of markets
XVI. PR Requires
a. A firm base of theoretical knowledge
b. Strong sense of ethical judgment
c. Solid communication skills
d. Attitude of professionalism and social responsibility
XVII. Getting a Job in PR
a. Writing skill
b. Research ability
c. Planning expertise
d. Problem-solving ability
e. Business/economics competence
f. Cultural and media literacy
g. Media savvy
h. Relationship-building skill
XVIII. Who Works in PR?
a. About 1/3 agencies, 1/3 corporations, 1/3 non-profit or public sector
b. More women than men, but often earn less
c. Salaries depend on experience, title and gender
CHAPTER 2: THE EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC RELATIONS
I. Periods of PR Development
a. Seedbed era (1900-1917)
i. Ivy Lee: The First PR Counsel
1. Opened his PR firm, Parker and Lee, in 1905, he issued a declaration
of principles that signaled a new model of PR practice: public
2. Emphasis on the dissemination of truthful, accurate information
rather that distortions, hype, exaggerations.
3. First client was the PA Railroad, where he was retained as a
“publicity counselor” to handle media relations.
4. First task was to convince management that the policy of operating
in secret and refusing to talk with the press, typical of many large
corporations at the time, was a poor strategy for fostering goodwill
and public understanding.
5. Lee provided press facilities issued what is claimed to be the first
news release of the modern age, and took reporters to the accident
6. 1912, Lee had become the executive assistant to the president of the
a. first known instance of a PR person being placed at the
7. 1913-1914 Lee’s propaganda campaign for the PA Railroad is a
landmark in the history of PR.
8. 1914: Rockefeller family John D. Rockefeller Jr. hired Lee in the wake
of the vicious strike-breaking activities known as the Ludlow
Massacre. The family’s Colorado Fuel and Iron Company Plant. Labor
leaders were effectively getting their views out by talking freely to
the media but that the company’s executives were tight-lipped and
inaccessible. The result was a barrage of negative publicity and
public criticism directed at CF&I and the family.
9. Lee PR tactics for this issue
a. Got the governor of CO to write an article
b. Convince Rockefeller to visit the plant and talk with the miners
and their families.
i. Lee made sure press was there to record Rockefeller
eating in the workers hall, swinging a pickax in the mine
and having a beer with the workers after hours.
ii. He was portrayed as being seriously concerned about
the plight of the workers and led to policy changes and
more worker benefits. United Mine Workers failed to
gain a foothold.
12. He is remembered today for his 4 important contributions to PR a. Advancing the concept that business and industry should align themselves with the public interest
b. Dealing with top executives and carrying out no program
without the active support of management
c. Maintaining open communication with the news and media
d. Emphasizing the necessity of humanizing business and
bringing the public relations down to the community level of
employees, customs, and neighbors.
b. World War I (1917-1919)
i. First government involvement in PR now known as “Public Affairs” c. Roaring Twenties (1919-1929)
i. Robber barons; industrial revolution
ii. Edward Bernays
1. Father of Modern Public Relations
a. Nephew of Sigmund Freud
i. Believed PR should emphasize the application of social
science research and behavioral psychology to
formulate campaigns and messages that could change
people’s perceptions and encourage certain behaviors.
ii. Advocacy and scientific persuasion.
1. Listening to the audience but the purpose of
feedback was to formulate a more persuasive
b. His book: Crystallizing Public Opinion (1923)
i. Outline the scope, function, methods, techniques, and
social responsibilities of a PR counsel
ii. Published a year after Walter Lippmann’s insightful
treatise on public opinion, attracted much attention and
Bernays was even invited by NY University to offer the
first PR course in the nation.
c. Some of his campaigns
i. Ivory Soap
1. Procter & Gamble sold its Ivory Soap by the
millions after Bernays came up with the idea of
sponsoring soap sculpture contests for school
aged children. Bernays’s brochure with soap
sculptures tips, which millions of children
received in their schools, advised them to “use
discarded models for face, hands, and bath.”
ii. Torches of Liberty
1. Hired by the American Tobacco Company to tap
the woman’s market by countering the social
taboo of women smoking in public. During the
NY Easter Parade, each waving a lit cigarette and
wearing a banner proclaiming it a “torch of
iii. Light’s Golden Jubilee
1. Celebrate 50th anniversary of Thomas Edison’s
invention of the electric light bulb, Bernays
arranged the worldwide attention-getting Lights
Golden Jubilee in 1929. The world’s utilities
would shut off their power all at one time for one
minute to honor Edision.
iii. Doris Fleischman
1. Went to work for EB in 1919-married in 1922
2. Signed an agreement making them 50/50 business partners
3. “She recognized her ideas might be treated as a woman’s rather
than judged on their merits, so she decided to withdraw from
personal relations with clients. I conferred with her after the clients
d. World War II (1930-1945)
i. Persuasion theory as social science-Hitler
e. Postwar Era (1945-1965)
f. Global information age (1965-present)
II. Other Early Pioneers
a. Samuel Insull (Chicago Edison Co.)
i. Customer relations, news releases, films, bill stuffers
1. Bill stuffers a technique that inserted company information into
b. Henry Ford
i. “Fam” tours, car racing, positioning, employee relations
ii. Motion of positing the idea that credit and publicity always go to those who do something first.
iii. The idea of being accessible to the press
iv. Garnered further publicity and became the hero of working men and women by being the first automaker to double his worker’s wages to $5 a day. Business is a service, not a bonanza
c. Teddy Roosevelt
i. News conferences and press interviews
ii. Master at promoting and publicizing his pet projects. First president to make extensive use of news conferences and press interviews to drum up public conservationist and knew the publicity value of the presidential tour.
d. George Creel
i. Persuasion and public opinion for war effort
ii. He was asked by President Woodrow Wilson to organize a massive PR effort to unite the nation and to influence world opinion during WWI. iii. Public awareness of the power of mediated information in shaping public opinion and behavior.
e. Arthur Page (AT&T)
i. Comprehensive corporate communication (1927)
ii. Establishing the concept that PR should have an active voice in higher management.
iii. Laying the foundation for the field of corporate PR.
iv. Page’s principles:
1. Tell the truth
2. Action speaks louder than words
3. Always listen to the consumer
4. Anticipate PR and eliminate practices that cause conflict
5. PR is a management and policy-making function that impacts the entire company
6. Keep a sense of humor, exercise judgment and keep a cool head in times of crisis.
f. P.T. Barnum
i. Best represents the hype and press agentry of the 19th century ii. Master of what historian Daniel Boorstin calls the pseudovent 1. Planned happening that occurs primarily for the purpose of being reported
a. Cutting ribbon, giant check, etc.
iii. Used flowerly language, exaggeration, controversy, massive advertising, and publicity to promote his various attractions in an age when the public was hungry for any form of entertainment.
iv. Encouraged public debate about her background and age because it generated not only media coverage but the sale of tickets as the public came to see for themselves.
v. Barnum exhibit that generated controversy was the Fejee Mermaid, a stuffed reature that was half-monkey and half-fish.
1. Quoted some clerics who said it might be possible to merge species but that the public should come to his American Museum in NY and judge for themselves
vi. Tom Thumb became one of America’s first media celebrities. 1. Midget 2 feet tall and weighing 15 pounds.
vii. The traveling circus
1. The lion got off the train and he called the media to come report it. g. James Grunig
i. Brought the PR into the academic field
1. Four Models of PR
a. Press Agentry/Public Model
i. One-way communication: truth is no essential
1. Purpose: Propaganda
a. Uses persuasion and manipulation to
influence audience to behave as the
organization desires. Uses little research,
used today in sports, theater, product
b. Public Information Model
i. One-way communication truth IS important
1. Purpose: Disseminate Information
a. Uses press releases and other one-way
communication techniques to distribute
organization information. PR practitiones is
often referred to as the “journalist in
residence.” Used in government, non
c. Two-way Asymmetrical Model
i. Two-way communication; imbalanced
1. Purposed: Scientific Persuasion
a. Uses persuasion and manipulation to
influence audience to behave as the
organization desires. Research is formative
and evaluates attitudes. Used in
competitive business and by agencies.
d. Two-way Symmetrical Model
i. Two-way communication; balanced effects
1. Purpose: Mutual understanding
a. Uses communication to negotiate with
publics, resolve conflict, and promote
mutual understanding and respect
between the organization and its public(s).
Research evaluates understanding. Used in
regulated business and by agencies. Gruig
calls this Excellent PR.
III. Historical Tactics Were As Varied As They Are Today
a. Brochures, pamphlets, books, etc.
b. Plays, music and art
c. Third-party endorsements
d. Slogans and symbols
e. Media coverage and press monitoring
f. Publicity stunts and special events
g. Speeches and public meetings
h. Audience segmentation
IV. Global Information Age
a. Democracy and growth in power of public opinion
b. Instantaneous communication
c. Accountability of organizations
d. Power of activists and interest groups
e. Ethics and professional standards
f. Issues management
a. Globalization, multiculturalism, internationalization
b. Transparency/ Corporate social responsibility
c. Media shifts: fragmented and 24/7; rise of social media & decline of traditional media
d. Proliferation of segmented publics
e. Environmental concerns (CSR)
f. Feminization of the profession, need for diversity
g. Increased management role of PR; emphasis on issues management
h. Increased use of research for decision making
i. Increased specializations (investor relations, political, crisis, etc.)
j. Outsourcing to PR firms
Ethics and Professionalism
1. Arthur Page Society (established corporate communication)
a. Tell the truth
b. Prove it with action
c. Listen to the customer
d. Manage for tomorrow
e. Conduct public relations as if the whole company depends on it
f. Remain calm, patient, and good-humored
2. Business Ethics
• The study of standards of conduct and moral judgments in business settings. The system or code of morals of a particular group of professionals.
3. What govern ethical decision-making?
• Tradition: what has been done in the past
• Public opinion: What is socially acceptable
• Law: What is legally prohibited
• Morality: internal, spiritual, religious guidelines
• Ethics: personal beliefs based on conscience and standards of the profession (Professional Codes of Ethics)
❖ Three basic value orientations:
o Absolute (right/wrong)
o Existential (start over every time you reason)
o Situational (Laws)
❖ Intuitive value orientation
o The Golden Rule
o The Gut Test
o The Headline Test
4. Ethical Development
a. Gut reaction ???? Rules/codes/convention ???? Ethical reflection & reasoning 5. Considerations for making ethical PR decisions
• Public Interest
• Employer interest
• Personal values
• Standards of the profession
6. PSRA (Public Relations Society of America)
-Code of Ethics
7. Other Groups
• IABC (International Association of Business Communicators)
• IPRA (International Public Relations Association)
Public Relations Departments and Firms
PR through a company’s eyes
1. Larger, more complex organizations tend to value public relations more a. Power = communication closely aligned with company’s strategic goals b. Reducing costs of litigation, boycotts
c. Preventing lost revenue
d. Increasing income
e. Improving morale
f. Maintaining good working relationships and goods will
a. Types of Firms
Small, Mid-Size, Regional or boutique
Large agencies (often owned-by media conglomerates)
Specialized firms: Lobbyists, political, consultants
b. Counseling emphasized, but revenue comes from tactical work
c. Services provided by firms: Marketing communications, Executive speech training, Research and evaluation, Crisis communication, Media analysis, Community relations, Events management, Public affairs, Branding and corporate reputation, Financial relations
3. Disadvantages and Advantages of a Firm
a. Superficial grasp of client/problem
b. Lack of full time commitment
c. Need for prolonged briefing period
e. Only knows what client reveals
f. Broad media contacts
g. International reach
h. Variety of skills, expertise, and specialization
i. Objectivity/broader perspective
j. Extensive resources
4. Department (corporate communications)
a. The executive in charge of a corporate communications department usually has one of three titles: Manager, Director, Vice President, or Chief Communications Officer
b. Job Levels in PR
• Entry-Level Technician
5. Firms vs. PR Departments
⦿ Worldwide network
⦿ Pressure to perform
⦿ Depth and commitment
⦿ Institutional knowledge, both good and bad
⦿ Focused attention
⦿ Often more localized
⦿ Less time pressure
1. Why Research?
• To make communication efforts effective
• To increase two-way communication
• To learn from the successes and mistakes of other campaigns
• To scan the environment
• Intrinsic value of research
• We can’t afford it (10% of budget is research)
• We don’t have enough time
• We already know what the result will be
• The project is unique and has never been done before
• We don’t know where to start
The best way to get that information: the question drives the method
3. Categories of Research
• Casual or informal vs. formal research
Formal (quantitative): Generalizability, random samples, margin of error
• Secondary vs. Primary research
Secondary: “Let’s Google it.”
• Qualitative vs. Quantitative research
Qualitative: gain insight into how individuals behave, think, and make decisions. Primary techniques
1) Content analysis
3) Focus groups
4) Copy testing
5) Ethnographic observations and role playing
Quantitative: demands scientific rigor and proper sampling procedures so that information will be representative of the general population.
• The measurement of results against the established objectives set during the planning process
• The measurement of results against the established objective set during the planning process
• Build an evaluation plan into your overall plan by setting measureable objectives • Why Evaluate?
2. The Process
• Start at the beginning
o Make sure the PR campaign starts with the evaluation process
• Establish objectives
o What it is you seek to accomplish
o How does this link to the overall goals of the organization?
• Establish the difference between “outputs” and “outcomes”
o Outputs: What gets in media channels, ex: number of mentions
o Outcomes: Did the PR effort effect change?
• Use operational definitions
o Awareness means… Trust means… Action means…
• Decide on measurement tools
• Determine periods of measurement, as applicable
o Awareness of key messages
o Post- campaign awareness
o Retention after one year
• Clearly define the target audience
o Donors who give over $1000/year
o Dog owners with a new puppy
• Clearly articulate the key message
• Identify the communication channels
• Surveys (online, mail, phone)
• Observational Research
• Internet Traffic
• Content Analysis
• Focus Groups
• In-Depth and Executive Interviews
• Media Content Analysis
o Coding and Counting
▪ Type Media
▪ Initiating Source
▪ Reach (# impressions, circulation)
▪ Topic (subject focus)
o Web Content Analysis
▪ As above
▪ Counting “hits” or “click-through”
o Trade Show/Event Measurement
-Number of Attendees
-Types of Attendees
-Amount of Material Distributed
-Type of Material Taken, e.g., Vet program
o Public Opinion Polls
-Short-term Impact Assessment, e.g., brief survey after
• Mission: General Statement
• Goal: Wishes to accomplish
• Objectives: How we measure the progress towards goal
• Strategies: General approach
• Tactics: What you are specifically doing to achieve objective
• Calendar and Timetable: Time you spend on a project
• Budget: How much it will it cost:
• Evaluation: Was it successful?
-PR will never be a license profession
• Can’t deny freedom of expression
• Must be a compelling state interest
-Evaluation: Build an evaluation plan into your overall plan by setting measurable objectives • Same research methods- at end to see how effective it was
• Outputs: What gets in the media channels
• Outcomes: (Public) Did the PR effort effect change?
- Objective: Informational/Modirational
What we want the audience to do
- Evaluation: Starts at the beginning
Planning comes in at action
Mission ???? Goals ???? Objective ???? Strategies ???? Tactics
-Strategies: Something you do.
Who can help us? (Audience)
What do we want them to do? (Objective) How do we reach them? (Tactic)