Exam study guide 1
Exam study guide 1 clas260-01
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to clas260-01 at George Mason University taught by Arans in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Legacy of Greece & Rome in Classical Studies at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Introduction The Legacy of the Classical World 0 GREECE AND ROME Dead cultures and languages They are called the CLASSICAL world Why 0 Classical lt Lat classis order organized group eet classi cation social group I The word clasical has two opposite meanings I Excellent outstanding classical music to have a class I Typical common a classical case of common cold 0 Perhaps the meaning exemplary representative would satisfy to both semantic aspects of classical 0 Accordingly the heritage of Greece and Rome has been regarded over the centuries as the common frame of reference a criterion of human affairs Every consequent age has been using the classical legacy as the frame of reference of its own contemporary issues in essence every age has discovered and rediscovered the classics for itself adapting it for its own set of problems or particular demands Essentially every age has been looking into the classical antiquity as in the mirror nding a re ection of itself And as the times changed so has been changing the whole picture of the classical world Re ections on the Classical Heritage by the successive periods of European History 0 Hellenistic period 323 BC death of Alexander AD 31 death of Cleopatra O Alexandrian scholarship Greek amp Latin are still alive languages of the local cultures Literature is studied in the Alexandrian Museum Scholarship of Pergamum 0 Middle Ages VIXII c AD 0 Philosophical Scholasticism Greek is forgotten in Western Europe Latin becomes the language of the church and school Catholic dogmatics is the focus of scholarship Aristotelian logic is applied to theological disputes between the socalled Nominalists amp Realists on the principle of Universals o Renaissance XIIIXV c O Humanism Fall of Constantinople to Turks 1453 Greek scholars ee to Italy with their manuscripts interest to Greek language and literature grows together with the awareness of the world at large I Humanists rst classicist in the modern sence students of the dead languages turn away from the Catholic dogmatics towards the study of human issues 0 Enlightenment XVIII c O Neoclassicism The Age of Reason Scienti cal disciplines shape Classical antiquity is enthroned as the ultimate norm of aesthetical values 0 Rise of freedom XIX c O Romanticism The wave of revolutions Independent middle class grows and claims its equal rights in society Ideals of equality brotherhood liberty of the French revolution Individualism prevails as intellectual mood For German romanticists classical world is no longer regarded as a norm but one tradition among many comparative study of cultures emerges 0 Modern times XX c 0 Growth of archaeology cooperation of humanities and technology Ever since Heinrich Schliemann39s 18221890 archeological discovery of Troy Mycene and the reality of the Homeric world the vision of the past has changed towards a more systematic and rigorous search for facts However the Classical world in itself was far from that schematic criterion tailored to re ect the views of posterity neither had the ancient world remained the same over the many centuries of its own history In fact classical antiquity is the most diverse contradictory and variable continuum of human experience What we owe classical world 0 Writing and language in particular Romance languages Literary genres Theater Arts Architecture Sciences Law oratory History Philosophy 0 To a degree religion Christianity originated in the Roman Empire 0 Sports Practice Alexandrian scholars Hellenistic period Growth of archaeology Modern times humanists Renaissance Neoclassicism Enlightenment Romanticism rise of freedom Scholasticism Middle Ages Historical periods in chronological order Hellenistic period Middle Ages Renaissance Enlightenment rise of freedom modern times Periods of Classical Antiquity Period Events Cultural Traits Neolithic Helladic Early Minoan Crete after 0 quotNeolithic Revolutionquot 60003500 BC legendary King Minos son of introduction of Zeus and Europa agricultural husbandry o Megalithic constructions in Malta and other places of Europe cf Stone Henge gallery of Tiryns 0 Cycladic pottery 0 quotDaedalicquot sculpture Bronze Age Minoan 350016OO BC First European civilization advanced peaceful artloving stable Succumbed to a series of earthquakes explosion of the island of Thera 16OO BC Mycenean conquest Mycenaean 20001000 BC named after its central city Mycenae famous for its lions gate the capital of Agamemnon who lead the Greek forces against Troy Trojan War 1200 BC Characteristic with fortified strongholds surrounding its dynastic palaces a feature unknown to Minoans Mastery of copperbased metalcraft quotLabyrinthquot citypalace of Knossus o Minoan cult of the sacred bull Minotaur double aXlabrys Fortresspalaces of Mycenae Tiryns Thebes etc Linear B syllabic writing Greek Dark Age 1000800 BC Dorian Invasion quotReturn of the Heraclidsquot Collapse of the Mycenean civilization Iron weapons introduced 0 Writing forgotten Geometric Orientalizing pottery Epic poems 0 Homer Iliad Odyssey 0 Hesiod T heogony Works and Days Archaic 8005OO BC Greek Ionian colonies in Asia Minor Period of populist quottyrantsquot in Greek citystates Alphabetical writing adopted from Phoenician Early lyric poets Archilochus Sappho et al PreSocratic philosophy 0 Ionian philosophy Thales AnaXimander Heraclitus O Pythagorean gt Eleatic philosophy Pythagoras Xenophanes Thales Heraclitus Pythagoras et al Archaic style of sculpture Classical 500323 BC Early Classical 500403 BC 0 Greek polis citystate o Persian Wars 0 Ionian rebellion 499494 BC Miletus destroyed O Persian invasions repelled 490479 BC I Battle of Marath on 490 BC I Battles of Thermo pylae Salamis 480 BC 0 Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta 431404 BC 0 quotThirty Tyrantsquot in Athens 404403 BC Late Classical 403323 BC death of Alexander quotThe Age of Periclesquot in Athens Parthenon temple of Athena the Maiden Classical sculpture o Phidias 490417 BC 0 Myron 480after 430 BC 0 Polycletus later 5 c BC 0 PraXiteles mid 4 c BC 0 Lysippus later 4 c BC Classical pottery Attic drama 0 Tragedy I Aeschyl us 52545 6 BC I Sophocl es 49640 6 BC I Euripid es 48040 o The rise of Macedonian 5 BC control 0 quotOld Comedyquot 0 Philip II I Aristop conquers hanes Greece Battle 42738 of Chaeronea 8 BC 338 0 Philosopohy 0 Alexander 0 Socrates conquers the 469399 BC East 334323 sentenced to death 0 Plato 4428347 BC 0 Aristotle 384322 BC 0 Attic oratory O Lysias 458380 BC 0 Aeschines 389314 BC 0 Demosthenes 384322 BC 0 Historians o Herodotus 484425 BC 0 Thucydides 465400 BC 0 Xenophon 430354 BC Hellenistic 32331 BC Monarchies of the Diadochi 0 Growth of philosophical Successors of Alexander trends Antigonus Macedonia 0 Academic and Greece Skeptic Rome moves in O Epicurean destruction of O Stoic Corinth 146 O Cynic BC 0 quotNew Comedyquot Antiochus Seleucid Menander 342291 BC monarchy Syria Near o Alexandrian Library East Museum Rome moves in 0 Versatility indiViduality dominates the of artistic eXpression Near East by 0 Greek culture 188 BC transcends Greek Maccab territories spreading ean East and West Revolts in Palestin e 1 661 0 5 Attalus Pergamum Bequeated to Rome 133 BC Ptolemy Egypt Rome moves in Battle of Actium and suicide of the last Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra 31 BC Greece gradually becomes a Roman province cultural sanctuary of the Roman empire Religious syncretism Technical wonders of Hellenistic world Pharos Colossus of Rhodes etc Eratosthenes 24O BC advancements of science Polybius 210120 BC interpreted the domination of Rome Roman 30 80 AD 476 Early Rome Kingdom 753510 BC Rome founded on April 21 753 BC Initial expansion conquest of Italic neighbors miXing in conquering the Etruscan world Republic 51031 BC Early Republic Punic Wars against Carthage 264241 218201 149146 BC Social clashes the Gracchi reforms movement 133 122 BC Late Republic Slave uprisals Sicilian Wars 136132 BC Spartacus 7173 BC etc Civil Wars Sulla vs Marius 8879 BC Roman comedy lt Greek quotNew Comedyquot 0 Plautus 254184 BC 0 Terence 195159 BC Gladiatorial shows popular entertainment of Rome Latin prose Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder 234149 BC writer political gure Golden Age of Roman literature 80 BCl4 iucretius Carus 9455 BC On the Nature of T hingsphilo sophical poem Marcus Tullius Cicero 10643 BC orator philosopher public gure Catilinarian Conspiracy 63 BC Caesar vs Pompey 48 BC 0 Pompey conquers the East 6662 BC Caesar Western Europe Gallic War 5852 BC 0 Julius Caesar dictator 4844 BC Empire Octavian Augustus consolidates imperial power 31 BC JulioClaudian imperial house 31 BC68 AD Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Flavian imperial house 6996 AD Vespasian Titus Domitian O Suppression of Judaea Jerusalem Temple destroyed by Titus 70 AD 0 Vesuvius eruption destroys Pompeii and Herculaneum AD 79 Maximal extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan 98117 AD Hadrian 117138 AD Imperial houses of Antonini 13 8192 AD and Severi 193235 AD 0 Walls across Britain of Hadrian 13O AD of Gaius Julius Caesar 10244 BC writer memoirist general dictator Valerius Catullus 84c54 BC lyrical poet of a gret personal intencity Elegy o Albius Tibullus 5419 BC 0 Sextus Propertius c48 BC Vergil P Vergilius Maro 7019 BC Aeneid etc Horace Q Horatius Flaccus 658 BC lyrical poet of impeccable form Ovid P Ovidius Naso 43 BC18 AD Metamorphoses F asti Amores T ristia etc Titus Livy 59 BCl7 AD historian of Rome Silver Age of Roman literature 14140 AD Seneca 4 BC65 AD tragedian philosopher Petronius midl cAD Salyric0npicaresque novel Martial 45104 AD epigrammatist Pliny C Plinius Secundus 62113 AD man of letters dignitary Tacitus 55117 AD historianmoralist Juvenal c 55127 AD poetsatirist In Greek Lucian 2 Antoninus 14O AD 0 Judea revolt of BarKohba deportation of the J ews diaspora 1 3 2 1 3 5 AD 0 Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 161 1 80 AD Diocletian divides the empire into East and West 293 AD 0 Persecution of Christians Constantine adopts Christianity the Milan Edict of Toleration 313 AD moves the capital to Byzantium renames the city Constantinople 330 AD 0 Julian the Apostate 3613 63 AD attempts to revive paganism Rome sacked by Visigoths 476 AD Odoacer King of Rome End of the Western Roman Empire cAD Dialogues etc parody satire Marcus Aurelius 121180 AD Roman emperor Stoic philosopher Meditations Neoplatonic philosophy 0 Plotinus 205262 AD 0 Porphyry 233c300 AD 0 Julian Apostate 3323 63 ADHymns polemical discourses Patristic AgeSt Jerome 348420 AD VulgateBible transl St Augustine 3 54430 ADConfeSSionS Byzantine AD 3301453 Emperor Justinian 527565 AD codi es the Roman LaW Code of Justinian The Eastern Roman Empire gt Byzantine Empire of Medieval times its capital Constantinople sacked by Turks in 1453 Christianity separates into WesternRoman Catholic and Eastern Greek Orthodoxal Churches AD 529 Justinian closes schools teaching philosophy in Athens the end of the pagan antiquity 2 Code of Justinian AD 540 systematization of the Roman law Classical Religion and Mythology Sources of Classical Religion 0 Natural religion polytheism Gk p0ly many 2603 god Paganism Lat pagi rural areas elds The origins of particular deities and cults are mostly unknown 0 Greek religion 0 IndoEuropean IE gods myths I Zeus the Father Zeuspater lt Sanskr Dyaus Pitar gt Lat Juppiter I Divine Twins Dioscouri Sanskr Aswins the Twin Horsemen I Centaurs Sanskr Gandhauri funloving horsemen o Anatolian amp Semitic in uences I Athena lt Chanaanite Anat I Aphrodite lt Babylonian Istar Astarte 0 Local herocults I Theseus Athens Heroking I Adrastus Argos Prophet I Iphigenia Brauron Attica Sacri ced maiden priestess 0 Roman religion 0 IE gods I Juppiter lt Dyaus pitar I Diana div dev day 0 Greek gods identi ed with the Latin I Zeus Jupiter king of gods Ares Mars war Hera Juno queen of gods Artemis Diana hunt moon Athena Minerva wisdom war crafts I Hermes Mercury trade 0 Local lt Etruscan deities of particular moment Lat numen an uncertain divine essence I Aius Locutius quotSpoken Voicequot warned against the invasion of the Gauls 4 c BC I Mamurius Veturius Old Mars New year39s old man I Anna Perenna Perennial Year New year39s old hag etc I Janus doors time change Main shrines of worship 0 Eleusis The Great Mysteries of the Two Goddesses Demeter and PersephoneKore the Mother and the Maiden Delphi The center of the world oracle of Apollo under the Mount Parnassus 0 Olympia The precinct of Zeus in Peloponnesus place of the Olympic Games Major themes of classical mythology 0 Cosmogony Theogony 0 Mysterymyths amp cults Nativity passions deathrebirth 0 Heroic saga ancestral herocult Perseus Heracles Theseus Argo 0 Family feuds O Argos saga House of Pelopides Agamemnon and Clytemnestra Orestes the matricide o Theban saga I House of Cadmus Pentheus vs Dionysus I House of Labdacus Oedipus King 0 Athenian saga House of Aegeus Theseus Hippolytus and Phaedra 0 Great Wars 0 The Trojan War 0 quotSeven against Thebesquot o Epigoni Correlation between Myth and Historical Period 0 Prehistoric Protodynastic O Perseus IE Persia Arya arcetypal heromyth o Heracles 0 Early navigation Minoan civilization 0 Theseus amp Minotaur Crete o The Argonauts Caucasus o Mycenaean Greece O Dynastic curses Royal houses of Argos and Thebes O Theban wars Seven against Thebes Epigoni o Trojan War Cosmogony 0 Chaos gt Eros gt cosmos 0 GeUranus gt Titans gt Cronos vs Zeus gt Olympians o Prometheus vs Zeus stole re from the gods for mortals o Pandora box of evils Eve 0 Flood Passionmyths 0 Persephone abducted married to Hades annual return Eleusinian myth Daphne maiden pursued by Apollo turned into a laureltree Adonis Lover of Aphrodite killed by the wild bar annual return Phaeton Son of the Sun crashed the father39s chariot Icarus ew too close to the Sun on arti cial Wings fell in the sea Hyacinth accidentally killed by Apollo39s discus became a ower 0 Narcissus in love with his re ection withered away and became a ower Older Heroes 0 Perseus Thrown in the sea with mother killed Medusa saved maried Andromeda o Heracles The 12 Labors o Theseus Athens killed the Minotaur in the Cretan Labyrinth citypalace of Knossus Family Curses 0 Oedipus inadvertently killed his father married the mother 0 Orestes killed his mother avenging the father39s murder 0 Medea killed children to avenge the divorce 0 Hippolytus was destroyed by stepmother Phaedra39s passion Roman Legends Aeneas escaped from Troy to settle in Italy Romulus amp Remus Nursed by the wolf Sabine girls Abducted to make rst Roman Wives Tarpeia Throvvn off the rock Geese saved Rome from the Gauls 395 BC Philosophy of the Classical World PreSocratic Ionian Pythagorean gt Eleatic o Thales 580 BC 0 Pythagoras 57O BC 0 Heraclitus 54O BC 0 Parmenides 54O BC 0 Anaxagoras 44O BC 0 m 5OO BC 0 Democritus 420 BC 0 Melissus 5OO BC 0 Fluid transitory world 0 Monolithic static world 0 Reality of nature 0 Reality of logic numbers 0 Change life 0 Change death SOPHISTS Itinerant professors charged fee taught persuasive argument regardless of the truth 0 Protagoras 45O BC 0 Gorgias 44O BC gt SOCRATES 420 BC Never wrote Moral concern gt PLATO 37O BC Opened Academy Ideal world Transmigration of soul gt ARISTOTLE 35O BC Opened Lyceum Formal logic Systematic knowledge MAJOR PHILOSOPHICAL SCHOOLS CYNICS STOICS ACADEMICSI EPICUREANS Dogs Stoa SKEPTICS Epicurus 0 Survival on o Divine Academia 0 Individual the minimum providence 0 Minimal re nement o Perseverance assumptions 0 NO divine o Doubt providence suspended o PIeasureprin judgement ciple GNOSTICS gt CHRISTIAN HERESIES NeoPythagoreanism NeoPlatonism Christianity Sacred knowledge salvation Sophia Wisdom as the World Soul NQF erDN 9 What famous group liked to hang out in the Stoa Poikile Stoics Thaless of Miletus explained that he loved children therefore he had no children According to Heraclitus one cannot enter twice into the same River Socrates main innovation was moral focus Plato s main impact is his theory of ideas Aristotle s main contribution was formal logic Diogenes search with the lantern for man Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antonius was a Stoic The skeptic Carneades shocked the Romans by ability to argue any point 10 Lathe biosas hide having lived is the precept of Epicurus 11 Simon Magus was the founder of Gnosticism 12 The following womenphilosophers a Phemonoe instructed Thales b Diotima instructed Socrates c Hypatia instructed a Christian writer Synesius d Hipparchia chose poverty over wealth Iden ca on lonian inquiry into physical elements world changing moving plural principle of conflict Eleatic inquiry into numerical principles world immobile and monolithic movement is a paradox transmigration of souls AcademicSkeptic systematic knowledge suspended judgement Epicurean hedonism freedom from gods and destiny Cynic no work freedom from basic needs divine destiny freedom from passions hard labor NeoPythagorean amp Gnostic transmigration of souls Fall of Soul her wanderings redemption and return to god Philosophers Ideology Neoclassicism sphere of reason and harmony Enlightenment established norms of artistic expression Romanticism unique individualities of the spirit of challenge and rebellion Anthropological school parallel to folklore myths and rituals of modern traditional societies Psychoanalytical approach illustrative set of the primal images universally present in human mind To what period belongs Alexandrian library Hellenistic attic drama Classical Caesar s conquest of Gaul Roman Homer Dark Ages Trojan War Mycenaean Location that was direct antecedent of the Greek world Minaon domination of Italy Etruscan Medieval Europe Roman stole the fire Prometheus opened box of evilsPandora fell from sky wings melted Icarus Fell from sky Phaeton Fell in love with himself Narcissus Heroes Perseus cut off Medusa s head and saved Andromeda Heracles completed 12 Labors Jason was the leader of Argonauts Theseus killed Minotaur in the Labyrinth Murders in the family Oedipus killed father and married mother Orestes killed mother to avenge father Medea killed children from unfaithful husband Phaedra was consumed by the fatal attraction to stepson Dysfunctional marriages AgamemnonClytemnestra JasonMedea TheseusPhaedra Which trend presocratic philosophy Ionian Eleatic Eleatic Ionian Which philosopher Thales first philosopher Heraclitus universal principle crying philosopher Democritus atomistic concept of matter laughing philosopher Pythagoras advocated numerical mysticism and metempsychosis author of famous geometrical theorem What did Socrates Plato and Aristotle believe Socrates called himself obstetrician of wisdom famous for his irony Plato asserted the ideas as the only reality Aristotle set forth the logical principles of formal argument Which school of philosophy Cynics took the vow of poverty Skeptics took the vow of suspended judgement Stoics relied on Divine Providence Epicureans Denied the existence of Divine Providence
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