COM 107 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
COM 107 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE COM 107
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Date Created: 09/27/15
I COM 107 Exam 1 Study Guide Media Society and Culture How is the socialization process selfregulated a In today s world the mass availability and sophisticated nature of technology and media put forth on technological mediums like TV radio and especially the internet allows us to choose whether or not we want to interact with others and how much we want to interact with them Additionally people can select what media they choose to consume and what outlets they receive their information from so they choose where and from who they get their information from According to Campbell what are the characteristics of high culture and low culture a High Culture 1 Ballet the symphony art museums and classic literature 2 Associated with good taste higher education 3 Sponsored by wealthy patrons and corporate donors 4 Associated with fine art which is available in libraries theaters and museums Low culture 1 AKA house popular culture 2 Includes soap operas rock music radio shock jocks and video games 3 Associated with questionable tastes and preferences of the masses 4 People who enjoy commercial junk circulated by mass media 5 Examples are reality TV celebrity gossip websites Critics have developed at least five areas of concern about low culture the depreciation of fine art the exploitation of high culture the disposability of pop culture the driving out of high culture and the deadening of our cultural taste buds According to Lecture what are the 4 values of modern culture and the 4 values of postmodern culture and how do they differ a Modern culture dependent on society and culture 1 Celebration of the individual our society is individualistic rather than collectivist Some other societies are collectivist They value the family and the success of the groups others more than they value the success of the individual and the individual s ambistions and desires 2 Working efficiently this was the time that factories and mass production were becoming more widespread and popular 3 Belief in rational order 4 Rejection of tradition citizens began to believe that we needed our own ideas and culture so European traditions were beginning to be rejected and questioned b Postmodern culture 1 Antihierarchy 2 Diversifying and recycling culture 3 Questioning scientific reasoning while embracing tech movies like Jurassic world planet of the apes all question what bad things may come as a result of technological advancement 4 Acknowledging paradox These two eras differ in that while modern culture was all about the in ux of new ideas and cultural in uences postmodern culture focuses a lot on recycling culture we have fewer new ideas But at the same time both encourage a questioning of culture in one form or another D What are the differences between the skyscraper and the map models of culture a b In the skyscraper model culture is separated into high and low culture A question that always surrounds high culture is whether things are elite or actually of higher quality In the map model there are recognizable features across all areas of culture stock characters settings or plots are used in TV shows movies etc However there was some unfamiliar territory explored This was innovative and new but not TOO different Another key component of map culture is that because the mediums we consume information are changing culture includes the device we use along with what we view B What are the 5 stages of the Media Literacy process a Description paying close attention taking notes and researching the subject under study If we can describe a particular story or piece of media then we can begin to compare it to other similar stories and recognize other ways to tell the story Analysisdiscovering and focusing on significant patterns that emerge from the description stage We isolate patterns that call for closer attention Interpretation asking and answering what things mean and questioning one s findings We try to determine the meanings of the patterns that we have analyzed This demands an answer to the so what question Evaluation arriving at a judgement about whether something is good bad mediocre which involves subordinating one s personal taste to the critical bigger picture resulting from the first three stages Focuses on making an informed critical judgement In this stage of the processs we can grasp the strengths and weaknesses of news media under study and make critical judgements against what we belive and our perspectives Engagement taking some action that connects our critical perspective with our role as citizens to question our media institutions adding our own voice to the process of shaping the cultural environment May include participation in the creation of mainstream or alternative media This stage encourages us to challenge our civic imaginations and refuse to sit back and complain about the media without taking action that allows us to put our own voice in the process PAGE 569 CASE STUDY 1 Description you will need to not only draw on your own experiences but research the experience of others Analysis isolate patterns that emerged from research Interpretation determine the larger meanings of patterns you have analyzed Evaluation consider what happens to other people 5 Engagement take action and add your own voice to our culture and society P99 F The linear model of communication a b There is a linear process that is used to produce and deliver messages to large audiences It proceeds as follows II Senders authors producers organizations Transmit messages programs texts images sounds and ads 3 Through a mass media channel newspapers books magazines radio TV or the internet 4 To large groups of receivers readers viewers consumers 5 During the process gatekeepers editors producers etc are the message filters 6 This process allows the gatekeepers and the senders to get feedback c The problem with the linear model is that things hardly ever go smoothly from sender directly to receiver Senders have little control over how intended messages are decoded or if they ignored or not What is meant by media convergence a Changes that have a great impact on how media companies are charting a course for the future b Involves the technological merging of content across different media channels magazine articles radio programs songs etc now available on the intemet through laptops tablets and smartphones c There is technological overlap also cross platforms which is when companies have a business model that includes various media holdings like cable phone and internet access d There is audience overlap e cultural overlap f Developing norms and rules For which mass medium did the speed of communication first surpass the speed of transportation a Radio What are the differences between Passive and Active media exposure a In active exposure we choose to be exposed to whatever media we are exposed to Ex turning on the TV to watch a show checking our Instagram reading texts This is something that we want to and choose to be exposed to b In passive exposure we don t neccesarily choose to be exposed to whatever media is put in front of us Ex driving past a billboard seeing ads on a public bus or in a subway station What is selective exposure a People usually seek messages and produce meanings from media that correspond to their own cultural beliefs values and interests Ex people that lean toward the left or right politically seek out blogs or outlets that correspond with their ideals 4 types of Communication a One to one Phone calls text messages emails b One to few group messages creation of facebook groups and posting in them teaching to a group c Few to few group emails radio talk shows internet blogs d One to many television broadcasting radio broadcasting newspaper articles online articles Are people in this class afraid of missing out a Yes based on the survey Ni Do people in this class approve of others using cell phones while they are in conversation a No they find it quite offensive Media Effects Why did the concept of mass society develop and what are the characteristics of the mass audience of this type of society a Mass society is a society that holds all the different aspects of culture such as the music beliefs customs etc certain aspects of culture are well respected by the mass audience and considered to be classic because they can be interpreted across the entire mass society and resonate with nearly everyone in mass society What do the Magic Bullet Hypodermic Needle theories predict a They predicted the in uence that media would have on members of society due to their vunerablilty and the power that mass media wields What did the Payne Fund Studies investigate and what did they find a The Payne studies investigated whether or not wheter or not violent or provocative movie content was dangerous due to its ability to in uence people b They found that the movie content did have an effect on viewers People were most effected by words phrases and fashion that they saw in movies and other media c There wasn t truly a discovered effect of the media in terms of people becoming more promiscuous and violent but people believed that the media was evil and had a tremendously negative effect on its audience Know the answers to the discussion questions for the video Invasion from Mars Who was most likely to believe that the radio program was real a Who was affected 1 People with lower levels of education 2 Most people who believed the story had heard about it from friends b Why were people concerned 1 It was during the W2 era at a time when there was widespread and exaggerated nazi propaganda 2 This type of propaganda focused on covert systematic persuasion What are formal features and how did these in uence audiences perceptions of the War of the Worlds broadcast a Formal features are the structural and stylistic guidelines that constitute how a certain type of media is presented to the audience In the war of the worlds broadcast they mixed the broadcast in with classical music which was the way that most breaking news was put forth during that time What were wireside chats and why were these initially criticized a The wireside chats were periodic speeches that the president would give to a national audience over the radio The public became accustomed to hearing the president every week or so They gave people the opportunity to know what their president s voice sounded like What were the characteristics of Nazi propaganda How do these relate or apply to current propaganda campaigns a Nazi propaganda had the following features 1 Effective control of mass media 2 Covert systematic persuasion 3 Behavioral attitudinal and societal change b Current propaganda also takes control of mass media outlets and employs systematic methods of persuasion Why were Frank Capra s Why We Fight films produced What was the impact of these films on soldiers knowledge opinions and willingness to fight a They were produced to ralped foster lly support behind the war effort They succeded and helped foster a greater sense of patriotism in the face of WW2 What does Social Cognitive Theory Social Learning Theory predict What factors in uence the modeling process Be able to identify examples a This is the theory that we as humans can learn things through consuming media and we don t have to have a face to face interaction to learn a concept We can model or learn behavior through observation b A good example is Albert Bandura s experiment 1 He showed children film of other people being punished for beating up a doll When the children were given the opportunity to do the same they didn t beat up the doll 2 The children who saw film of others beating up the doll would beat it up when given the opportunity c The meditated model unfortunately if this theory holds true 100 glorified heroes that use violence in their endeavors could be a dangerous in uence According to Uses amp Gratifications theory what are the different needs people use media to fulfill Be able to identify examples a Audiences actively select and use all forms of media content to fufill needs and gratify interests and motives b Different needs 1 Cognition example national geographic 2 Diversion 3 Social integration watching shows with people 4 Withdrawl mindless TV 5 Competes with other sources What does Cultivation Theory predict Be able to identify examples a It predicts that heavy viewing of TV leads people to pervcieve that the world in reality is consistent with what is portrayed on TV b For example George Gerbner found that while less than 1 of Americans are victims of violent crime on a yearly basis people who watch a lot of TV heavily overestimate this percentage c Media messages interact with us in complicated ways and are one of a number of factors that in uence our individual behavior d People that are bigtime media consumers tend to believe in the idea of the cruel world that society is more dangerous violent promiscuous and just worse than it actually is What percentage of violence on TV is performed by the hero a The percentage is What is desensitization Be able to identify examples a At first glance may seem shocking disturbing or horrifying become less shocking b Repeated exposure causes our reaction to be not as strong over time c In terms of arousal we have been exposed to women s bodies beign used to sell products so many times that the effect that it has on us is dwindling d One concern with this movement is that it increases our appetite for violent provocative material and we will increasingly crave higher intensity of the material in order to have any type of effect on us What does the Spiral of Silence theory predict III It links mass media social psychology and the formation of public opinion The theory predicts that people who feel like their views on controversial and polarizing issues are in the minority keep their opinions to themselves because they are scared of being socially isolated hence the silence Radio TV Film and Cable Initially what was the primary purpose of radio a To help ships and sailors communicate with each other and with people on the land during storms Who were Marconi and Tesla Who actually invented radio a Marconi was determined to make wireless technology practical 1 Received a patent for wireless telegraphy which was a form of voiceless point to point communication 2 Often cited as the father of radio b Tesla conceived the highcapactiy alternating current systems that made worldwide electrification possible 1 Never received financial benefit in large scale for his developments he developed a wireless system that transmits electricity in 1892 2 Much of his work was used by Marconi in his own developments 3 Wasn t associated with the invention of radio but in 1943 the court overturned Marconi s wireless patent and deemed Tesla the inventor of radio Why was the Radio Act of 1912 passed a This act was passed because at the time amateur radio operators were cramming the airwaves and interfering with important broadcasts b Legislators determined that broadcasting was a national resource and was a type of interstate commerce c Radio waves couldn t be owned a license was required to use them Can radio waves be privately owned a No they were the collective property of all Americans b A license was required to use them What broadcasting networks were Sarnoff and Paley associated with a Sarnoff was associated with NBC and the creation of the blue and the red networks b Paley was associated with CBS which was NBC s biggest challenger What is the rationale for radio networks How did they operate How did radio networks help to modernize America a A network is a cost saving operation that links a group of broadcast stations that share programming produced at one central location b The way that it would work was the network NBC for example would own a bunch of stations themselves Then independent stations would begin to affiliate with the network to receive programs They would sign conctracts to be a part of the network and would pay the network to carry its programs Costs were centralized because all of the talent was centralized on one network that produced and distributed programs c Modernization occurred because local and regional programs were deemphasized in favor of national programs that were broadcast to everyone Why was the Radio Act of 1927 passed and what did it state as the requirements for licensing a It stated the principle that licencees didn t own their channels but could only license them as long as they operated to serve the public interest b Restored order to the airwaves c Created the FRC Federal Radio Commision as regulatory agency Why were radio soap operas called soap operas a Because their sponsors were the various soap production companies What period was considered to be the Golden Age of Radio a By the 1930s there was regular news analysis on the radio quiz shows radio plays broadcast from live theaters and comedy on radio all in popular contexts What is payola a The unethical but not always illegal practice of record promoters paying DJ s or radio programmers to favor particular songs over others Why did the Federal Trade Commission FTC act against RCA in the 1930s a The government had allowed the monopoly to continue for a little while but then charged RCANBC with a bunch of violations because it exercised too much control over manufacturing and programming b After the stock market collapsed in 1929 the public became increasingly distrustful of big business so pressure from the public in uenced the government to pursue the monopoly Where did early television shows get ideas for programs and formats a Back in the day many early TV programs were developed produced and supported by a single sponsor b This way the advertiser could easily in uence the program s content Programs started moving away from using ideas from radio d Magazine program a type of TV show that featured all different sections like news talk comedy and music e Television special versions of special performances like Peter Pan and music variety shows were ran on TV f Quiz show scandals also changed the format of TV and wiped quiz shows off the air for forty years until 1999 What were the reasons for the limited growth of broadcast television in the 1940s and early 1950s a The number of stations that a city or market could support was limited because airwave frequency spectrum interfered with each other b Too many licenses were realeased so the FCC had to begin giving licenses based on location so that the waves didn t interfere c For example New Jersey had no channels for years because of the worry they would interfere with NY Channels According to the text what was the relationship between sponsors and programs in the early days of radio and television How did NBC change this in the 1950s How is the role of sponsors changing again these days a In the early days there was a single sponsor so that sponsor held massive clout in decision making for the programs because they were the main source of income b NBC increased program length from 15 minutes to 30 minutes so that sponsorship costs were raised greatly and companies were discouraged from sponsoring programs c These days According to the text what were the three major effects of the quiz show scandals 0 a Sponsors no longer had a major role in creating TV content b People began to not believe in the democratic promise of TV which was to bring inexpensive info and entertainment to all house holds c These scandals also magnified the division between high and low culture attitudes toward TV P What is an audience share and what are ratings a Audience share a statistical estimate of the percentage of homes that are tuned to a specific program compared with those using their sets at the time of the sample b Ratings a statistical estimate expressed as the percentage of households that are tuned in the market being sampled Q What are the differences between chapter programs and serial programs a Chapter programs self contained stories with a recurring set of main characters who confront a problem face a series of con icts and find a resolution 1 Ex big bang theory star trek etc b Serial programs openended episodic shows most story lines continue from episode to 1 Ex young and restless R What period was considered to be the Network Era of Television a This was the time that the television space was dominated by a few large networks and it was from the late 50s to the end of the 70s S What is meant by narrowcasting in broadcast and cable Do cable TV programs usually generate high ratings Does this matter and why a The providing of specialized programming for diverse and fragmented groups b Attracts advertisers and audiences and provide access to certain target audiences that cannot be guaranteed in bbroadvasting c Cable typically targets smaller audience so shows that uusually don t have as many viewers may be well suited for cable because many of cable s revenue dollars come from subscription fees rather than advertising T What are the differences between electronic publishers and common carriers How does this affect cable content a Electronic publishers cable operators argued that they should be considered electronic publihsers and be able to choose which channels and content to carry They wanted the same publishing freedoms and legal protections that broadcast and print media have b Common carriers The FCC thought that cable systems should be considered common carriers They believed that cable providers should provide services but shouldn t get involved in content They also believed that they cable companies should offer some of their services on a first come first serve basis to whoever could pay the rate U What are fourth screen devices a Smartphones tablets ipods ipads and mobile TV devices b Extremely multifunctional and portable V How did the use of smart phones to view TV change between 2011 amp 2013 you don t need to know the specific numbers a In 2011 cable operators began to release ipad apps that allowed subscribers to watch their live programs on their phones Now that is less popular and Net ix and services like it are more popular W How can cable target Niche Markets Be able to identify examples IV a When people subscribe to cable there are numerous channels like the golf channel MTV ESPN and other specialized channels that attract a specific audience such as music fans or sports fans What were the reasons for cable s limited growth in the period between the 1950s and the early 70s a There was an unreliable system of distribution of programming to cable companies that the introduction of satellite usage made much easier News What are the origins of the term Yellow Press What was the 6cent press a Yellow journalism extremely profitable focused on very exciting human interst stories and the concept of sensationalism b Yellow journalism was the forerunner of today s gossip an reality TV shows c 6cent press the yearly subscription for this type of paper was usually more than a week s salary for most skilled workers and their readers were mostly af uent Smaller audience These papers favored the just the facts model of journalism In the 19th Century what led to the shift from partisan to more objective journalism a Papers that began to be more impartial had increased in viewership so papers began to not be partisan or biased in an attempt to appeal to everyone When it was first published what type of audience did the New York Times attempt to attract and how did they differentiate themselves from other types of papers a The New York times attempted to attract an impartial and international audience They differentiated themselves by downplaying sensational stories and favoring the documentation of major events or issues They also provided stock and real estate reports for business readers court reports for legal professionals and treaty summaries for politicians Know the stages of the inverted pyramid of journalism a The inverted pyramid starts with the who what where when questions at the top of the story and then narrowed down the story to presumably less significant details 1 Key evidence 2 Supporting explanations quotes 3 Supporting quotes and alternative explanations 4 Least important details Be able to identify examples of investigative journalism opinion editorials advocacy alternative journalism and literary journalism a Investigative journalism news reports that hunt out and expose corruption particularly in business and government 1 Examples the jungle by upton Sinclair b Opinion editorials they were partisan or opinion based reporting such as fox news articles or things put out by a candidate s team or campaign c Advocacy journalismfact based but supports a specific point of view d Literary joumalism adapted fictional techniques such as descriptive details and settings and extensive character dialogue to nonfiction material and in depth reporting 1 Mark Twain started as a literary journalist What are the 4 factors that led to the decline of in the circulation and number or African American newspapers a Television and black radio stations tapped into the limited pool of money that businesses allocated for advertising b Some advertisers to avoid controversy withdrew their support when the black press started giving the civil rights movement favorable coverage in the 1960s c The loss of industrial jobs in urban areas diminished readership and hurt smaller local businesses that couldn t afford to continue advertising in the black press d After the civil rights movement and affirmative action laws mmainstream papers took many of the writers from black papers to make themselves integrated What has happened to newspaper circulation since the 1970s Why a It declined because network TV viewing increased and women began to work outside of home full time in an increasing amount and that made a core readership group begin to disapper What is the newshole and what percentage of the newspaper does it occupy a Space not taken up by ads b The remaining 35 to 50 percent of content of daily newspapers including front page news What is Gatekeeping Be able to identify and give examples of the In uences amp Constraints affecting the gatekeeping process identified in lecture a Gatekeeping is the process of screening and selecting stories b Deciding what is newsworthy c In uences geographical focus 1 Because we live in the US a story that doesn t involve US citizens may not get a great deal of news coverage d Constraints 1 Resource constraints mean that news organizations have limited resources and may not be able to cover certain stories or aspects of stories as closely Be able to identify examples of framing agendasetting and gatekeeping a Agendasetting the media doesn t tell you what to think but it tells you what to think about it will give more coverage to a particular story encouraging you to focus more on something particular b Framing frames a story a certain way so that a certain perspective is taken c Gatekeeping screening and seldecting stories we tend to select to cover stories that affect Americans because our audience will think its interesting What has happened to public perceptions of news credibility How does perceived bias differ depending upon political affiliation Which news sources are viewed as more credible by Republicans than by Democrats a People have began to believe that news is less credible because of bias and partisanship b If youre a democrat liberal sources such as msnbc wont seem as biased but conservative sources like FOX news will and vice versa What has happened to online news audiences over the last few years What types of online news sources are most heavily used Which demographic groups are most likely to use online news sites Which demographic age group is most likely to use newspapers a Younger people use online news sites and older people use newspapers What is infosnacking How has grazing for news compared to watching the news at regular times changed over the last decade a Info snacking is the practice of people looking at a story and cycling between other related links b People are no longer loyal to one outlet they can shuf e between media outlets very quickly Which type of news source conducts the majority of indepth investigative journalism a Newspapers because they have the time and resources to dive deep into a story theyre not under constant pressure to break news like online and broadcast sources are What percentage of US adults get their news from Twitter From Facebook a A small percentage most adults get their news from broadcast TV programs rather than social media What are the major differences in the types of news that Twitter vs Facebook users receive a Twitter is used more than facebook for breaking news and following news stories b Twitter uses a wider variety of sources facebook focuses on your interests and news from your friends Media and Politics What were stump speeches a Standard campaign speeches used by people running for public office What does quotwallpaperingquot mean According to the video quotIllusions of Newsquot is the image more powerful than the spoken word a The image is slowly replacing the spoken word as the most powerful part of news b Wallpapering when pretty pictures are shown on the TV screen instead of the person speaking thus disguising or muting any critical dimension of the words being uttered What is the length of the average sound bite a The average sound bite is about 9 seconds down from 43 years ago What are the 7 types of campaign coverage identified by Rosen TomPainecom a The gaffe when a candidate on the campaign trail takes a pounding in the press for something that just isn39t said to the press on the campaign trail b The Expectations Game when a candidate quotwinsquot by losing but doing better than the press expected or quotlosesquot by winning but doing worse c The Horse Race when the press centers its coverage around shifts in who39s ahead based on poll results the press says are bound to shift d The Ad Watch when the press converts political advertisementsand the strategy behind theminto political news and then analyzes that news to advertise its own savviness e Inside Baseball when the press tells the story of politics by going to insiders the quotplayersquot who know the game because they play the game and get paid to know it f Electability News when the press shifts from reporting on a candidate39s bid for election in the here and now to the chances of the bid succeeding later on g Spin Alley when after a debate the press shows up in the spin room to be spun by stand ins and spokespeople who are gathered there to spin the press According to lecture where did people get most of their campaign news in 2012 a Cable TV was the most popuar place to get campaign news How did the amount of horse race coverage change between 2008 and 2012gt a It dropped from 2008 to 2012 How can horse race coverage hurt candidates a It can hurt candidates because it only shows a very narrow view of media exposure in that the leading candidate is given more coverage Thiis doesn t give other candidates much of a chance to pull ahead When has negative news coverage had a limited impact on presidential approval ratings a Bill Clinton faced legal issues while he was president but was still an extremely popular president According to lecture what types of appeals do political advertisements use Be able to recognize and give examples a We have not had this lecture yet but If you email at slgozinssyredu I ll gladly give you the answer to this question What are the effects of political advertisements dependent upon Who is most and least likely to be affected a The efficacy of political ads depends on who the audience is and how they receive the particular ad b People with less knowledge of politics are more likely to be affected because they will absorb what they hear meanwhile those with knowledge will be led to question what they see What are Negative Campaign Ads and what types of effects can they have According to lecture how can they in uence voter turnout and attitudes towards politics in general What is the potential quotbacklashquot of negative campaigns a They can make certain candidates look very bad but they can also have an adverse affect on voter turnout because it makes people think that politics is a backstabbing industry and people just trash on each other According to lecture why and when do candidates use negative ads a Haven t had this lecture yet so please email me with any questions Why do news programs include political ads in their news coverage a Because its interesting to analyze how a candidate is presenting themselves and they can help get the candidates message across to their audience What impact could social media videos of candidates have on those candidates attempts to reposition themselves or to change their agendas a Once things are posted on social media they never go away so it will be really hard to convince people that candidates changed their minds
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