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Study Guide 1

by: Rose Notetaker

Study Guide 1 Bio 202

Rose Notetaker
GPA 3.0
Principles of ecology
Suzanne Boyden

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About this Document

Principles of ecology
Suzanne Boyden
Study Guide
Ecology, Study Guide, boyden
50 ?




Popular in Principles of ecology

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 202 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Suzanne Boyden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Principles of ecology in Biology at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
831 Climate Observation D question D hypothesis D predictions U test 0 Climate 1 Overview of biomes 2 What controls radiation temperature levels Latitude Topography 3 Global Circulation patterns Factors that limit species distribution Abiotic Temperature Water Suanht Wind stress Sothpe SalinitypH Chemistry Altitude depth Weather short term patterns temp precipitation wind clouds Climate long term average trends of weather 1 Long Physical environment drives natural selection 2 Short Environment in uences organism39s physiology and resource ability Biomes Major community categories classi ed by vegetation climate adaptations in organisms Convergence when 2 similar biomes at same latitudinal area look similar over time Greenhouse effect the absorption of outgoing longwave radiation by the atmosphere Grasslands are the most productive systems makes tons of food have large animals such as elephants What is the major energy that drives climate Sun 0 Plants use visible light 12 of the light that reaches earth 0 UV is the shortest length causes a lot of damage From the sun 0 IR is detected by plants and animals Long waves goes back into atmosphere release of light energy as heat energy Amount of water vapor latitude season all effect solar radiation Earth39s temperature depends on 0 Energy coming in D thickness and composition of atmosphere 0 Energy going out Sunset sun low on horizon means the waves entering at an angle Albedo re ectiveness of earth s surface snow and ice are re ective forest layers are dark color not as re ective Why does sun angle of incidence matter 1 Sun traveling at angle 90 degrees has long atmosphere path more bounces or gets absorbed instead of making it to the earth gt It 1 mile ER 90 degrees morees 2x the Surface area that 92 Climate continued Factors driving climate patterns 1 Latitude 2 Air pressurealtitude 3 Air temperature and density 4 Earth39s spin Latitude The earth is round 0 Angle of incidence Suns rays closer to 90 degrees near equator Shorter atmospheric path if sun is 90 degrees 0 The earth is tilted 235 degrees Create greater seasonality towards poles annual variation in climate Air Pressurealtitude 0 Air rises and loses pressure cools Cool air holds less water Condensed high pressure air is warmer Holds more water Low rainfall Adiabatic cooling Air temperature decreases with elevation altitude 5 degrees F decrease for every 1000 feet elevation Global circulations models Hot air rises cold air falls Warm air can hold more than H20 than cold Wind Objects de ect right in North Hemisphere and de ect left in South Hemisphere equator moves faster than poles Between 30 degrees N latitude and 60 degrees N latitude winds blow from SW to NE Westerlies come from west Easterlies come from east South east wind form south east North east wind from north east Local Modi ers 1 Aspect 2 Mountain Rangers 3 Oceans and Lakes Aspect 0 What angle land face S Side of the hill more sun N Side of the hill more moisture moss grows on N side of tree Mountain Modi er Rain from expansion rain shadow Warm moist air V Dry air Evaporation from compression and Marminn Seal Maritime Effect leads to warmer air temps near large bodies of water in the winter cools summerwarms winter 99 AdaptationAcclimation to moisture and temperature stress California Aster Flowering Date North Coast July 7 South Coast June 15 Cause of difference Temperature precipitation traitsgenes Evolution a change in trait genotype frequencies over generations Are these 2 owers genetically different Have they evolved in response to differences in their environment Are these 2 the same genetically and just expressing different physiological responses Plasticity Adaptation feature or trait which is important for an organism39s survival or tness which resulted from evolution Fitness contribution of an individual to future generations Plasticity ability of organism to alter its phenotype expression of genes Ex color behavior in response to environmental cues Is it adaption or plasticity Move North ower to South and vice versa This is called a reciprocal transplant study move organism to new environment and see what happens If it39s xed it will ower at same time in other spot 916 Ecotype a species or race adapted to a particular set of environmental conditions A reciprocal transplant was performed of kangaroo rats from dry and wet climates with no water restrictions Rats from a drier climate increased their water loss in wetter environments Plasticity Population dynamics effects on growth reproduction AdaptationsLife history traits natural selection Climate Life History Natural Selection leads to distinct traits affecting reproduction and survival Life history traits are a speci c set of traits tied to age or life stage that affects reproductive success tness Ex Sexual vs asexual longevity shortlong lived age of rst reproduction maturation fecundity offspring organism has There are tradeoffs for any one end of the spectrum Energy has a limit Kstrategist Ex elephants humans whales 0 Take long time to maturefertile Long gestation period 0 Long life Rstrategist Ex rats Fertile quickly Gestation short Many offspring Short life Black cherry r strategist 0 Reproductive 10 years 0 Life span lives about 120 years 0 38 meters tall max height Hemlock k strategist o Reproduces after 100300 years 0 Live for 700800 years 0 5055 m tall Populations group of interbreeding individuals of same species occupy same geographic area Properties of Population 1 Distribution Macro range limits largest scale where geographically a species is potentially found Mesoscale limits habitat requirements where its possibly found within macro range Micro scale limits speci c what it needs micro habitat preferences


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