Exam 1 Study Guide- BIO 106 Ocean Life
Exam 1 Study Guide- BIO 106 Ocean Life BIO 106 - M001
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Hill on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 189 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
BIO 106 Ocean Life Exam One Study Guide Week 1 Kev ConceDtS 1 Scientific Units at LengthDistance in meters 1 meter 3 feet 1 kilometer 062 miles b Temperature in Celsius 1 degree Celsius 338 degrees Fahrenheit 100 degrees Celsius 212 degrees Fahrenheit 2 How much of the planet is covered by oceans a 71 3 Properties of the 5 Ocean Basins a largest and deepest 45 of all oceans b North to South pole 2rld largest 22 of all oceans c Southern hemisphere 20 of all oceans d connects all oceans 95 of all oceans e smallest most shallow coldest 33 of all oceans 4 Basic chemical properties of water special properties of water charges surface tension states a is H20 2 positive hydrogen atoms 1 negative oxygen atom b It has high melting and boiling points i Very high heat capacity c It is one of the best solvents 1 One water molecule is negative on the oxygen side and positive on the hydrogen side creating interesting bonds 6 of water The elastic tendency of liquids which makes them acquire the least surface area possible It is an important property that markedly in uences many ecosystems i Hydrogen bonds create surface tension ii Molecules at the surface do not have other like molecules on all sides of them so they cohere more strongly to the molecules directly associated with them on the surface iii This forms a surface film making it more difficult to move an object through the surface than to move it when it is completely submersed 5 How sea ice loss is affecting or will affect different organisms a Arctic sea ice has been declining by about 9 a decade since the 1970s and the Arctic is predicted to be ice free in summers by 2040 b This has a detrimental impact on ice dependent organisms walruses polar bears i EX polar bears need ice in order to find food they cannot swim forever 0 Multiple countries racing to claim oil and gas deposits that will uncover when the ice melts 6 The primary ions that make the ocean salty 10 11 12 13 14 a Chloride main ion Sodium main ion Sulfate Magnesium Calcium and Potassium b These ions make up an average of 35 parts per thousand salinity in seawater c Salt makes up about 35 of the ocean The effect of increasing atmospheric C02 on the oceans a Most excess C02 is being sequestered in the oceans resulting in ocean acidification How temperature salinity and pressure change the density of water a Cold salty water with a high pressure dense water deep water b Warmer less salty water with a lower pressure not dense water shallow water c Cold water is denser because the molecules are closer together Water temperature variations by latitude and depth a Things that are at lower latitude are warmer closer to the equator b Water at the poles are colder higher latitude c Water gets colder as you go deeper down Causes of salinity variation in the oceans a Ocean salinity varies because of precipitation and evaporation b At the equator it is less salty because there is more precipitation dilutes water c At desert regions it is saltier around 30 degrees latitude d At the poles it is less salty The deepest point in the ocean a an oceanic trench located in the western Pacific Ocean to the east of the Mariana Islands It is the deepest part of the world s oceans at 68 miles deep 11034 meters Relationship between pressure and depth a The deeper you go in the ocean the higher the pressure is b Denser water tends to sink to the bottom of the ocean c One atmosphere 1kg per cmquot2 of pressure at sea level d 1 additional atmosphere every 10m of depth Underwater zones of the ocean a Pelagic means referring to the ocean b the Sunlight Zone Continental Shelf Volcanic island Above 200 m Usually is always 55 degrees F c the Twilight Zone Continental Shelf 2001000m d The Midnight Zone Continental Slope 1000 4000m e The Abyss Continental Rise 40006000m f Oceanic Trench 600011000m How light and sound travel in the oceans a Epipelagic Zone above 200 m sunlight rarely penetrates beyond this zone Lots of photosynthesis and primary production b Mesopelagic Zone 2001000m sunlight decreases rapidly with depth A little bit of light but it drops off quickly Photosynthesis is not possible here c Bathypelagic Zone 10004000m Sunlight does not penetrate at all This zone is bathed in darkness d Blue light can penetrate the ocean the deepest they are absorbed e Redviolet does not penetrate deeply they are scattered followed by green and violet red yellow and orange does not penetrate deeply at all f Light is limited in the ocean because water is more dense than air g Light does not penetrate as deeply in coastal water as it does in open water h Sound is dependent on temperature salinity and pressure i Higher salinity and temperature allows sound to travel faster ii Sound travels faster in deep water More pressure i a unique layer in the ocean where certain sound waves travel long distances due to a combination of pressure and water temperature j Which one travels faster i Sound travels 45x faster in the water than in air 15 Ocean Nutrients a Things that primary producers need for primary production i What is primary production The base of the food chain something that is photosynthetic ii Primary producer in ocean phytoplankton b Nutrients are very important for phytoplankton c Three primary nutrients nitrates phosphates iron mher Kev Words Wee is measured in Celsius 1 degree Celsius 338 degrees Fahrenheit 100 degrees Celsius 212 degrees Fahrenheit due to an increase in hydrostatic pressure the force per unit area exerted by a liquid on an object The deeper you go into the sea the higher the pressure is Measured in atmospheres one atmosphere lkg per cmquot2 of pressure at sea levell additional atmosphere every 10m of depth The saltiness or dissolved salt content of the world s oceans The ions that make the oceans salty are Chloride Sodium Sulfate Magnesium Calcium and Potassium these ions make up an average of 35 parts per thousand salinity Salt makes up about 35 of the ocean The saltier the water the denser and deeper it is The volumetric mass of a substance water water is dense when it is salty cold and has a high pressure Dense water molecules are closer together dense water is deep water where weak winds cause the water off the western coast of south America to be unusually warm This can be bad because it limits primary production which limits fisheries It even has implications in North America warmer winters Cold water upwellings bring up nutrients to help with primary production promoting fisheries When there is el ni o this does not happen This can bring soaking winter storms mudslides ooding disrupted fisheries The transition layer of water between the surface layer warm low nutrient water and the intermediate layer more C02 and nutrients decreasing 02 and temperature As soon as you go deeper than 200 m the water gets suddenly colder and colder The thermocline is where the temperature drops off an underwater landmass which extends from a continent results in relatively shallow water above 1000 m the slope from a continental shelf to the ocean oor and is usually about 12 miles wide results in deeper water 10004000m wide an underwater feature found between the continental slope and the abyssal plain it represents the final stage in the boundary between continents and the deepest part of the ocean Usually is between 30004000m an underwater plain on the deep ocean oor usually found lying at depths between 40006000m Lying generally between the foot of a continental rise and a midocean ridge abyssal plains cover more than 50 of the Earth s surface steep depressions in the deepest parts of the ocean where old ocean crust from one tectonic plate is pushed beneath another plate raising mountains causing earthquakes and forming volcanoes on the sea oor and on land They are between 600011000m Week2 Kev Concepts Guest Lecture All material on Earth was formed in stars during supemovas Hydrogen and helium were formed in the heavier elements are the result of supernovas Earth is estimated to be 455 billion years old The Earth has four main layers a Crust continental and oceanic b Mantle most mass is here c liquid provides magnetic field very dense material d solid The asthenosphere is the liquid part of the mantle Earth s crust is broken into tectonic plates Movement of heat from the interior of the Earth drives plate tectonics Continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust Oceanic crust is denser less buoyant which causes it to lie lower lower on the mantle 10 Three types of plate boundaries I39M li If I I IN I a two plates colliding i the process that takes place at convergent boundaries by which one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate and sinks into the mantle as the plates converge subduction zones ii 3 Types of collisions ocean and continent ocean and ocean continent and continent b plates moving away from each other i Where new oceanic crust is formed underwater mountain range formed by plate tectonics c two plates sliding past each other i Can cause earthquakes mher Kev Words Wee giant stars that explode and release elements that the basis of the Earth was made of Gravity causes the exploded matter to recollect eventually creating planets and stars Supernova create the heavy elements 98 of crust is composed of 8 elements mainly oxygen and silicon supernova created the heavy elements one of the four main layers of the earth Earth s crust is broken into tectonic plates Oceanic Crust is denser less buoyant which causes it to lie lower lower on the mantle Continental Crust is thicker than oceanic crust one of the four main layers of the earth it is where most of Earth s mass is means strong formed by uppermost mantle and continental crust this is where plates are and where earthquakes happen means weak below lithosphere part of the upper mantle the state of balance that the earth s surface has with gravity Materials with different thickness and density come to rest at different elevations The theory that the Earth s outer shell is divided into several plates that glide over the mantle the rocky inner layer above the core They are driven by heat moving from the interior to the exterior of the Earth The plates act like a hard and rigid shell compared to Earth s mantle This strong outer layer is the lithosphere the thick layer of rocks which forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores continental shelves the relatively thin part of the earth s crust that underlies the ocean basins It is geologically young compared to the continental crust and is also denser than continental crust Weellt 3 Kev ConceDtS 1 What three factors contribute to the formation of ocean currents a Earth s Rotation drives shallow water currents b Prevailing Wind Patterns drives shallow water currents c Water Density drives deep water currents 2 How does the speed of rotation of the earth vary based on latitude a You travel faster at the poles than you do at the equator b As you go towards the middle of the Earth the equator there is more distance to cover so you go slower i At axis poles 0 kmhr ii At equator 1650 kmhr 3 What is the Coriolis force and how does it affect wind patterns a Due to the rotation of the Earth a de ection of moving objects when the motion is described relative to a rotating reference frame the earth s rotation b Causes moving objects on Earth to be de ected to the right in the northern hemisphere to the left in the southern hemisphere c Wind patterns come from the Coriolis effect d The wind heads from the pole towards the equator 4 What are the major solar heating wind cycles and where are they located a Solar heating and the earth s rotation cause global wind patterns 030 degrees latitude northeasterly and southeasterly trades 3060 degrees latitude westerlies 60 to 90 degrees latitude 5 What directions to winds de ect to in the northern and southern hemispheres a Northern hemisphere to the right b Southern hemisphere to the left c ON GRAPH Above equator de ecting to right Below equator de ecting to left 6 How does the Coriolis force affect hurricane formation a Northern hemisphere counter clockwise rotation b Southern hemisphere clockwise rotation c Hurricanes never cross the equator they need Coriolis effect to generate spin 7 What are the doldrums a Located near the equator they are where the trade winds meet b Also called the ITCZ c Winds are very low at the ITCZ d Seasonal shifts in the ITCZ results in seasonal monsoons i Winter ow is predominantly off the continent keeping the continent dry ii Summer ow is predominantly off the oceans keeping the continent wet 8 Describe onshore and offshore breezes and how the relate to time of day a These happen due to the heat capacity of the water it is the solar heating of water and land b Land heats up faster than water during the day land cools off faster than water at night c At night when the water is relatively warmer than the land wind generally ows offshore towards the warm water During the day when the land is relatively warmer than the water wind generally ows onshore towards the warm land e The wind always ows from colder to warmer at sea level 9 How does wind affect water movement in the ocean a Wind driven surface currents affect the top 100m of the ocean 10 Where are the major oceanic gyres located a any large system of rotating ocean currents particularly those involved with large wind movements Caused by the Coriolis effect Prevailing winds and Eckman transport create major oceanic gyres c 2 in the Pacific 2 in the Atlantic 1 in the Indian Ocean d 11 Which type of boundary current moves warm water away from the equator a Western boundary current strong narrow warm 12 What about moving cold water towards the equator a Eastern boundary current broader slower colder 13 Why are upwelling areas associated with primary productivity a Caused by southernly winds in the southern hemisphere b When water is upwelled from the deep seaocean oor due to it contains many nutrients c These nutrients help phytoplankton with primary production promoting productive fisheries especially on western coasts 14 How does deep water move around the globe What factors affect deep water circulation a Wind only affects top 100 m b Deep water comes from and moves through i Thermohaline circulation depends on temperature salinity and density Colder saltier water water that will be deep very dense ii Thermohaline circulation determines the density of ocean water c Water moves all around the ocean through the i It takes 1000 years for a parcel of water to circumnavigate the globe d Arctic and Antarctic where deep water formation happens it is very cold and salty so it sinks 15 What is the difference between global warming and climate change a is an increase in average global temperature b is a difference in climate average weather pattern climate will always uctuate 16 Define weather climate and climate change and understand the relationship between weather and climate a what the atmosphere is doing over short time scales hours to days b the average weather pattern in a region over long periods of time c a change in climate the earth s climate has changed and uctuated over time it is a regular phenomenon but humans are now causing the climate to change quicker d Climate is a constant weather varies greatly but it always follows the trend of climate i Ex a man walking a dog the dog is going to go all over the place but it will always follow the path of its owner 17 What causes global warming a The sun and solar radiation determines the Earth s temperature 50 of sunlight is absorbed at the surface 20 by the atmosphere and 30 goes back into space b Greenhouse gases are causing temperature to increase 18 What are the three major greenhouse gases a Carbon dioxide C02 b Methane CH4 c Nitrous Oxide N20 19 How has temperature and greenhouse gas levels changed over time a Last million years variations in temperature and C02 levels i Cyclic pattem periods of warmth followed by cold periods b Last few thousand years to present global temperatures rise at time of industrial revolution 20 Why is the recent rise in greenhouse gases and temperature a concern a Many negative impacts are predicted for the future i In uence extreme weather conditions Increased drought and ooding ii Coral bleaching iii Reduced ice and snow cover as well as permafrost year round frozen ground iv Raised sea level v Increased acidity in the oceans 21 What is the IPCC a Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change b They provided strong evidence that rapid increase in greenhouse gas concentrations are contributing to warming in the past 100 years 22 How much is the average temperature of the earth expected to increase over the next 100 years a Current best climate models predict 2641 degrees Celsius warming most forecasting 3 degrees in the next 100 years 23 List three major modern climate changes a Temperature increasing b Precipitation increasing regional differences c Sea Ice and Glacier melt decreasing sea ice increasing glacial melting 24 How does global warming affect the oceans a Increasing ocean temperature impacts biology of ocean life b Coastal regions and sea level rise nearly 600 million people live about 10 m above sea level Aquifers ooded with sea water Ocean acidification more C02 dissolving in the ocean makes it more acidic affects organisms with hard shells e Ectotherm migration cold blooded regulates body temp from outside sources i if the ocean is the temp that they like a little warm if it gets too hot they will move from the equator to north or south poles colder water f loss of ice Polar bears can t forage without ice 25 What is a Carbon dioxide causes it b Increased water temperature causes bleaching c Coral get stressed out and expel zooxanthellae Coral s primary producers they are photosynthetic d Can result in death of large coral reef habitat 26 How is ice melt affecting marine species a Increased temperatures are causing polar ice sheets to melt b Ice cover is vital for phytoplankton base of food web c Ice provides habitat for many arctic and Antarctic species i Antarctica is losing land ice and gaining sea ice 27 What is albedo and how does it contribute to the melting of sea ice a amount of sunlight that is re ected back into space i White re ects light snow and ice re ects light into atmosphere ii With the ice melting the earth is going to absorb more heat causing ice to melt even more than it already is b Lowered albedo ability to re ect light into space increase in absorbed sunlight melting of sea ice 28 What are the sources of sea level rise a Thermal expansion b Melting of glaciers and polar ice caps c Ice loss from Greenland and West Antarctica d Global sea level would rise an average of 7 m from melting all of Greenland s ice alone 29 What is causing and how does it affect marine species a More CO2 dissolving in the ocean makes it more acidic b This affects organisms with shells c Ocean absorbs CO2 from burning fossil fuels It dissolves in sea water and forms a carbonic acid taking out carbonate ions so animals can t build shells Pd d Consumption of carbonate ions impedes calcification in animals such as cocolithophores mher Kev Words Wee Between 40 degrees south and 50 degrees south in the Southern Ocean there is land so wind patterns can drive waves over long distances without interruption These can create huge waves Wind over water causes water to move Surface water moves the direction that the wind ows but de ects Corilois force due to drag water at depth does not move the same direction as surface water the boundaries of all gyres ocean currents with dynamics determined by the presence of a coastline and fall into two distinct categories western boundary currents and eastern boundary currents western is warm and eastern is cold A southemly wind in the southern hemisphere causes water to come up from the ocean oor contains many nutrients helps with primary production mostly on western coasts Northemly wind in the southern hemisphere causes water to go down to the ocean oor from the surface containing little to no nutrients cause the global temperature to rise the primary ones are carbon dioxide methane and nitrous oxide Weel 4 Kev ConceDtS 1 What is a wave a Usually generated by wind on the ocean s surface an ocean wave is a disturbance in the ocean that transmits energy from one place to another 2 What are the different parts of a wave a how high a wave is above still water level b Still water level Average water surface elevation at any instant The top of a wave the bottom of a wave how tall a wave is the distance between crests of a wave Frequency Number of wave crests passing point A or point B each second h Period Time required for wave crest at point A to reach point B 3 How and why do waves form c d e f g a Wind transfers some energy to the water through friction between air molecules and water molecules b Wind forms ripples which develop into waves as they advance with the wind 4 Why do waves break a The process of waves breaking is also known as shoaling b As waves move toward the shore they feel the bottom and they steepen leading to them breaking 5 What does the Beaufort Scale refer to and how is it measured a Developed by Francis Beaufort the is a scale used to measureestimate wind speeds and the effects b It is a scale of 0 to 12 estimating wind strengths c Is is based on significant wave height i Significant wave height the average height of the highest one third of the waves 6 What happens when multiple waves overlap and interact a Constructive and destructive b Constructive interference addition winds acting together making bigger waves c Destructive interference subtraction creates smaller waves d This is important with unusual waves 7 What is a rogue wave a are unpredicted additive waves that are significantly above the significant wave height for an area b These occur all over the world they are monsters of the deep sea c There have been 9 verifiable incidents in deep ocean waters other rogues may account for many unexplained ship losses 8 Which types of waves are formed as a result of wind and which waves are a result of other factors a Nonwind generated waves i above water waves under the surface ii A long high sea wave caused by an earthquake fault line slip submarine landslide or other disturbance b Wind generated waves i Any waves that occur on the free surface of any body of water 9 What causes tides a Tides are very long period waves that move through the oceans in response to the forces exerted by the moon and the sun b The sun and moon gravity and centrifugal force causes the tides 10 What factors in uence variation in tidal ux a The sun s gravity and the lunar cycle in uence variation in tidal ux i Sun is perpendicular to moon s gravity ii Causes a reduced amplitude lower high tide higher low tide i Sun in line with moon s gravity 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 ii Causes an increased amplitude higher high tide lower low tide d Neap moderate spring exaggerated Describe the three main types of tidal cycles a two high and two low tides of about equal height each tidal day tidal day is approximately 24 hours and 50 minutes b two high and two low tides are very different in amplitude c daily single high and low tide per day Describe some interesting water features that are in uenced by tides a Tidally generated currents they have minimal in uence on ocean currents they can generate locally rapid currents up to 25 km 155 miles per hour when they ow in and out of narrower areas like bays estuaries and harbors b Tidal whirlpools tidally generated whirlpools such as Old Sow they can grow up to 250 ft in diameter on spring tides c tidal ow against the direction of river ow can create traveling or standing waves people surf tidal bores What are the two primary mechanisms we can use to generate power from ocean water a Wave Energy i Energy is harvested from movements of the water through devices such as permanent magnet linear generator buoys ii Wave energy is big in Alaska the West Coast and the East Coast b Tidal Energy i Energy is harvested from the tides through devices such as turbines and sluice gates Similarity and difference between marine biology and oceanography a Marine biology is a general biological science in marine areassystems it is closely related to oceanography usually study from the organism in ex behavior physiology usually study from the organism out species interactions responses to environmental change Who were some of the first people to study the ocean and its inhabitants a People have been eating from the sea since at least the stone age b Increased seamanship and navigation skills led to increased knowledge of sea life starting by 1200 BC Phoenicians Greeks Vikings Pacific Islanders c First marine biologist was Aristotle 384322 BC What was the census of Marine Life When did it occur Who was involved What did they find a occurred from 20002010 Census of all organisms from microbes to whales b 2700 scientists from 80 countries in 540 expeditions c It had goals of describing diversity distribution and abundance What is biodiversity and why is it important a The variety of life forms in a habitat b It is important because of ecological resilience they will not be wiped out ecosystem service natural innovation medical culture and aesthetics 18 List the categories for the of life forms a Domain kingdom phylum class order family 19 Number of species described vs best estimates for total species a In the wweolcom there are over 220000 marine species described in detail b Best estimate of about 071 million total species exist 20 What ocean habitats contain the most biodiversity and where are they located in relation to the coast and continental shelf a intertidal zones sandy and rocky shores estuaries salt marshes seagrass beds b kelp forests coral reefs epipelagic zones c Deep Seas seamounts hydrothermal vents 21 Characteristics of costal habitats a high diversity of organisms used for egg laying and spawning many organisms living in the sand clams crabs etc b tidal pools high diversity of animals animals and plants anchor to rocks competition for space grassy fringe between forests and ocean at high tide or mud ats low tide also called coastal wetlands common on east coast of US usually has a low plant diversity mostly Spartina pickleweed because of harsh estuarine conditions 22 Characteristics of shallow sea environments a found in shallow and sheltered nearshore waters typically sandy or mud bottom serve as refuge for juvenile and adult fish feed a wide range of large animals green turtles manatees sea urchins dense canopy of large brown algae found in cold nutrientrich and shallow water 1540m depth common on west coast of US high levels of vertebrae animal biodiversity birds mammals fish c largest geological feature built by living organisms occur on continental shelf primarily calcium carbonate built by reef corals animals in the same phylum cnidaria as jellyfish require a hard bottom and shallow warm 2035 degrees Celsius clear water C 23 Characteristics of open ocean sea oor habitats vs epipelagic zone a underwater mountains created by volcanic activity they cause upwelling of nutrients more productivity they are microhabitats in the deep sea they disturb ocean current ow causing eddys and upwelling of nutrients ii largest ocean habitat 60 of all oceans nutrient poor no light typically low density of organisms iii geothermal sources of heat and chemicals in the deep sea seawaters may reach temperatures of over 340 degrees Celsius chemosynthesis near hydrothermal vents chemosynthesis supports biodiversity b i Top layer of ocean 200m plenty of sunlight for photosynthesis supports diverse food chains 24 What are some exceptions to the characteristics of deep sea environments a Sea mounts disturb ocean current ow causing eddys and upwelling of nutrients b Hydrothermal vents they get extremely hot over 340 degrees Celsius Other Key Words Week 4 a series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air and so they are often referred to as surface gravity waves There are no breaking waves foam or sea spray They are formed from a distant storm and can get very long measured by the Beaufort Windforce Scale it is the general condition of the free surface on a large body of water with respect to wind waves and swell at a certain location and moment When the crest highest part reaches a particular location When the trough lowest part reaches a particular location Tidal energy technology that produces electircity they are very much like underwater windmills except the rotors are driven by consistent fastmoving currents two tidal bulges are created on opposite sides of the earth due to the moon s gravitational force and inertias counterbalance The tidal bulge is strongest on the side of the Earth that happens to be facing the moon simply because it is closer As gravitational force acts to draw the water closer to the moon inertia attempts to keep the water in place but the gravitational force exceeds it and the water is pulled towards the moon creating a bulge On the opposite side of the earth the gravitational attraction of the moon is less because it is farther away Here inertia exceeds the gravitational force and the water forms another bulge semi enclosed tidally in uenced coastal bodies of water one or more freshwater in ows free connection to ocean water one of the highest biological productivities of any marine habitat A high biodiversity creates ecological resilience because the ecosystem can bounce back quickly if a disease comes through it will not decrease the population of an area because there are many different species and organisms how we use the ecosystem it provides us With a lot of systems such as fishing Wind energy it absorbs our C02 phytoplankton creates a lot of oxygen the process by which certain microbes create energy by mediating chemical reactions Organisms near hydrothermal vents are chemosynthetic chemosynthesis supports biodiversity
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