Exam 1 Review Guide
Exam 1 Review Guide HIST 1100 - 01
Popular in American History to 1865
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by SC_Grace Dillon on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1100 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by michelle morris in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see American History to 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Exam Review Guide One of the following two questions will appear as the essay question on your exam You should prepare both 1 How important was Bacon s Rebellion to the rise of slavery in Virginia Why 2 It is often said that the Puritans came to New England seeking religious freedom How accurate is that appraisal EXplain your reasoning You will need to bring a bluebook The Americas before European Contact How did Native Americans first come to America What unified the culture shared by PaleoIndians How and why did that culture change to become an Archaic Indian culture How varied were Native American cultures following the Archaic period They emigrated from Asia The Indians shared ancestry and culture They adapted to dramatic environmental Changes by preying on smaller animals and foraging Archaic Indians are basically hunter gatherers How did the Mexican aka Aztecs differ from most other Native American societies that existed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries The Mexican Empire The culture values violence and conquest War was necessary to maintain the Mexican empire Encompassed 8 25 million England at this time had 4 million Primarily conquered tributary states a Provide food luxury goods slaves and victims for sacrifice b If they provide these thing to the empire they are guaranteed safety from the PEPE Mexica army 5 The size was larger then Spain and Portugal combined Initial Colonization What motivated European explorers to discover and colonize the Americas in the fteenth and sixteenth centuries 1400s and 1500s Christopher Columbus Was convinced that he could go to the east by sailing east 1 Active in the Spanish royal court 2 Like all educated he believed he world was round 3 He grossly underestimated the distance between Europe and the indies a There was no ship that could hold that amount of food and water to make the entire journey b Wanted to travel west to China first 4 l494convinced queen Isabella and kind Ferdinand of Spain to sponsor a journey across the Atlantic ocean 5 He sailed from Spain to San Salvador a Died believing he landed in Asia His voyages sparked WAVES of exploration What effect did early European exploration and colonization of the New World have on England s decision to settle in North America Europeans developed a taste in luxury causing merchants to travel and trade with foreign countries The new world helped Spain become the most powerful monarchy in the world France and England soon followed the Spanish in search for similar treasures and power What factors motivated English colonization of North America What sorts of colonies did backers expect To what extent did individual colonies live up to those expectations Why did some of the colonies fall short James Town 1 Motivations a Lingering idealism i Bring freedom to the Indians ii Bi racial society iii Providing opportunity for the English poor and enriching England at the same time b Making money i Virginia company financial corporation 1 Joint stock company 2 Expected a return on investments How did English settlers and Native Americans interact in the early years of colonization What factors encouraged peaceful or hostile coexistence How did those relationships change over time English Indians 104 men Powhatan confederacy Many gentlemen 30 tribes and 8000 people Very few soldiers Some craftsmen Exhausted by the long voyage Much of the work done was woman s work unlike England House building Farming Unfamiliar disease environment Male responsibilities were hunting and war ii Powhatans warriors attacked Jamestown fort 1607 iii The Virginia Company instituted a new government 1609 1 Tried to keep Indians and Englishmen far away from each other iv Starving time winter 1609 10 1 Uneasy truce with the Powhatan Indians 2 The Anglo Powhatan War The massacre of 1622 a The colony eXpanded i Tobacco requires land b 1619 Opechancanough replaced Powhatan as chief c There was a peace with the Indians in1622 i Opechancanough decided to push the English back to sea 1 Almost successful 2 An Indian warned the colonists which kept them from all being massacred 3 347 colonists dies 13 of the colony d The spark 1676 i A group of Doeg Indians claimed that Thomas Mathew has not paid for something he bought 1 Mathew and his med cased after them and killed several Indians and so on ii The con ict escalates 1 Raids and colonists killed any Indians 2 Gov Berkeley wants to avoid another Indian war and tries to limit violence 3 He builds a series of forts for defense a Very eXpensive b Ineffective 4 Nathaniel Bacon a Member of English gentry b April of 1676 was drinking with his friends i Hears about a small planter petition c Bacon hears and agrees to lead the revolt against the Indians 3 King Philip Son of Massasoit Colonists called him king Philip after of the ancient kings of Macedon Well versed in English ways Resisted and resented English missionaries 9997 4 Relationships with Indians before 1675 a Not entirely con ict free b Remarkably peaceful compared to the Chesapeake c Some success introducing Christianity 5 King Philips war a The spark when an Indian was found lying dead under ice i John Sassomon a Subject of King Philip b Christianized Indian c Literate ii When he was found dead the English court convicted three Indian men of his murder start of war 1 Started small but then the war spread throughout all the colonies 2 Long term issues b Colonists wont the war i Philip was betrayed and killed ii Many of the Indians were traded to Africans Compare the English colonies at Roanoke and Jamestown What did they have in common Why did one survive while the other failed In what ways were they similar to or different from the New England colonies Roanoke rather Obscure Island in Western Europe makes a go at colonization and fails miserably 1 Indentures servitude someone in England who cannot pay for travel makes a deal with the ships caption a Makes discovery that they can make tobacco 2 Sir Walter Raleigh founder of Roanoke Colony and favorite of queen Elizabeth a Why did they want to plant a colony at Roanoke Needs to convince the queen i To undermine the Spanish ii To liberate the Indians iii To rescue the English poor b Gold and war i Spain is conquering European countries and England in next So they need money to build a stronger army 3 Saving the English poor a Wandering poor Mostly people who drifted from town looking for food i threat 1 The wandering poor have no stake in the way society is structured a Corrupting society i Instead send them to the colonies 1 Pushes the wandering poor out of society b Queen Elizabeth gave Walter Raleigh permission to colonize i Walter found Roanoke 1 Indians appeared to be friendly 2 Land seemed to be fertile a Located in the modern day north Carolina 3 Perfect location to prey on the Spanish a The eet has to travel up the coast passing the base ii The first Roanoke colony 1585 1 A military venture 2 Off shoot of a privateering voyage i But they never grow food ii They rely on the locals 3 Violence and the colony collapse a Relations began peacefully but soon punctured with violence b A week later supple ships arrived but they decide to go back to England and not stay in the colony iii The second Roanoke colony 1 An agrarian settlement 1587 2 New ideas a The colony supplied their own food b Had family s not soldiers 3 Located in Chesapeake a In modern northern Virginia i The colonists governor left to go back to England 4 When the governor returned he found a Demolished houses b No colonists no bodies James Town 6 Motivations a Lingering idealism i Bring freedom to the Indians ii Bi racial society iii Providing opportunity for the English poor and enriching England at the same time b Making money i Virginia company financial corporation 1 Joint stock company ii No more preying on the Spanish 1 King James made peace with the Spanish 7 May 1607 104 English men and children settled in James Town i Powhatans warriors attacked Jamestown fort ii Unhealthy environment 1 Was a swamp a Full with mosquitos that carry disease iii The colonists refused to grow food iv The Virginia Company instituted a new government in1609 1 Replace the council with a single governor 2 Impose martial law strips citizens of the civil protections they usually enjoy a Mandated that settlers must work v Starving time winter 1609 10 i They turned to eating each other cannibalism b Three crucial changes in Early Virginia 1 1617 Tobacco 2 1618 head right system allow for individual land ownership 3 1619 House of burgesses first representative assembly ii Tobacco agriculture 1 Very profitable in Europe 2 John Rolfe who married Pocahontas discovered that the west Indian tobacco would grow in Virginia 3 Indentured Servitude c Head right system 1618 i When Jamestown was first settled all of the colonists worked for the Virginia company ii No private land ownership iii Products went into the common store iv Attracted people from England 1 Offered 50 acres of land per person d First representative assembly in the colonies 1619 e House of burgesses 1619 i Qualifications for voting were unclear ii The Virginia government was more representative then England 4 The Anglo Powhatan War The massacre of 1622 a The colony eXpanded in the years 1607 i Tobacco requires land ii Opechancanough decided to push the English back to sea 1 Almost successful 2 An Indian warned the colonists which kept them from all being massacred 3 347 colonists dies 13 of the colony b The Royal Investigation i James 1 seized control of Virginia in 1624 1 Ended the Virginia company eXperiment c Development of planter elite i Declining mortality moderately wealth men lived long enough to gather more wealth and pass it on their children d The spark 1676 i A group of Doeg Indians claimed that Thomas Mathew has not paid for something he bought ii The con ict escalates 1 Raids and colonists killed any Indians i Nathanial Bacon hears and agrees to lead the revolt Why did English settlers come to North America To what extent did their motivations determine their choice of colony Did they usually find what they were looking for Rise of Slavery a Why did they come over from England i Push English poverty Land ownership in England was very rare No other options Land was plentiful in the early years a So good that people forgot about the Indians Virginia company advertised how awesome it was a Live a life of luxury The tobacco company was a way to make money Describe the development of racebased slavery in British North America When and why did Virginia begin the transition from an economy based on indentured servitude to one based on slavery i Tobacco agriculture 2 A The master England Virginia company and James 1 tried to discourage tobacco cultivation The men who would not plant food planted tobacco 1617 Virginians sent their first commercial tobacco crop to a A profit was motivation to plant on their land Indentured Servitude a English men who could not pay for their voyage over i Paid in the form of a work contract 1 to make money a Wanted to get as much work out of the servant as possible b To spend as little money as possible to keep them alive i Most servants did not live that long 1 Disease and malnutrition C A master can do almost anything he wants to with the servant i Tradin g sellin g d The master owns the servants TIME not his BODY i Not slavery England Virginia Servants cemmnnly centracted by the year Servants served fer Innger net centract speci c masters Once a servant a centract he she ceuld net change the centract nnless bath agreed cnnld sellftcade servants Have their time seized fer debt Werked fer wages Wages peen paid advantage In farm ef39 passage Servants werked masters pravided Masters were technically required to previde same snrt ef eednm dnes happened theugh 1 Developing slavery in the 1660s a Planters needed labor i Pool of indentured servants started to dry up mid century ii African Americans became economically attractive 1 Decline in mortality after 1660 made buying a lifetime of service a better buy b First evidence of slaves in Virginia i Since African Americans were captured as slaves by the privateers they probably bought them as slaves ii Initial uidity of slavery 1 No English legal tradition 2 It was not always clear who was a slave a Race was not a marker c Slavery did not immediately take root in Virginia i There was slaves but it was not a big deal ii No English tradition of slavery iii Mortality was to high to make slavery profitable 1 Risk a moderate amount on a servant or slave who will die quickly d Virginia planters were used to buying and selling men and women 2 Developing slave law a 1662 children followed the condition of their mothers if one parent was a slave and the other was not i Slavery becomes inheritable and self reproducing labor force b 1667 A new law declared that all non Christian servants imported by water were slaves for life i African not Indians c 1691 Prohibited interracial marriage and stiffened penalties for interracial fornication i Attempt to link black skin slavery and white skim freedom d Also passed laws which intended to keep blacks and whites from fraternizing and or committing crimes together e Separating blacks from whites f Elevating white over black 3 the 1690s saw improvement for poorer whites in the guise of lower taxes stronger economy and a less rapacious government which seemed more sensitive to their needs What effect did Bacon s Rebellion have on ideas about race and slavery 4 Nathaniel Bacon i ii iii iv Vi Vii viii iX Bacon was hoping to accomplish 1 Get rid of Indians 2 Elevate is political standing Gov Berkeley see it a different way 1 Thought Bacon was stirring up trouble Bacon gathered up his men and set off anyways By the end of June Berkeley raised his own army 1 To also deal with Bacon and his army 2 Virginia descends into civil war Before Berkeley s men set out the legislator passed a law 1 Any Indian captured in the raids would be enslaved for life Bacon burned Jamestown to the ground Bacon dies at the end of October Long story short 1 Indian nations pushed further back What England learned 1 Large group of landless angry men are a security risk 2 Exploiting free men comes at a price a They will not work like servants The solution was racial solidarity 1 Bacons rebellion changed the meaning of slavery Rise of Representative Government Describe the origins of representative government in colonial America with particular emphasis on the Virginia Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies When and why did these colonies develop representative assemblies How representative were they 1 May ower was blown off course and out of the Virginia jurisdiction a Led to the rise of representative government in New England b May ower compact 21 November 1620 i Non pilgrims on board refused to submit to the pilgrim government 1 The patent had been for Virginia not where they landed ii Agreement to enter into a Civil body politic to create laws and offices to abide by them 1 Signed by 41 men a Over 100 passengers b Non signers were probably woman children and servants 2 Remained in force until the Massachusetts bay colony in 1692 1 Government under the puritans a Loophole allowed to bring their English charter with them i They were governed locally b Governors magistrates and delegates all elected colony government i Voting restricted to adult male church members c Local town meetings i Voting restricted to adult men who owned property in the town d Separation of church and state i More strictly observed then in England or in the Chesapeake ii Ministers were prohibited from holding office iii Courts enforced morality and required residents to attend church 1 Sabbath breaking 2 Sexual offences 3 Blasphemy heresy 4 Voting restricted to church members To what extent is it appropriate to say that colonists came to America seeking religious freedom What were the possible consequences of religious dissent ii Puritans reject to anything about catholic 1 Don t all what the same thing the just all knew what they don t want i Want a primitive Christianity iii Pilgrims 1620 ended up in the New England area 1 Separatists believed that the church of England was so corrupt that it could not be purified a Many left England and moved to the Netherlands i Netherlands tolerated a lot of people puritans and others 1 Believed their children were being corrupted ii William Bradford decided to move to the Americas 2 Voyage to Plymouth 1620 a Wanted to have their own land to do what they would like b Obtained a patent from the Virginia Company to settle land within their jurisdiction i Wasn t given financial backing c Agrees to work for the Merchant Adventures of London joint stock company in exchange for financial backing i Had to bring a group on non pilgrims strangers l The strangers made up more then half the group iv Massachusetts Bay 2 Neighbors to the polymath colony 3 Puritans vs pilgrims a Puritans settles in Massachusetts Bay b Both wanted to practice their religion c Non separating puritans of the Massachusetts Bay i Considered themselves part of the Church of England ii Wanted to reform the Anglican Church d Puritans were a much larger group i Great migration 1630 1640 1 About 20000 people What role did religion play in shaping the lives and outlooks of the English colonists in North America in the seventeenth century i Pilgrims 1620 ended up in the New England area 1 Separatists believed that the church of England was so corrupt that it could not be purified 2 Puritans vs pilgrims a Puritans settles in Massachusetts Bay b Both wanted to practice their religion c Non separating puritans of the Massachusetts Bay i Considered themselves part of the Church of England ii Wanted to reform the Anglican Church 2 Orthodox Puritan beliefs in new England a Protestant originally an opposition group i Rejected the role of good works in salvation l Believed that mankind was so sinful that good work would not have any affect ii Believed in the priesthood of all believers iii Liberty of conscience iv Calvinist l Predestination a God decided who would be saved and who wouldn t long long ago 2 Election a The people chosen for heaven v Congregational about how to set up churches and also theology 1 Separation of church and state 2 Congregational autonomy 3 Importance of converted churches a To be a member you have to have and demonstrate and eXperience to prove that you are a member of the elect b Roger Williams arrives in Massachusetts Bay as a separatist minister and brie y In Salem i ii Beliefs of religious toleration 1 Freedom of conscience 2 Separation of church and state i Church and state can have NO relationship 3 Converted churches a That the church should be populated exclusively by the converted b Wrong to compel the unbeliever to attend church Roger Williams was banished in 1636 and went and rounded Rhode Island c Anne Hutchinson arrived in Massachusetts Bay in 1634 i ii She was loved until she began to teach about her ideas of election and predestination 1 Believed that good works could be a sign that a person was one of the elect a Raised the prospect of social order Was banished in 1637 and excommunicated in 1638 d Quakers began to invade Massachusetts Bay in the 1650s e a city on a hill Massachusetts puritans ii iii A place for people to look to and see a perfect government and religious relations restoration 1660 Charles 2 was invited to ascend the throne 1 ordered New England to stop executing Quakers they did 2 stop tying voting rights to church membership they didn t church membership was open only to those who could provide evidence of saving Grace 1 many children could not iv halfway convenient 1662 believed but couldn t prove they were a member yet I allowed children to be halfway members 2 not adopted by all churches and was controversial a kept families in the church b to some it was a sign that churches were lowering their standards The Colonies as Part of the British Empire Describe the relationship between England and its colonies How did political events in England eg the Glorious Revolution affect the colonies What attempts did the English government make to centralize or gain more immediate control over its empire When and why 1 James II a He believed in absolute monarchy b The Dominion of new England New jersey and north i Allowed the king to suppress dissent 1 Enforced the navigation acts Anything eXported or imported had to use English ships 2 Purpose was to funnel colonial trade 3 Provided for unified defense 4 Enforced the taxes 2 The Glorious Revolution 1688 a Over threw James not Queen Mary rules b New york leisters rebellion temporary government under Jacob Leiser c 1692 is when Massachusetts become a royal colony 3 1600s witchcraft belief a Hunts were rare but accusations were not i Most were dismissed ii Three outbreaks 1 Hartford 1660 Fairfield 1692 Salem 1692 iii Outbreaks were most likely during periods of anXiety b Salem 1692 i The town had extreme political uncertainly 1 No legal government ii Neighbor accused neighbor
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