Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide GEOG 1003
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by SophieSol on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1003 at George Washington University taught by Rain, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Society and Environment in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide Read the piece on Richard Heinberg All about DC key points 0 Myths vs Reality What s the real inside scoop 0 DC was built on a swamp l MYTH It was built on an estuary o No building can exceed the height of the Washington Monument or US Captoll MYTH There are no height restrictions based on these monuments 0 Traffic circles myth about DC not true 0 The Frameworks of DC 0 Split into quadrants NW SW SE NE GW is in NW which is the largest quadrant o Numbered streets run North and South 0 Lettered streets run East and West 0 Before DC was DC 0 Tribes lived here 0 This area has only been Washington DC for a little while yet it has actually been occupied for centuries Foggy Bottom was originally called Hamburg AKA Funkstown This was a German area 0 Origin of the name quotFoggy Bottomquot It clearly has to do with pollution Slaves came to this area they didn t have any place to live so some landlords sold pieces of alleys to them and they build shantytowns One of the more wellknown shantytowns is where Union Station is It was called Swampoodle There were demolitions in the mid 205 and Foggy Bottom was transformed In the 19605 Foggy Bottom consisted of a TON of parking lots the GW hospital used to be a massive one 0 There used to be a tree canopy on K Street which went away when industrialization happened 0 One example of how the environment is affected by human actionswantsdesires General Themes in this Course Anthropocene o The new age we live in o A humancreated world 0 We are constantly changing it lnterconnectedness of humannatural realms 0 We create the environment in our own image 0 Value of nature wilderness is within GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide 0 We are constantly surrounded by wilderness We are biological beings 0 quotTeaching the environmentquot is a mission 0 Everything has a history and a geography What is meant by environment 0 Human in uence on surroundings o Anthropocentric 0 Something focused on people As opposed to geocentric quotfocused on the worldquot 0 quotAnthropo quots are words having to do with humans What do people think about the environment 0 As of the 20005 people started to have mixed thoughts regarding the protection of the environment vs economic growth and which should be prioritized 0 When asked quotwhat is the most important problem in the countryquot less than 3 of Americans think of the environment as a response 0 But when asked quotwhat is the biggest problem if left uncheckedquot then they respond either quotthe environmentquot or quotglobal warmingquot Shows that people are de nitely aware of the problem but it is not a priority to be solved If it was then it would be quotup therequot with the most important problems in the country 0 Riley E Dunlap 0 Known for The New Environmental Paradigm NEP Prior to the NEP there was the DSP the Dominant Social Paradigm Based on the idea that the invisible faire in the economy will determine growth and prosperity Essentially regards how humans are able to manipulate nature for their bene t NEP states humans effect on the Earth and how badly we have damaged 0 States growth limits Explains that humans are not exceptional we are just as great and important and meaningful as everything else Conveys that nature is fragile New New Environmental Paradigm NNEP This came after NEP States how cultures are a mix GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide Emphasizes that invasive species aren t necessarily that bad because they are still nature Says that humans have limitless potential yet we can avoid disasters 0 Different from NEP in that it accepts the fact that humans are exceonns Heinberg 0 States that we have lived here for a great long time and now we take for granted the fact that there is food in grocery stores How certain can we be of this fact in the future Case Studies 0 Channel Island fox in CA o It was going into extinction Bald eagles and Golden eagles Farmers and ranchers Pigs 0 But humans took action and restored the population Most successful case of saving an endangered species 0 Perhaps due to the money invested 54 million Serves as a clearcut example for what worked 0 Lessons learned We need to take caution in our actions Quahogs quotKoHogsquot a type of clam that like less salty water and are attracted to estuaries which are a mix of salt water and fresh water 0 They re nice little creatures One Quahog can lter a gallon of water every hour so they are helpful to have around in order to have clean water They can tolerate hypoxia which is when there is a reduced level of oxygen in the water and that mostly occurs with pollution 0 Blue crabs are their prey 0 They live in a heavily human populated area in Rhode Island A lot of shore lines have been hardened There is no vegetation along the water s edge Food Webs Show who eats who 0 The primary sources are sources of vegetation that live on the bottoms of waterways 0 From bottom to top primary producers herbivores primary consumers secondary consumers tertiary consumers The benthic zone GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide 0 The ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as a lake or ocean o In a healthy scenario the benthic zone would house plant life oxygen and animals 0 In an unhealthy benthic zone there is a lack of this benthic community 0 Michael T Jones 0 Invented Google Earth Chief Technology Advocate Elisee Reclus o Anarchist cartographer Got banned from France from writing a manifesto against the government of Versailles He was interested on the interactions between nature and the planet 0 He wrote a 19volume book Concerned questions of what people wear how they celebrate marriage what trees grow there what the landscape looks like Thought geography was more than looking at boundaries 0 Soul parent of bioregionaism This is the unique patterns of natural characteristics that are found in a speci c area 0 le De ne the region by the water region we live in 0 Features such as climate seasonality landforms soils watersheds native plants and native animals de ne an area as a biosystem 0 Environmental determinism environment shaping us Reclus thought that this goes both ways we shape the environment and the environment shapes us Wildlife in an Urban Setting 0 Deer 0 Live in many types of biomes they range from the tundras to the tropical rainforests 0 They thrive when no predators are present 0 Canadian Goose 0 Also thrive when no predators are present 0 Currently their natural predators have been removed and many safe manmade bodies of water near food sources have been created so there is an issue of overpopulation Raccoons 0 Use urban areas as a habitat 0 First sighted GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Rat o Reside near humans 0 They eat our food Cockroach 0 Have lived on Earth for 300 million years 0 They like humans waste production 0 Like warm conditions Crow 0 Considered to be one of the world s most intelligent animals 0 Hit hard by West Nile Virus 0 They like our heat Today 0 His famous hand drawing of the two hands grasping each other 0 Idea of organismenvironment coupling 0 What does natural mean 0 Everyone has a different de nition so it is hard to simply de ne it But o It is a term for the allencompassing reality in which people and society are constituent parts 0 Environmentalists tend to view nature as a domain that is separate or apart from society They also think that humans violate the natural order of the environment 0 But in nature different species are competing withagainst each other so this is actually the natural order When we are constantly striving for balance Angles to this perspective 0 The idea of nature has a speci c history it evolves 0 le Central park is designed to look natural but it isn t it was designed by someone who was aiming to show how things should be 0 Environmental sciences allow us to identify changes in the natural world but so much of these are actually not seen in daytoday life because changes take a long time to process 0 Natural feelings can be designed like Central Park when they aren t really all that natural This was engineered so is it natural Deep History GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Technology ie Handmade tools out of rocks and such not iPhones El allowed humans to transform their environments 0 Until recently humans used to survive by hunting and gathering 0 They lived in small mobile groups 0 This was a very successful way of living one that also was very nice to ecosystems Stone age 0 Paleolithic life 0 Lasted 250000 generations 0 There was a clearing of vegetation 0 They used re as a type of technology as well as for warmth scaring animals making vegetation and attracting grazing animals 0 Pleistocene extinctions in North America and Europe 0 Between 20000 and 10000 years before present 0 Humans came along and megafauna something that weighs more than 300 pounds became extinct Sees a clear correlation between human arrival and animal extinction o Other theories of extinction Climate change Drought Interspecies competition Some actually did survive Attitudes toward nature 0 Cave paintings stone sculptures 0 Animals may have represented gods 0 Animism animals have spirits worshipped and feared as the source and meaning of life 0 Nature was worshipped in the form of animals because the success of the hunt was critical for their survival 0 Venues of Willendorf Sculpture with big breasts and stomach indicating fertility was very important and the reproductive anatomy was exaggerated Humans have instincts 0 When we have not learned something there is an quotinherent incHnannquot o What we think of as quothard wiredquot is actually instinctive 39h GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide 0 The idea that the human mind is a blank slate and that it learns everything and is shaped by what it learns o Biophilia This idea that we all have some love of life 0 Wrote a book called quotLast Child in the Woodsquot which essentially discuses how in this day and age not as many children get to go outside due to the advancement of technology and whatnot and how it is a shame if they don t get this experience Neolithic age 0 After the last ice age people were no longer nomadic and began to settle 0 They began to gather their own food which seems to have led to a change We domesticated wild animals and plants which is a genetic change 0 We graft plants and create animals 0 The idea of coupling we create our environments and our environments create us Modern Era Politician from Vermont man of great in uence He traveled around the Mediterranean and noticed things about the environment He hypothesized that great civilizations of the Meditteranean met their ends because of environmental situations that they didn t manage their resources well and ran out He wrote quotMan and Naturequot which was basically about how resources are not unlimited and that they therefore need to be managed well Not white Called attention to Native Americans through art Called for the creation of national parks in order to preserve the natural beauty of the American wilderness and culture of native people Did portraits of Native Americans Father of American preservation GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide Liked the idea of preserving beauty of being untouched by human hands Founded the Sierra Club Lobbied for protection of wild lands Preservationist 0 Vs conservationist use resources wisely as opposed to just not using them at all 0 Believed that natural resources belonged to all people Reclamation act of 1902 led to western water management irrigation project Forester was 0 Utilitarian conserve timber water soil for human use and use them efficiently rather than wastefully Urbanization in the 19th century 0 Many changes 0 Many social and environmental impacts 0 There was this idea that the more aesthetically pleasing the city was the more people would want to live there which were the seeds of the urban sustainability movement 0 This led to the developed world 0 Less infant mortality 0 Middleclass societies 0 People have happy lives live in different places than where they work Smashup of conservation and Preservation 0 San Francisco proposed a water supply dam in the Hetch Hetchy valley 0 Muir thought to protect it and leave it be 0 Pinchot thought the dam should be build and the water should be used 0 This led to a public debate but eventually the reservoir was built Due to Muir s passion many people rallied around the cause of preservation The kind of situation where quotthe losers won because of all of the followers they gotquot 0 Led to the national parks service act The Commons and Environmental Ethics 0 Origins of environmental problems 0 They are seen as what happened to people for example oods and droughts GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Now though we understand them to be more of a result of what we do and how our actions create vulnerability Coal mining water contamination Deforestation l landslides 0 Sustainability when environmental problems are gured out and determined this makes us try to change the way that we interact with nature so that our behavior maintains the structure and functioning of ecosystems We have a tendency to put this on the individual but this is a fallacy 0 le Turing off lights riding a bike recylcling 0 Most time it is beyond individual thinking o It is about institutions le Amazon using recyclable materials to ship things Institutions and Access 0 They shape our access to resources like having a Costco card 0 This also creates a global inequity of access to resources I Wrote quotChanges in the Landquot 0 Looks into the complex institutions and property relationships between the natives and the English 0 Natives practiced exible land use their institutions were negotiable had usufruct rights Where the right to use resources like a family car is negotiable o Institutions developed when resources were abundant and human numbers were low This caused con ict within the brittle system that existed 0 There was the disease component as well Europeans had developed immunities to dieseases from living with animals When they came to New England and setled they spread the disease which killed a lot of the natives They then took the remaining land 0 The English had rigid landuse practices based on private property ownership as opposed to the natives They cut pieces of land into smaller and smaller pieces which were legally assigned to individuals GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide Norms developed such as the family you were born into determining what land you get and how much They did this because land was scarce most of US territory was parceled out Tragedy of the Commons 0 1968 0 Imagine a pasture with an optimum number of livestock You can t have more and you wouldn t want to have less This number maximizes total bene ts to the group 0 No rules govern the use of the pasture so individual herders have incentives to add additional animals to maximize their pro t But if everyone did this it would lead to overgrazing So each person is locked into this compelling situation where there are limits yet we have a natural human tendency to increase our individual pro t and bene ts 0 In the American West in the 19th century there was a major drought and the prarie grass got cut down which let to a dust bowl Hardin said that they only solution is mutual coercion mutually agreed to There should be a penalty if you break the rules Yet if there is a problem the coercion imposed may not be mutual and might not be agreed to o The idea of uncertainty 0 quotI can add one more won t make a difference If I add another that s ne too but the addition of the third is a problemquot How do we know Can be likened to the idea of over shing and climate change English History and The Enclosure Movement 0 Early 1500518505 could be considered a tragedy of the commons 0 Common grazing lands were owned by lords The lords rented out segments of land to others 0 King Henry VII came into power leading to population growth which led to land becoming more scarce o The lords took their land back from their renters and fenced off the common property The people who had been renting the land were kicked off and went to cities Here they became the labor force of industrialization Institutional Solutions 0 Privatization privatize the commons GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Divide it among multiple owners with each assuming control over their own property 0 The commons can be auctioned off 0 Regulation mutual coercion o Regulate the commons based on the idea of public trust If it belongs to everyone then it is everyone s responsibility 0 Ie the Clean Air Act amendment in 1990 0 Put a price on sulfur dioxide so that pollution coming out of a smokestack has a certain price This made people reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide they emitted 0 Community Governance alternative to mutual coercion o Communitybased governance of commons so commons that aren t tragic Examples include dorm rooms and the concept of quotsharing is caringquot O o Nobel Prize winner of economics in 2009 o Challenged the idea of the tragedy of the commons by arguing that the commons isn t a place where every herder is out for himself Instead it is where rules customs and loyalties shape how people pursue self interest 0 She proposed design principles for managing commons and stated that rules cannot be adopted they have to evolve Environmental Ethics 0 There are norms about how people should react or behave towards nature 0 We should expand our quotambit of carequot 0 Ambit region 0 So we should know what the things are that we care about and expand that region 0 He was involved in a wolf eradication movement He had a quotcome to Jesusquot moment where he realized that his involvement with wolves was bad and out of this came quotThe Land Ethicquot o quotThe Land Ethicquot o A well known and cited land essay that connects the environment with ethics It explains that nature has rights and there are things that you can and can t do in regard to it 0 He is a utilitarian and a conservationist GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide Biocentrism o Extending rights to nature and ethics to animals 0 had very strong feelings about maltreating nature and stated that this extension is a continuation of American liberal tradition 0 Important to note that the Bill of Rights is only for Humans 0 He is a biologist and an ant expert o Wrote a book called quotBiophiliaquot o The idea of a love of life that there is an instinctive bond between humans and other living systems 0 He creates controversy because he uses biology to explain the situation of whether or not human behavior is biologically based o Atheist scientist who stated that quotare we programmed to breed or are we assigned free willquot 0 Had his body preserved Utilitarian 0 Had the idea of quotthe greatest good to the greatest number of people which is the measure of right and wrongquot Like the de nition of what is right 0 If a large amount of people think that something is okay then it suddenly is such as words that didn t use to be in the dictionary but that were used so much that they are Animal Rights Movement 0 PETA People for the ethical treatment of animals 0 Based on 0 Animal Liberation o Breaks into Labs and sets animals free 0 Okay to eat animals but not to use them for luxuries like furs example of a variation o o Understands the sensations of being a cow 0 Slaughterhouses follow her guidelines 0 quotEarth Firstquot 0 No compromise in defense of mother earth Anthropocentric environmental ethics GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide Preserve the environment so that we can sustain ourselves Instead of the idea that quotnature has the right to exist all by itselfquot there is the thought that we should save the tropical rainforest because there might be some lifesaving chemical compound in there that will save humans one day quotlifeboat ethicsquot o If the US was in a lifeboat with others drowning around us it would be unethical to allow them into the boat because then we would all sink and no one would survive So this is survival of the ttest ethic o It is unethical to give aid to foreign countries who are overpopulating OO O Intergenerational Ethics 0 Future generations deserve to enjoy and use the environment too so we need to preserve it for them 0 quotWe do not inherit from our grandparents we borrow from our grandchildrenquot Religion and Environment 0 He was a speech writer for President Bush 0 He went on a long spiritual journey regarding how people treat animals and wrote a book on it Dominion 0 Indigenous Religion Native Americans 0 Small scale societies with distinct languages kinship systems ancestral memories homelands and that which make up over 200 milion people today worldwide 0 Local bioregions are associated with intimacies le Trees have names all things are thought to have spirits o Wrote a book about nomadism he did investigations in Australia and went through landscapes told stories about what they saw as they were in the back of a truck 0 Christianity 0 From Genesis comes the idea that we humans have been given earth 0 The Church institutionalized practices against nature that gave it a bad rap 0 Said that Christianity encouraged an arrogant attitude towards nature Humans were set apart from nature Afterlife is more important that current life O 0 Islam GEOG 1003 Sustainability and Environment Exam 1 Study Guide People had arguments against her 0 Animals were created by God so we should protect them o It was the church that had an exploitative view of nature not the religion quotCreation Carequot Creation is there for us and we were made to use the planet this gives us much responsibility Encyclicals quotDeclaration on the environmentquot Papal Encyclical on Climate Change Combating climate change talks about population 0 The Qur an tells an offer of quotglobal trusteeshipquot 0 God is ultimate holder of dominion over creation 0 Loving care of the Natural environment 0 The color green especially green jihad was very important since it was representative of the green movement but it got changed to red 0 Buddhism 0 OO 0 All sentient beings share the same kinds of cyclical processes Things that can feel Do good as a moral principle Everyonething should be happy Extend loving and kindness and compassion beyond people and animals to include plants and earth Karma and rebirth Nirvana spiritual liberation
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