BIL 150 Quiz 5 Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayle Edwards on Sunday September 28, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to 150 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 236 views.
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Date Created: 09/28/14
Quiz 5 Study Guide Proteins Ch 5 7583 Ch 8 151159 1 Amino Acids a Composed of i Amino Group NH2 ii Carboxyl Group COOH iii Side Chain R Group iv Hydrogen V 0 Carbon Carbon bonded to 4 different groups T H N C C I OH H O H II Polypeptides a Amino acids are monomers b Combine dehydration synthesis create polypeptides c Peptide bonds covalent d Amino end N terminus e Carboxyl end C terminus 111 Protein Structure a Primary amino acid sequence b Secondary H bonds backbone of polypeptide chain i Oi helix or B pleated sheets c Tertiary shape of protein due to interactions of R groups i Hydrophobic Van der Waals Interactions ii H bonds between R groups iii Disulfide Bridge iv Ionic bond Hydrophobic interactions r 0 39 7 P P P Polypeptide 3 i backbone Hydrogen quot0 quot C bond CH2 14 I Disulfide bridge cu Ionic bond d Quaternary Structure more than one polypeptide chain IV Protein Conformation a Denaturing i Change in pH ii Temp iii Solute concentration b Folding i Chaperions proteins that fold proteins ii Prions improperly folded protein a Ex Mad cow disease b When prions touch they pass on the improper folding c Chain reaction c Enzymes i Lower activation energy ii Align reactants together iii Active site a Substrate binds to enzyme b Induced fit model a Flexibility in active site b fit like jeans from dryer Free energy 6 Energy ot reactants A Activation energy E A without enzyme Activation energy E A with enzyme V V Change In free energy AG V Energy of products Progress of reaction 5 Above reaction 0 Exergonic O Spontaneous AG How do you know this i Products have less energy than reactants ii The graph looks like its going downhill Therefore I An endergonic reaction would be the opposite I If you know one you know the other Change in free energy will remain the same with or without an enzyme c Enzyme inhibition i Competitive inhibition a Binds to active site ii Non competitive inhibition a Binds to allosteric site b A place on the enzyme that39s not the active site c Changes the shape of active site iii Irreversible inhibition a Covalent bond to active site Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Ch5 8486 Ch 16 1 Nucleic Acids a DNA b RNA c Nucleotides are monomers that create nucleic acids 11 Nucleotides are Composed of a Nitrogenous bases i Purines double ring a Adenine b Guanine c REMEMBER All Girls are Pure d All Adenine Girls Guanine Purine Pure e I know its sexist but w e it helps ii Pyrimidines single ring a Cytosine b ThymineUracil o Thymine DNA 0 Uraci1 RNA b Five Carbon Sugar i Pentose c Phosphate Group Nitrogenous base adenine Phosphate group Copyright 2009 Pearson Education nc III Griffith 81 b C Injected mouse with heat killed bacteria as well as living cells Found that mouse still died even tho bacteria was killed Discovered cells can turn pathogenic because of viruses IV Hershey and Chase 81 b Radioactive sulfur to trace proteins in phage Radioactive phosphorus to trace DNA Found cells infected with the radioactive DNA when phages released No radioactive sulfur proteins found Conclude that DNA contains hereditary material to produce new viral DNA Powerful evidence that nucleic acids are hereditary material ULTRA SUPER IMPORTANT TO KNOW Cultured medium of heavy 15N Transferred 15N to medium with light 14N First Replication i One Intermediate Band ii 2 DNA molecules iii Each DNA molecule had one strand of 14N and one strand of 15N e Second Replication i ii iii iv vi Two Bands One Band light near top Second Band intermediate in middle 4 DNA molecules 2 DNA molecules have only 14N 2 DNA molecules have both one strand 14N and one strand 15N a one of each isotope per DNA molecule half and half f Third Replication i ii iii iv vi 8 DNA molecules Still only 2 DNA molecules with both 14N and 15N a one strand of each per DNA molecule 6 DNA molecules with only 14N DO YOU SEE THE PATTERN HERE a There will always be those 2 DNA molecules with half 14N and half 15N b 14N will continue to replicate on its own This proves the semiconservative model a Old strand acts as a template for new daughter DNA b Consist of one parent strand and one new strand SEE DIAGRAM STUDY GUIDE PAGE 55 vii He really likes this experimen t for some reason which is why I spent so much time and detail explaining it This is the information to know ifyou learn anything from this unit VI Others to Know a Erwin Chargaff i Found that nucleotide base pairs amounts are equal ii AT amount GC amount b Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin i X ray diffraction of DNA c Watson and Crick i DNA model VII DNA Replication a Anti parallelstrands i 5 3 always b Important Enzymes i Helicase unzips DNA helix by breaking H bonds between nucleotides ii Topoisomerase goes ahead of the replication fork and relieves tension iii SSBP single strand binding protein prevents from rejoining iv Primase synthesizes RNA primer v DNA polymerase I remove RNA primer and fill in with DNA vi DNA polymerase III adds nucleotides to 3 moving towards the fork vii DNA ligase brings fragments together c Okazaki Fragments i DNA segment on lagging strand d Difference in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes i Prokaryotes replicate in circle ii Prokaryotes only have one origin replication iii Eukaryotes have many origins of replication e DNA repair i DNA proofreading a DNA pol 111 can back up a base while adding nucleotides ii Mismatch repair a Once replication is complete a check is completed again b Any mismatched pairs are corrected iii Nucleotide excision repair a Correction made later on b Xeoderma Pigmentosum a UV light damage DNA b Thymine dimers c Cause kink d Thymines binded iv Mismatch and Nucleotide excision both cut out mistakes
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