Rome: Republic and Empire
Week of September 21, 2015
A. Modern Turkey
B. Metallurgy, art and language
C. Settlements akin to Greek Poleis
II. Magna Graecia Greek colonialism
III. Cultural interaction developed into some core precepts of Roman society A. Entertainment (gladiatorial combat)
B. Language (Phoenician alphabet)
C. Religion (gods and syncretism like Alexander’s Empire)
D. Government (Democracy *)
Shaping Concepts (need to know)
I. Paterfamilias- family, society and the government embodied in the oldest male’s authority and direction over an extended family
A. Patron-Client Relationships: subservience and loyalty in exchange for provision and protection.
Don't forget about the age old question of ∙ What is an open primary?
II. Pietas- devotion to one’s family, state and religion, in that order III. Pax decorum- “the peace of the gods” communal fate depends on collective solidarity in rituals and practices
IV. mos maiorum- “the way” or “custom” + “of our betters” or “superiors” = Our traditions
Patriarchy important because in rom ether are extended families who always have a richer male who is the highest in the family (patron familiance). This the beginning of political blocks. They will grant what you need for loyalty. Family is the more important thing in roman history. Through communal religion you have peace with god but family is number one above religion.
I. Extended families formed early political blocs in early roman city-states A. Patricians – (most powerful paterfamiliases) formed the advisory committee to the king called the Senatus.
B. Plebeians – these were non-aristocratic citizens that were not necessarily poor.
II. Early kings were probably Etruscan
A. Patricians felt kingship was tyrannical and ousted the monarchy to form the Republic
III. The Aeneid and Romulus and Remus
The struggle of the Orders (509-287 BCE)
I. Senate and Consuls
A. Two consuls are the most powerful executives; possess Imperium (the right to start war)If you want to learn more check out julie marcil uottawa
B. Senate are all patricians and elect new consuls from their ranks annually
II. Patricians vs Plebeians
A. Expansion meant more wealth for the elements of both groups B. Plebs still do not have a political voice; limits opportunities to favor Patricians
III. Plebian demands and Secessio (military strike)
A. Poor : redistribution of lands and legal/financial security
B. Wealthy: right to hold office, not necessarily Senate. Also, trade interests and representation in military
Senate ruled through consoles for a while and started going through territories. Plebs started demanding things and started saying “we want land and legal security” to senators. Most plebs made money through trade and many became very wealthy. The roman military had lots of plebian members but Rome couldn’t afford to be short on soldiers and plebs said they wouldn’t fight unless they got what they wanted.
Plebian Assembly and Law Codification If you want to learn more check out hrm 360
I. Plebian Assembly (494) and Tribunes (471)
A. Challenge municipal court decisions and retry them
B. Veto certain Senate created laws
C. Can propose legislation to Senate
D. Military offices not previously open to Plebs
II. Twelve Tables (449 BCE): publicly displayed laws; generate greater transparency
III. Licnian-Sextian Laws (367 BCE): land distribution and mandatory plebian consulship If you want to learn more check out intro to engineering ttu
IV. Lex Hortensia (287 BCE): Plebian assembly laws are binding on ALL Roman citizens. Wealthy plebs now have comparable power to patricians
I. First Punic War (264 – 241 BCE)
A. Defensive Imperialism *
B. Roman Victory = constructing its own powerful navy + Carthaginian politics
II. Second Punic Wars (218-202 BCE)
A. Carthage expands into Spain and conquers Saguntum
B. Hannibal Barca ** (221)- marches 50,000 troops over the Alps in the winter with elephants to surprise Romans.
C. Consul Fabius Maximus successfully leads defense of Rome
D. Publus Carnelius Scipio Africanus defeats Carthaginians at Zama III. Third Punic War (149-146 BCE): complete destruction of Carthage. Unnecessary carnage.
Rome and Carthage go to war because Carthage’s allies bickering. Imperialism was a factor. Romans win first war, Carthage’s had a stronger navy but Rome built a navy. Carthage politics forces the hand of many commanders but they messed up
the war. The second Punic war, Carthage lost territory to Rome and Carthage started expanding into Spain but Rome said don’t pass a line. Rome, in patient client relationship, Spain wanted that protection. Hannibal Barca seized Sangtum . Barca does the unthinkable and marches troops through Alps in the winter to surprise the romans. You don’t fight in the winter!! He lost half his troops but he has elephants. He came close to winning. Third war was unnecessary and was to wipe out the last of threats.
Revolt of Gracchi
I. Tiberias Gracchus (133) & Gaius Gracchus (123/122 BCE) A. Latifundias
B. Agrarian Reform
II. Senatus Consltum Ultimum: emergency senate meeting calling in troops to violently quell Gracchus followers. Over 3,300 dead.
III. Legacy of Gracchus: people continue to challenge senatorial power and seek citizens for ALL Italian peoples.
IV. “Bread and Circuses” – used to describe the grain distribution and entertainment of the following eras as opposed to the “heroism” of the Republic. Maintains status-quo.
Latifundias is like a southern plantation ran by slave labor of conquered people. They produce stuff cheap making nutrition rich. There were farmers who could no longer make it who move to Rome; they left their land but you need land to fight. The Gracchi brothers run off of a base of popularity. They wanted a piece of all the conquered stuff. They want to make sure the soldiers got some conquered land and the government saw this as a threat. The government said see no harm come to the state so consuls had to do what it took to keep everything the same and many died including the brothers. Many in the middle class threated the ancient power traditions. At the end of the republic, people were starving; there was a lack of food and distract starving people through grain distribution and entertainment. After revolt, things go to normal.
I. Gaius Marius
A. Military loyalty (111-103 BCE)
B. Military backing for political power (corruption)
II. Cornelius Sulla (88 BCE)
A. Gains territory of Pontus; Marius tries to take it
B. (88 BCE) Sulla & sic legions march back and clean up Rome
C. 82-81 BCE: Sulla declares himself military dictator & seeks to restore the power of the Senate. Kills thousands considered a threat to traditional Senatorial power.
New military leader changes everything; formerly the military was restricted. Now, if they fight they are promised land and loot. If I win, you win. Loyal to commander over state. When commanders come back, they usually dissolve army but not
anymore so they start corrupting because the want things and they threaten because they have a nearby army. Dude with army outside got a rich piece of land known as Pontus. Marius sneaks back into Rome and tries to do the same failure again. He died of a natural disease before getting to Rome so Sulla killed a few thousand supporters of Marius. His goal was to see restoration of senate. He was dictator for a year, straightens up politics and gets out. He started suppressing the people.
First Triumvirate (59 BCE)
I. Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus
A. Senate will not fulfil the commanders’ promises to troops
II. Death of First Triumvirate
A. Caesar becomes too popular in Gaul
B. Pompey sides with Senate
III. Civil War (49 BCE)
A. Caesar is victorious and names himself Perpetual Dictator
B. Openly flouts tradition and flaunts power. Loved by the people, not the Senate.
C. Assassinated on Ides (15th) of March 44 BCE Brutus & Cassius
People were being suppressed and Sulla undermines government. Caesar makes massive wealth in France, Crassus goes to war. Rome is getting rich from Caesar and the poor are eating. He is popular to the people and not the government. Pompey is asked to stand and protect Rome so eager to be popular, he agrees. Caesar is an enemy of the state if he crosses back with the army but he gets mad because he did so much. Pompey runs off to Egypt where he is executed; he does this because he knew he wouldn’t win in the end. Caesar is soooo loved by the people and he doesn’t adhere to tradition and hold multiple offices which are normally held by diff people. He is very showy about what he has and is doing and this gets him assassinated.
I. Marcus Antony, Lepidus and Octavian
A. Goals: challenge to Senate, restore Caesar’s reforms, and take control of Rome’s armies
B. Popular among the people (the Legacy of Caesar)
II. 42 BCE- Declare the end of the Republic
III. Death of the Second Triumvirate
A. Antony marries Octavian’s sister, but is Cleopatra’s lover
B. Octavian is master of propaganda; paints Antony as a traitor disregarding mos maiorum
C. Octavian’s troops defeat Antony’s at Actium in 31 BCE
Mission: avenge his legacy of Caesar. Marc Anthony was a trusted general, Octavian is Caesar’s grand-nephew who is his heir. Goal was to avenge death by killing the assassinators and challenge the power of the senate and they succeed well. They become 3 most powerful men in Rome. Antony married Octavian’s sister, they had a falling out and this makes them make up and 2 most powerful men in Rome. Marc finds himself in Egypt and meets Cleopatra. They have a fling and she also had a fling with Caesar. Cleopatra’s isn’t as beautiful and she is made out to be but her attractive qualities were internal. She spoke multiple languages and she is a scholar sort of. Marc is extremely intrigued and Cleopatra’s wants in in roman politics. Marc gets back to Rome and Octavian is furious and smart. Octavian’s mom and Cleopatra were very powerful women in history (just fyi). Octavian is furious and goes on a journey to undermine marc Anthony and avenge sister. He makes himself more popular by reading Caesar’s will to the people while marc is in Egypt which the people loved because he built himself in the image of the Caesar and he also read marcs will which is not very good… it said he wants power to go to he and Cleopatra’s kids which made the romans very mad and there was a lot in the way of tradition that wasn’t roman. Marc is made into a bad looking persona and he is killed; Cleopatra committed suicide. Octavian is most powerful man in Rome and under 30 years old.
I. Octavius Augustus Caesar
A. Princeps & Background Leadership
II. Pax Romana (27 BCE – 180 CE)
A. Civil service and Bureaucracy
C. “Father of the Country” (2 BCE)
D. Procreation Laws
E. Subsequent Emperors’ Ideals
He gets added name of Augustus. The thing he does that makes him diff from Caesar is instead of being called emperor or something that makes him more powerful then everyone, he wants to be called Princeps or first of the people. This is humility which is the image he wants. He operates in the background; he acts humble but it the most powerful man in Rome; people love this. Pax Romana is roman peace which is about 200 years of relative peace reaching their peak. Aqueducts were a roman miracle and very important and expansive. Roman roads extended over 50,000 miles (US is smaller). Some of the roads are still usable today; built to last. This created jobs. He is being seen as father of the country and “first roman emperor”. Nobody is ever as successful as he. Made procreation laws to build up Rome and make it stronger.
Rise of Christianity
I. Jesus of Nazareth
E. Elaboration by Paul
i. John the Baptist
Happens during period of Roman Empire; launching another one of the world’s major religious traditions. Christianity takes heavily from Jewish and Hebrew monotheism. Jesus of Nazareth was born in a new piece of Roman Empire called Judea or Juda. This was not a very tranquil area; lots of conflict between Jews and roman overlords. He grew up in an atmosphere of conflict. At age 30, he passed through a baptism by john the Baptist. John had been preaching in area about the coming of the savior and eminent end of the world and people need to confront their own shortcomings and address their sins. He took people to Jordan River to symbolize washing away of sins. This baptism had a huge effect on Jesus. From 30- 33 he preached, taught and healed. He then had a small following of people. At the age of 33 he was accused of setting himself up as king of the Jews and taken by Romans. He was then sentenced to death by crucifixion. His followers were scared this was the end then word spread he was alive and rose from the dead. This was a big deal. This shows he is Gods incarnate. We know a lot of him through is disciples and followers who continued his message. The teachings of Jesus primarily was the fatherhood of God and the Jewish tradition of monotheism as well as a brotherhood of humankind, a forgiveness of ones enemies, forsaking greed, resurrection, everlasting life/ heaven. We know this from the people who followed and wrote of him. Of all who wrote of Jesus, Paul the Baptist was most important because he wrote extensively. He took a minor Jewish sect (Christianity) and transformed it into a major world religion by elaborating on its theology and transforming it into a systematic theology and 2 paramount ideas he emphasized was Jesus is Christ, that Christ was God in human form who came to earth to save humans from sin and the other is what it takes to be saved is faith. Paul really elaborated on what is necessary to be saved is faith and God.
II. Spread of Christianity
3. Cult of Mithra
4. Roman state
ii. Ahura Mazda
B. Heresies: Arian
C. Problems of Empire
i. Council of Nicaea
Begins to spread on congregations form. This spreads through Roman Empire. Part of the success of Christianity is the failure of its rivals. A couple of philosophies were competition that are the same as religion sort of, one of these is stoicism (Zeno world is orderly and rational, reason for everything and our duty to accept and endure, huge moral code and ethics) which was embraced by more educated people and this was a philosophy of not getting too attached and this took place of religion to people. Compared to Christianity, stoicism didn’t stack up. Neoplatonism circulated in educated people; this is a roman revival of Plato who saw reality was a separate realm of ideals that can only be grasped through intellect and highest goal was contemplating and understanding the realm of ideal beauty, etc. and this is a very high power and non-accessible to all when Christianity is very accessible to everyone and seemed a lot more egalitarian, open to all, democratic, etc.. The Roman state religion was the roman adaptation of the Greek religious traditions who used the same gods but changed names into Latin; there is a very complex god system which doesn’t stack up against the goodness of Christianity. The most serious rival was the Cult of Mithra. This is a mystery religion; a generic expression and a religion that offers last judgment and everlasting life and this stems from Zoroastrianism (cosmic struggle between god of good ahura mazda and god of evil) and Mithra is a lieutenant of Ahura Mazda in mythology of Zoroastrianism. Mithra is being worshipped in his own right and this does stack up against Christianity; a lot of the same promises and moral content. The huge difference that makes Christianity more successful of the Jesus of Nazareth is a real historical figure; someone who is known by people, has a record and was loved and good and real. Heresies is a belief that is incorrect or false so churches have their own established beliefs and a heresy contradicts the beliefs of the church (KNOW THIS WORD). In Christian history, these has been many heresies that popped up really early. These are a problem because church sees them as wrong and it divides the religion; threatens to fracture the church and break it up; it’s a threat. In its early history, heresies popped up undermining this as a single religion and ultimately detracted from its success, the most profound being the Aryan heresy that has to do with nature of the trinity which is the father, the son and the holy spirit which is 3 in 1; this is a huge deal. The trinity was that god took 3 forms/manifestation and yet each is distinct. Arias didn’t see it this way, he believed Christ was created by God and is separate from god. This is a heresy because it suggests polytheism over monotheism which is a HUGE deal and issue in the early church which sparked the movement of Arian heresy. This could have been a huge divide but it didn’t. The early church got aggressive dealing with these threats. There was a council of Nicaea. This is a huge meeting that can last years of high ranking clergymen that meet over issues of doctrine; this is when they once and for all define trinity of 3 to 1; the idea is its three manifestations of one god. By adopting and formalizing it, they end the heresy and maintain the unity of the Christian church. They did so well early on by aggressively dealing with heresies. At a certain point in history, Rome becomes a mess. It has so many internal problems and seems to be politically instable at a certain point and so much fighting over who is next emperor and much civil war when any conquering hero decides he wants to be emperor. There is so
much conflict that it makes people look more sympathetically at Christian movement because they are preaching peace and passivism. Certain roman emperors actually persecuted Christians which helps Christianity because it turns them into MARTYRS which is someone willing to die for his or her beliefs (know this word). The thing about persecution is when people persecute people, it makes them into martyrs and indirectly, this helps their cause and turns these people who died for their religions into role models. This also has the effect of filtering out those who aren’t truly committed so those left are truly devoted.
III. Rise of Papacy
A. Specialness of Rome
B. Doctrine of Petrine Succession
C. Decline in the political authority
ii. Power to loose and to bind
iii. Leo I
iv. Attila the Hun
The position of pope (spiritual leader of christening) starts out of bishops of city of Rome and that evolves into the papacy. This happens to these specific Roman bishops because they were more stable and didn’t have the issues of the heresies like other bishops elsewhere. This was a special congregation and it doesn’t hurt that it was centrally located. This is a special congregation because it was visited by Paul the Baptist as well as Peter. Peter was the first bishop of Rome. What makes it even more special is the Doctrine of Petrine Succession (petrine-Peter) and in the bible, Christ gives peter the power to Loose and to bind (loose = approve, bind=forbid) which is crucial in the church power and key to papal authority. This is Christ giving power to make doctrine to peter. All subsequent bishops in Rome have claimed the same power over time. People kept looking to Pope for political leadership. In 453, Attila the Hun (Huns were people from the east who migrated into Europe and were very terrifying), Attila as very scary and invaded Rome and were ready, willing and able to sack them. Pope Leo I meets with Attila and talks him into leaving and sparing the city of Rome. When no emperor would, Popes stepped up and this gave them political authority.
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
I. Internal problems
iii. Marcus Aurelius
v. Septimus Severus
Gibbon wrote many books on the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Gibbon looked for a cause and wanted to attribute the fall to Christianity which promoted passivism, blind faith for logic, etc. that undermine the empire. The fall is blamed on things from malaria to morals. This is a story of rise and fall for a single reason. There are many causes, most of them are internal problems that weakened it, ultimately making it vulnerable to invasion of Germanic people. Military is a huge internal problem; there are a ton of borders to protect. By the 2nd century and the empire stops expanding, the people don’t want to serve in their armies anymore. By the 3rd century, nobody wants to serve so start recruiting mercenaries from beyond the frontier (Germanic) who are known as Foederati. These people are recruited by the commander posted on the frontier. These people are fighting for money, not Rome; these mercenaries are hit or miss and non-professional as well as they have a history of switching sides and they only relate to their immediate commander, not the emperor or Rome. This makes the borders very weak. There are internal political problems. There is a very powerful emperor who is commander and chief, law maker, high priest, etc. and a very autocratic empire. There is a problem and no written rule for who ends up emperor next. This results in crisis. The current emperor started choosing someone to success him before he died and trains this person up until Marcus Aurelius. Marcus was a good guy and stoic philosopher except he let family considerations override better judgement choosing his son who was a very vicious and incompetent ruler and he was horrible. After Commodus (the son), there is a chain of horrible emperors and next was Septimus Severus and “look after the soldier and stern the rest” aka take care of your troops and forget everyone else was what he was known by. The failure to come up with a constitutional way to select emperors is why there were many issues. Once an emperor died, a lot of the time the army would choose next emperor or even overthrow and install themselves through civil war/ militarily. This destabilizes and weakens Rome internally making it very vulnerable. There were many economic problems. Because the empire is so large, unity is an issue. There was a cultural divide between east and west. The eastern was more Greek, western was more Latin culturally. The west is what really declines and falls. What makes unity between east and west was the economy. In its hay day, the economy was interdependent so they made surpluses and swapped goods; also this integrated remote provinces and this worked nicely. This starts to break down and provinces start striving for self-sufficiency and this central component to unity is crumbling. The other economic issue is cost of labor; when the empire was built and more was conquered, it creates a pool of slave labor or POW’s who were taken back to Rome and sold as slaves and the net result of expansion and Punic Wars was the introduction of slave labor. By end of 1st century, Rome is no longer expanding. Prisoners of war were the largest slave laboring in history. As slave supply dries up, cost of labor becomes very expansive and creates inflation (huge issue later). The economic policies of emperors themselves becomes inflationary and they like to
debase the coinage or tamper with the value of the currency by taking some of the metal out of the coins and create more coins which is inflationary. Messing with coins in this way is a stupid thing to do economically because it causes inflation.
iii. Milvian Bridge
The reason the empire lasts so long (till 476) is because of the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine. Diocletian was a major persecute of Christians but he was important because he was concerned of political instability and that there was so much fighting and civil war and abuse was power. He thinks maybe we separate civilian and military power. He redesigns government to an extent and divides empire into a series of Prefectors or districts. Each is headed by a Prefect or governor and this is a civilian but there is also a military commander posted too but this isn’t the same person. He is worried of transfer of power after he dies to he comes up with a complicated system for the next emperor where there is a co emperor and a chain of succession (complex and confusing) but Constantine disrupts the system. He comes along and disrupts Diocletian’s plan militarily and claims the throne in the midst of military complex. At Malian bridge, he saw a sign (he was pagan) which was a giant cross in the sky and he took this as his sign to be open to Christianity sand eventually convert. When he is in power, he wanted religious tolerance and to make Christianity the main religion. By embracing Christianity and allowing it to grow, this did breathe new life into the empire for a bit.
III. Barbarian Invasions
A. Germanic society
v. Attila the Hun
vi. Theodoric the Ostrogoth
The barbarian invasions is what really ends the empire. They begin streaming into the empire which destroys portions of the empire. There are the Germanic people of many subsets. These people were the founders of modern Europe. The romans thought of them in an odd way and Tacitus wrote of these people calling them barbarians because they were organized tribally but these tribal people had early forms of kingdoms. This is an indication of how backward they were and how violent these people are which is ironic because the romans are really violent. He was quite impressed by them physically by their size and their scary nature as well as red hair and blue eyes. War is a way of life for these people and Tacitus said that their system of warfare was primitive; they fought by using comitatus or Germanic wat bank. Instead of having standing armies of troops, a local tribal chief who wanted to go to war, he would call young men together to go to battle and put down their lives for him; a man to man relationship in return for care and pillage and steal anything not nailed down (war booty) which is a sort of subsistence. We think these are the origins in vassalage and feudalism. Justice is backward for the Germanic people as well; there are 2 types of trials. One is compurgation which is talking to the heavens and witnesses and oaths are taken these people are brought in which this had a huge effect on modern world. The other has the person hold red hot iron and then wrap the hands up, unwrap the hands and see what happened; if they heal nicely, the supernatural things indicate goodness and if it festers, they are guilty. These are the people who polish off the Roman Empire. For ages they lived at the frontier and the romans had plenty knowledge of these people; they coexist at the frontier. At around 400 CE, the Huns start entering Europe from the east and start terrifying the Germanic people and they start into empire to stay away from Huns and by 476, they are all over the western part of the empire and they take over, They don’t come in thinking about taking over and converting it; they come in, settles, and think themselves as romans! They saw this whole phenomenon as them becoming romans but they didn’t have the cultural background to sustain roman way of life and that’s how it perishes.