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Selections from Human Geography text book

by: Sophie Torma

Selections from Human Geography text book Geography 1410

Marketplace > University of Denver > Geography > Geography 1410 > Selections from Human Geography text book
Sophie Torma
GPA 4.0
People, Places and Landscapes
Eric Boschmann

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About this Document

This includes notes from the following selection: 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1G, 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, 2E
People, Places and Landscapes
Eric Boschmann
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophie Torma on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Geography 1410 at University of Denver taught by Eric Boschmann in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see People, Places and Landscapes in Geography at University of Denver.

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Date Created: 09/27/15
Thursday September 17 2015 Chapter 1 IA IB IC 1D IG 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 1A Pattern and Process Pattern arrangement of various geographical phenomena at a given point in time Phenomenon attributes that can be considered geographically Physically present body of water attribute of human society region attitude Cognate discipline that is in some way affiliated with a branch of human geography Eg Political Science Progress action that brings about particular pattern represents evolution and development of something over time Important to know When it began and ended Logical ordering of a sequence of processes Relationship between different processes that might have affected spatial locationdistribution of a phenomenon Why the sequence of processes occurred when it did Deterministic always resulting in particular pattern 18 Absolute and Relative Location Absolute Location location of where each place exists on a reference system Geographical Coordinate System gives each place a unique value based on its latitude and longitude Relative Location location compared to other places location in context Helps explain why things are where they are forest near a lake Preferred method for geographers Describes Thursday September 17 2015 Landlocked country country that doesn t have direct access to sea Edge City district on the outskirts of a major city that unlike a traditional suburb includes many aspects of a central business district Agricultural Hinterland farming area surrounding a towncity that provides it with food Cancer alley Corridor alleged to have an aboveaverage rate of cancer incidence tied to its proximity to petrochemical plants 10 Place and Space Place Basic unit and key concept in geography that indicates where something exists Key geographical concept Basic unit helps with exploring spacial perspective Considered as points with O dimension Space 2D area that contains number of places and boundaries that may or may not be clearly defined 1D Place Attributes and Significance Geographical Grid geographical spreadsheet in which places are represented in rows and have a specific geographical location and characteristicsattributes represented in rows Geographical location where a place is located Scale of analysis tells what is being studied Ex World is scale of analysis and countries are what s being studied Characteristics Physical elevation climate soil rock formation topography vegetation crops land use etc Human population cultural groups business socioeconomic status education levels political systems institutions etc Pure Characteristics characteristic that can be applied to a particular place Thursday September 17 2015 Aggregate Characteristics dominant characteristics that are found within a place Relative Significance the level of significance a characteristic has depending on a scale of analysis and the topic of interest Scale determines the frame of reference and shows which characteristics are especially important Places have a location in space both types of location are important and should be considered 1G Regions Region subdivision of space into categorizable geographic units made of 2 places and has spatial dimensionality Organizes space made of separate places Types of regions Formal Regions places that have 1 characteristics in common Functional Regions regions constructed out of places that interact Can change as levels of interaction change Vernacular Region regions that people construct in their mind and may be difficult to dissect 2A Ancient Geography Early geography based on Description recording of knowledge about the peoples and environments of earth Measurement human understanding about the shape and size of world Homer considered father of geography for Greeks bc of llliad and Odyssey describe Mediterranean so well Hecataeus philosopher compiled own experiences with stories and descriptions from sailors Herodotus 1st historian included detailed geographical descriptions Greeks first to think that Earth was a globe Thursday September 17 2015 Ptolemy drew some of the most famous maps thought that Asia extended further east than it actually does making Columbus land in America Eratosthenes used geography to figure that the circumference was 28700 miles 28 The Middle Ages Geography declined after Roman Empire fell and Catholic Church took over in European countries wanted to follow scriptures not investigate Ptolemy maps no longer used TO map used by Church instead of Ptolemy maps type of medieval map that was based on Christian theology showed the world as 3 continents Asia Africa Europe resembled a T inside an O Muslim countries had great geography at time high literacy rate wrote details about travels Leaders encouraged readingwriting alldrisi educated in Spain won favor of King of Sicily more accurately combined ancient geography with present knowledge from Muslim traders Chinese also took detailed maps attempted to understand geographical processes 2C The Age of Exploration After 15th century Muslim and Chinese people stopped exploring Europe began world wide conquest Prince Henry the Navigator hired cartographers geographers astronomers etc funded moneymaking expeditions to Africa New ship Caravel allowed longer expeditions Improved compasses and astrolabes Vasco da Gama sailed around southern end of Africa Trouble determining longitude east west Traditionally determined by time but clocks were useless out in sea John Harrison invented clock that could accurately tell longitude on sea won equivalent of 8 IO million from British Parliament Thursday September 17 2015 Scurvy nutritional disease that causes weakness mushy gums tooth loss spots on skin diarrhea opening of scars breakdown of bones Due to vitamin C deficiency Ideas traveled faster than ever before Columbian Exchange interaction between Eastern and Western Hemispheres after Europeans arrived in Americas 5090 of American natives wiped out by new diseases Foods livestock exchanged 2D The Birth of Modern Geography 17th and 18th century plants and animals started being classified explored linkage bw humans and environment hypothesized about origins of continents Alexander von Humboldt Prussian explorer and naturalist who traveled widely especially in the Americas categorizing natural objects and writing about the importance of scientific inquiry helped bridge the gap between work of past and modern geography Carl Ritter German geographer who emphasized observation of landscape and who argued that geography must focus on understanding the interconnections among phenomena on earth s surface and not just basic boundaries helped bridge gap between work of past and modern geography 3 aspects of Geography discipline Scientific exploration driven by rise of geographic societies Royal Geographical Society American Geographic society sponsored scientific expeditions Environmental determinism the controversial idea that climate or other physical qualities of an area dictate the culture of the people who live there People in tropics where lazy because it was too hot People in mountains were hardy and hardworking Influenced by racism Regional Geography Thursday September 17 2015 Possibilism the environment doesn t determine societies culture humans dev own culture but within constrains set by environment 2E The Twentieth Century Carl Sauer geographer from UC Berkley didn t believe in environmental determinism Geographers wanted to scientifically differentiate among places by grouping similar places together Regional Geographies discussed parts of the world in all aspects of region language religion agriculture industry political patterns Criticized for looking so closely at a region that they lost sight of universal laws truths Topical specialized geography special skill set for geographers Systematic geography focuses on specializing in a particular type of geography and than applying theories to places and regions Positivism all knowledge can be pursued by the scientific method and thus a strong emphasis is placed on observation and measurement Quantitative Revolution geography as spatial science movement that grew in strength in the 50 and 60s and that focused on statistics positivistic techniques and the search for universal laws to explain geographic patterns and processes Natural hazard research grew into focus headed by Gilbert White


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