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Chapter 1

by: Sophie Torma

Chapter 1 General Chemistry 1010

Sophie Torma
GPA 4.0
General Chemistry 1
Deborah G. Mitchell

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These are notes for the OpenStax textbook.
General Chemistry 1
Deborah G. Mitchell
Study Guide
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sophie Torma on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to General Chemistry 1010 at University of Denver taught by Deborah G. Mitchell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Denver.

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Date Created: 09/27/15
Saturday September 12 2015 Chapter 1 Essential Ideas 11 Chemistry in Context Chemistry investigations gt2500 years ago Alchemygtchemistry Chemistry The Central Science Central bc relates to other STEM subjects Chemistry the study of the composition properties and interactions of matter The Scientific Method Based on ObservationExperimentation Hypothesis tentative explanation of observations that acts as a guild for gathering and checking information Laws of science summarize a number of experimental observations predicts describes facet of natural world Theory wellsubstantiated comprehensive testable explanations of particular aspects of nature Can be modified it new evidence crops up Scientific Method Question amp Observation gt Law Hypothesis gt Theory testing of hypothesis The Domains of Chemistry Behavior of matter and energy Macroscopic domain Everyday things big so that our senses can detect them Food breeze measure physical amp chemical properties changes in density solubility flammability Microscopic Domain Very small needs microscopePictured in mind Saturday September 12 2015 Viruses atoms molecules ions electrons protons neutrons chemical bonds Symbolic Domain Language used for components of macroscopic and microscopic domains Symbols we use to describe Lewis dot drawing letters etc Cgraphite Chemical symbols chemical formulas chemical equations graphs drawings calculations Help interpret behavior of macroscopic domain in terms of components of microscopic domain 12 Phases and Classification of Matter Matter anything that occupies space and has mass Solids liquids gas Solid rigid definite shape Volume independent of pressure Liquid flows takes shape of container Volume independent of pressure Gas takes shape and volume of container Plasma Ionized Gases gaseous state of matter lots of electrically charged particles electrons cations Conducts electricity makes amp responds to magnetic fields Found in high temp Lightning strikes TV screens fire Mass measure of the amount of matter Force needed to accelerate object use balance to compare mass with standard mass mass ng Weight force that gravity exerts on object Saturday September 12 2015 Proportional to mass but mass doesn t change as force of gravity does Law of the Conservation of Matter There is no detectable change in the total quantity of matter present when matter converts from one type to another Chemical Change or changes among solid liquid or gaseous states Physical change Atoms and Molecules Atom smallest part of element that has element s properties and can enter into chemical combination First suggested by Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus John Dalton 1st to support with quantitative measurements Aren t usually independent usually paired Molecule 2 atoms joined by chemical bonds Can be same or different atoms Classifying Matter 2 broad categories Pure Substance constant composition same makeup and properties Same melting point color sweetness Elements Pure substances that can t be broken down into simpler substances by chemical changes Compounds Pure substances that can be broken down by chemical change can make elements other compounds Can be different from the elements making it up color matter Mixtures 2 types of matter can be separated by physical changes evaporation Heterogeneous mixture mixture with a composition that varies from point to point Homogeneous mixture solution uniform composition same throughout 13 Physical and Chemical Properties Saturday September 12 2015 Physical Properties characteristic of matter not associated with chemical change Density color hardness melting and boiling points electrical conductivity Physical Change change in the state or matter without any accompanying change in chemical composition Chemical Property change of 1 type of matter into another Flammability toxicity acidity reactivity heat of combustion Chemical Change Produces 1 types of matter that differ from matter present before change Iron Oxygen Water gt Rust Extensive Property type of property of matter when the property depends on amount of matter present Gallon of milk has larger mass and volume than cup of milk Proportional to amount of matter Intensive Property if the property of sample doesn t depend of amount of matter present Temperature Some elements act similarly conduction used to separate elements into Metals conduct well Nonmetals conduct poorly Metalloids Properties of both metals and nonmetals 14 Measurements Gives 3 types of info Size of measurement number Standard of comparison for measurement unit Units liter pounds centimeters standards of comparison for measurements International Systems of Units SI Units standards for units Saturday September 12 2015 Indication of uncertainty of measurement Length Standard Unit is meter m 3 inches longer than a yard Mass SU is kilogram kg Temperature Kelvin k Celsius used in SI System Time second s Volume measure of the amount of space occupied by object Cubic meterLiter m3 cube with a edge length of 1 m Cubic centimeter cc milliliters cm3 volume of cube with edge length of 1 cm Density ratio of mass of sample of substance to volume Sl Unit kilogram per cubic meter kgm3 but often use grams per cubic centimeter gcm3 for solidsliquids grams per liter gL for gases Density massvolume 15 Measurement Uncertainty Accuracy and Precision Exact Number number derived by counting or by definition Ex Number of eggs in carton 1 foot12 inches Significant Figures in Measurement Uncertainty estimate of the amount by which measurement differs from true value Eg 2486 86 is uncertain between 85 and 87 while 248 is true Significant FigureSADigits all digits in measurement 0 included 0 s in 0000867 are leading NOT significant use exponential notation 0 s in 1300 uncertain whether or not significant or not use exponential notation Most likely not significant Significant Figures in Calculations Saturday September 12 2015 Rounding in Si Fi s AddSubtract round to same number of decimal places as number with least number of decimal places MultiplyADivide round to same number of digits as number with least SI Fl If digit dropped and less than 5 leave retained digit same more than 5 increase by 1 if it is 5 change to whatever yields an even 2 4 6 value for retained digit Accuracy and Precision Precision getting similar results in same manner Accuracy results that are very close to trueaccepted value 16 Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results Dimensional Analysis factorlabel method the units of quantities must be subjected to the same mathematical operations as their associated numbers Conversion Factors and Dimensional Analysis Unit Conversion Factor ratio of 2 equivalent quantities expressed with different measurement units 254 cm 1 in Conversion of Temperature Units Expands when heated up contracts when cold Fahrenheit freezing point 32F boiling 212F Kelvin O no molecular movement Quantum Mechanics Interactions between protons and electrons in atom Classical MechanicsNewtonian Mechanics can t describe what s actually going on alone Very small species have wave like properties screws it up Works for things on large scale Saturday September 12 2015 Force q1q2 Charge of 1 species by Charge of another r difference between them Force related to acceleration Fmassacceeration


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