Study Guide 1 Exam 1
Study Guide 1 Exam 1 Anthrop 3301
Popular in Modern Human Physical Variation
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anthrop 3301 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Douglas Crews in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Modern Human Physical Variation in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Ohio State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Anthro 3301 Study Guide Exam 1 o HardyWeinberg this is the middle part Adaptability o The capability of an organism to adapt to a given environment Adaptation 0 An increase in reproductive success due to environmental conditions 0 Albinism o Inability to produce melanin which makes you look pale because you can39t tan Allele 0 An option of a gene Allele Frequency 0 The number of times an allele pops up in a given population Alu Sequences o Distinctive sequence ends in quotPolyA tailquot humans have over 14 million copies of alus Amino Acids o The building blocks of life Anthropometry 0 Anthropology using measurement Apomorphy o Derived trait like parabolic dentition Arti cial Selection 0 Example dog breeding Breeding population 0 Unit of evolution genetic changes occur as adaptations to local environments Codominant o 2 or more alleles that have equal power in deciding phenotype Complex traits o Traits in uenced by more than a single gene or by genes alone Deme o A given population Dominant 0 An allele that has more power in deciding phenotype than another allele Dystrophin 0 Large protein in the human body muscular dystrophy 90k base pairs Endogamy 0 When a deme mates within their group incest Religious restrictions quotracequot restrictions Epistasis 0 Gene products masking or enhancing each other Evolution 0 Change in allele frequency from generation to generation selective pressures and serendipitous events Exogamy 0 When a deme mates outside of their own group Exons o Coding regions within a gene Founder effect 0 When a smaller group moves off to a deserted island and starts afresh and they aren39t a good sample of the population as a whole Gene pool 0 All the alleles available in populations changes slowly unless there s an outside force Genomics o Studying all the genes in an individual population or species Genotype o What alleles you get Genotype frequency 0 How often a genotype pops up in a given population Gradualism 0 Little changes over time o Chromosome doubling fern adder39s tongue shrimp jackjumper ant HardyWeinberg equilibrium 0 PH X PH 1 o In nitely large population equal production of offspring random mating no new mutations these are not natural conditions but most natural environments follow HW basically Homology 0 Similar forms andor functions between species etc lntron o Noncoding intervening region clipped out at spliceosomes Lactose intolerance 0 When you can39t have milk Lactose tolerance 0 When you can Locus o The place where an allele resides Macroevolution 0 Large changes in phylogenetic group in a short geologic time 0 New species and higher groups organelle engulfment hybridization adaptive radiation mass extinctions arti cial selection Mendelian trait 0 Simple trait with exactly 2 alleles one dominant and one recessive Methylation 0 DNA Methyl group added to a cytosine or adenine aids DNA in remembering inheritable genomic imprinting o Histone DNA is coiled around histones and can39t be read if it39s coiled too tightly so methylation relaxes the grip o Epigenetic mother39s diet is linked to obesity in offspring epigenetic methylation blocks POMC gene expression which promotes satiety microevolution 0 slow changes in alleles and phenotypes over geological time Human accelerated regions 0 49 different human genome segments conserved over vertebrate evolution but we do better thought to be language ability neuroanatomy complex thought HARl active during brain development HAR2 is greatest divergence between humans and chimps Alternative Genome 0 Old axiom one gene one protein new one gene multiple proteins 23k coding genes and 300k proteins Ectomorph o Slender and linear anthropometric term Endomorph 0 Heavy with obvious fat deposits anthropometric term Acclimatization 0 When you get used to a certain temperature Cladogram o A key that helps show what an organism would be de ned as or where it falls in evolutionary history Heritability vs inheritance o Heritability proportion of quantitative variation due to genes genes interact with the environment and it39s environmentspeci c o The higher the heritability the greater the phenotype variability natural selection not maintaining speci c phenotypes like birth Antibody 0 They keep the body healthy Sampling error 0 When you choose a sample that is not a good representation of the deme as a whole Sexual selection 0 When mating is not random but mates are chosen based on sexual characteristics peacocks Wild type 0 The most common genotype found in the wild Normal curve 0 689599 the percent that falls within 123 standard deviations from the mean in a quotnormalquot curve Codon o Bunches of proteins that tell your DNA what to do Bottleneck o Nonselective event that alters the gene pool like an earthquake Histones 0 DNA curls around it HLA and MHC o Polygenetic traits Hemophilia o Recessive you bleed a lot Microbiome 0 Bacterial population within the body outnumbers body cells 10 to 1 Operon 0 Controls enzyme production like the one that controls lactase ncDNA o noncoding DNA ncRNA o noncoding RNA Adaptive radiation 0 New species emerged from diverging changed environments had them going different ways selectively Genetic variation 0 The different genotypes available in a deme Norm of reaction 0 Range of the phenotype expression with one shared genotype in different environments Recombination 0 Chemistry crossing over Retrotransposons 0 Short DNA sequences that can selfgenerate copies of themselves and insert itself into a genome at a random position like how a retrovirus works they do this preferentially Systematics 0 Using morphological features to construct phylogenies used today to show differences in species beyond the appearances o The science of reassigning ancestordescendant relationships Taxonomy 0 Species description Proband Sequence motif Methionine Apoptosis Microsatellites Differential survival Template strand Loci quotequivalentsquot Androgen insensitivity Transient polymorphism Acetylation o Histone acetylation loosens DNA around histones so that it can be read Exon skipping o A type of alternative splicing Panmixis 0 Random mating negates sexual and natural selection Proteasome o Degrades and recycles proteins Ubiquitin 0 Small regulatory antioxidant protein ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic organisms directs protein recycling Perpetual change 0 Species demes etc do not stop trying to better adapt to their environment Mesomorph 0 Between ecto slender and endo wide medium size and muscular build multifactorial o in uenced by a variety of factors like environment and genes and culture like male pattern baldness mutation o a change in the alleles even down to a protein or amino acid level Penetrance o How well you can see the phenotype and how much the genotype affects the phenotype related to dominance Phenotype o The physical effects of genotype Phenotype frequency 0 How often any given physical thing pops up in a given deme Phyletic gradualism o Classifying things they changed very slowly Phenotypical polymorphism o The many ways humans look different Polymorphism 0 Things that changed observe phenotypic polymorphisms Dicer o RNaselll family member chops RNA into smaller bits of RNA Phenylketonuria aka PKU 0 Lack of phenylalanine Plasticity o The ability of an organism to adapt its phenotype to a changing environment not a genetic adaptation or natural selection Peiotropy o 1 gene many effects on the phenotype Plesiomorphy o Primitive aka ancestral trait Polygenetic o Trait determined by more than one gene has nothing to do with environment HLA Proteome o All of the proteins in a cell 23k genes and 300k proteins Proteomics o Studying proteomes Punctuated Equilibrium o The stairstep idea everything is normal big change normal big change on and on QTL Qualitative 0 It39s there or it39s not do you have freckles Quantitative o How manyto what degree are you super freckly or just a little Recessive 0 Not dominant Red Queen Hypothesis 0 quotThe Red Queen had to run faster and faster in order to keep where she wasquot RFLP 0 Restriction fragment length polymorphism Silent mutation 0 When a mutation that s pretty much irrelevant happens doesn39t make any changes to phenotype just genotype Simple trait 0 Like a Mendelian trait you have 2 options and it isn39t in uenced by environment or anything else All Mendelians are simple but not all simple are Mendelian SNP 0 Single nucleotide polymorphism Species concept 0 Typological species de ned by xed essential morphological features Spliceosome 0 RNA and proteins introns taken out of mRNA molecules Symplesiomorphy 0 Species share primitive traits from a common ancestor like mammary glands Transcription o Complement strand template for premRNA Transposons 0 DNA sequences that move from place to place on chromosomes includes about 50 of human DNA Translation 0 Copy Typology o The best of the best in a species Synapomorphy 0 Species share traits derived from a common ancestor like primate stereoscopic vicion Body habitus o All of the things that can make you die quicker Epigenetics 0 Stuff that affects genes that isn39t genes like environment and nutrition Common descent o The result of a common ancestor Reproductive success 0 Having babies who can and do have more babies Phylogeny o Grouping species by shared traits Gene 0 A thing that decides a thing in your body Sense strand 0 Nontemplate strand of codons complement is an antisense aka a template strand Jumping genes 0 Genes that can move around on your chromosomes aka transposons Alternative splicing o Exon skipping most common type in mammals but alternative splicing probably began as intron retention because that39s the kind that39s more prevalent in simple multicellular life and plant life Color blindness 0 Disabled rodscones depending on what it is what cone etc decides severity and such Xlinked so you see it more in males because they don39t have the backup X chromosome Theory 0 A wellsupported and very general idea that you can39t quite prove but every test to disprove it comes back pretty negative 0 Explanation of empirical observations Nomenclature o Naming things Protein functions Enzymes make chem reactions faster Structural ones do structure things like collagen Regulatory ones switch things on and off Transport ones take things places Storage ones save things ovalbumin stores egg energy Receptor take things in like hormones or cytokines Hormones make things happen like insulin and aldersterone Protective ones save the body like antibodies Contractile ones contract like with actin and myosin
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