Ecosphere Environ Sci I
Ecosphere Environ Sci I EVPP 110
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Date Created: 09/28/15
EVPP 110 Lecture Fall 2003 Instructor Dr Largen Exam 2 Study Summary This study summary is provided by your instructor as a courtesy Your use of this summary is optional If you do not like the format or you do not nd it helpful then you do not have to use it You will NOT receive extra credit for using this summary This study summary is meant to guide your study of the material for the exam It is not intended to identify for you the exact 50 questions that will be on the exam So obviously there will be more covered in this summary than can be included on a 50 question exam It does help identify what will not be on the exam the absence here of a topic or point covered in lecture means that it won39t be on the exam The presence here of a topic or point covered in lecture does not guarantee that there will be a question about it on the exam There are many more quotstudy questionsquot here than there will be questions on the exam Frequently a single multiple choice question on the exam will require an understanding of many quotstudy questionsquot from this list An quotanswer sheetquot to go with these questions is not provided The answers to these questions have been presented in the class lectures class activities and the lecture notes posted on the website You should work through these questions and attempt to answerthem as you go lfyou encounter a question that you cannot answer you should search for the answer in your notes You will notice that often several of these questions are asking basically the same thing but from a slightly different angle This is done to ensure that your understanding ofthe material does bevond the simple level of being able to restate a definition Simply memorizing de nitions will not be suf cient to do well on the exam The exam will include questions that ask you to apply concepts Life characteristics origin 0 what are the basic characteristics of life 0 What are the characteristics shared by all forms of life 0 What are three possible explanations for the origin of life on earth and which are considered to fall within the realm of science What were some characteristics ofthe early Earth39s atmosphere What is thought to be responsible forthe change in the oxygen concentration ofthe atmosphere from near zero to the 21 oftoday Characterize the temperature of the early Earth Why was the temperature of the early Earth high what happened that resulted in the temperature dropping what was the connection with that drop and the appearance of life 0 Summarize the MilerUrey experiment to test the spontaneous origin hypothesis and its results Life early cellsI classification of life 0 What were the characteristics ofthe earliest cells Were the earliest cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic Compare the characteristics of prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cells Is it thought that eukayotic cells arose from prokaryotic cells EVPP 110 Lecture Exam 2 Study Summary Fall 2003 Page 2 What 2 processes are thought to have been involved in thetrsnition from prokaryotic cells to eukaryotic cells What is membrane infolding What is endosymbiosis What support exists for endosymbiosis What is taxonomy What is a domain What are the three domains into which life is arranged What are the six kingdoms into which life is arranged Which kingdoms isare placed into the domain Archaea Which kingdoms isare placed into the domain Bacteria Which kingdoms isare placed into the domain Eukarya Which domains and which kingdoms contain organisms with prokaryotic cells Which domains and which kingdoms contain organisms with eukaryotic cells What is the binomial system of classi cation What does it mean to say that taxonomy is hierarchical What are the rules for how the genus and species name ofan organism should be written What are the main levels of classi cation from the broadest down to the most speci c and in what order do they occur Life a tour of the kingdoms of life 0 What are some general characteristics ofthe kingdom archaebacteria prokaryotic versus eukaryotic types ofenvironments mode of nutrition 0 What are some general characteristics ofthe kingdom eubacteria prokaryotic versus eukaryotic main cell shapes mode of nutrition structural features that help with survival 0 What are some general characteristics ofthe kingdom protista prokaryotic versus eukaryotic assemblage mode of nutrition habitats o In general why is it likely that the kingdom protista will be split into several kingdoms at some point in the future 0 What are some general characteristics ofthe kingdom fungi prokaryotic versus eukaryotic assemblage mode ofnutrition habitats ecological roles o What are some general characteristics ofthe kingdom plantae prokaryotic versus eukaryotic assemblage mode ofnutrition habitats ecological roles o What are some general characteristics ofthe kingdom animalia prokaryotic versus eukaryotic assemblage mode ofnutrition habitats ecological roles Life levels of organizationI cell structure amp functionI maior processes for fueling life39s activities what are the levels oforganization of life what is meant by quotthe levels of organization of life are hierarchicalquot tenets of cell theory features common to all cells characteristics ofeukaryotic cells in general comparison of plant and animal cell membranous organelles some examples EVPP 110 Lecture Exam 2 Study Summary Fall 2003 Page 3 types of cells that have chloroplasts plants vs animals how many chloroplasts does a cell have structure ofchloroplast energy process that takes place in chloroplasts where in chloroplast does photosynthesis take place do chloroplasts carryout cellular respiration do cells with chloroplasts also have mitochondria what types of cells have mitochondria plants vs animals how many mitochondria does a cell have structure of mitochondria parts amp components of mitochondria energy process that takes place in mitochondria where in mitochondria does cellular respiration take place do mitochondria carryout photosynthesis do cells with mitochondria also have chloroplasts what structure inside the mitochondria increase surface area available for reactions what are autotrophs examples what are heterotrophs examples do autotrophs carry out photosynthesis cellular respiration or both do heterotrophs carry out photosynthesis cellular respiration or both are respiratory respiration breathing the same thing as cellular respiration how is your breathing related to your cellular respiration know the summary equation for cellular respiration what starting food molecule is usually used to study cellular respiration what are the reactants for the cellular respiration reaction what are the products for the cellular respiration reaction can cellular respiration harvest all the energy from glucose in a form that is usable to the cell does the full process of cellular respiration require oxygen de nition of cellular respiration de nition of aerobic de nition of anaerobic comparison ofthe ef ciency of aerobic cellular respiration ofglucose as compared to a yeast cell harvesting energy from glucose under anaerobic conditions wherein a molecule is the energy stored that a cell harvests does cellular respiration dismantle glucose all at once or in a series of small steps understand how respiration works by shuttling electrons through a series of energy releasing reactions 0 in this process do electrons start out in molecules that have more energy and end up in molecules that have less energy or visa versa 0 the energy released by dismantling glucose ultimately ends up in what energystorage molecule de nition ofoxidationreduction reaction de nition of redox reaction understand that the movement of electrons from one molecule to another is aredox reaction 0 is oxidation the gain or loss ofelectrons from a substance EVPP 110 Lecture Exam 2 Study Summary Fall 2003 Page 4 is reduction the gain or loss of electrons from a substance why do oxidation and reduction always go together de nition of electron carrier what is meant by an electron cascade what is the electron transport chain in the electron cascade are electrons falling down an energy hill or moving up an energy hill what keeps electrons moving along the electron cascade or electron transport chain starting at the top ofthe electron cascade or electron transport chain and working towards the bottom how would characterize the electron af nity of each electron carrier along the way at what point or points along the electron transport chain is energy released is cellular respiration a continuous process or does it stop in between each ofthe stages what are the three stages of cellular respiration which ofthe three stages of cellular respiration are endergonic and which are exergonic in which part ofthe cell does glycolysis take place in which part ofthe cell do the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain take place what parts ofa plant are capable of carrying out photosynthesis what part ofthe plant is the major site of photosynthesis in which organelle does photosynthesis occur in what tissue of a leafare chloroplasts concentrated how many chloroplasts does a plant cell have how many membranes enclose the chloroplast what is the name ofthe thick fluid that lls the space enclosed by the inner membrane of the chloroplast what is the name of the disklike membranous sacs that are suspended in the stroma of the chloroplast what are grana what are quotautotrophsquot are autotrophs also considered to be quotproducersquot which kingdoms contain organisms that are autotrophic what is the equation for photosynthesis in words what are the reactants for photosynthesis what are the products of photosynthesis what form ofenergy is required in order for the process of photosynthesis to occur compare the photosynthesis and cellular respiration equation in words what are the two stages of photosynthesis photosynthesis converts light energy to what other form of energy do the light reactions capture and convert light energy or do they produce sugars does the Calvin cycle capture and convert light energy or does it produce sugars in what part ofthe chloroplast do the light reactions occur in what part ofthe chloroplast does the Calvin cycle occur which of the reactants of photosynthesis are required in the light reactions which ofthe reactants of photosynthesis are required in the Calvin cycle which of the byproducts of photosynthesis are produced in the light reactions which ofthe byproducts of photosynthesis are produced in the Calvin cycle EVPP 110 Lecture Exam 2 Study Summary Fall 2003 Page 5 in what form is the energy captured during the light reactions stored can the light reactions occur in the dark can the Calvin cycle occur in the dark is energy required for the Calvin cycle where does the energy for the Calvin cycle come from Physical environment Earth originI ageI structure What is the most quotpopularquot theory forthe origin ofthe universe Is the size of the universe thought to be xed or continually expanding What is the age range forthe age ofthe universe What event is thought to have resulted in the formation of our solar system and our planet What are the two main general categories excluding Pluto into which the nine planets of our solar system can be grouped What are some ofthe characteristics ofthe earth that make it unique in our solar system What is the current estimate ofthe age ofthe earth what were some early ideas about the physical features of the Earth What is stated by the Principle of Superposition What is stated by the Principle of Original Horizontality What is stated by the Principle ofOriginal Lateral Continuity What is stated by the Principle ofUniformitarianism What are the three basic types of rocks and what is the mode of origin of each What is quotrelative timequot and what is meant by quotrelative agequot of geologic formations and how is relative age determined What is stated by the principle of intrusive relationships What is stated by the principle ofcrosscutting relationships What is stated by the principle of inclusions What is stated by the principle of faunal succession What are unconformities How may unconfomrities occur What are the three main types of unconformities What is geologic correlation What are index fossils What is meant by quotrelative datingquot of geologic formations and how is it done What is meant by quotabsolute agequot of geologic formations What is meant by quotradiometric datingquot of geologic formations and what is the principle behind the process What is a radioactive isotope What is a parent isotope What is a daughter isotope What is the exponential law of decay What is half life What are the names of the general categories into which geologic time is divided What are the 5 components ofthe Earth system spheres What are the three layers of earth based on the quotchemicalbasedquot description 0 Where are the three layers located relative to one another EVPP 110 Lecture Exam 2 Study Summary Fall 2003 Page 6 o How do the densities ofthe three layers compare to one another How do the sizes thickness ofthe three layers compare to one another in terms of the percent ofthe earth39s mass each represents What are the two divisions into which the crust can be divided What are the three divisions into which the mantle can be divided What are the three divisions into which the core can be divided What element composes the greatest percentage ofthe mass ofthe earth39s crust o What are the ve layers ofthe earth based on the quotmechanicalbasedquot description 0 Where are the ve layers located relative to one another 0 Which ofthe five layers are solid plastic or molten o How do the sizes ofthe ve layers compare to one another in terms ofthe percent of the earth39s mass each represents 0 How do the five layers compare to one another in terms oftemperature o How do temperature pressure and density vary as one moves from the earth39s surface toward the earth39s interior Plate tectonicsI earthguakesI volcanoes o What are the 6 lines of evidence that were used to help formulate the theory of plate tectonics What is continental drift Do the continents and continental shelves on either side ofthe Atlantic match up in a puzzlelike way What are some geologic features cited in support of continental drift What are some of the fossil features cited in support of continental drift What are some examples of living species cited in support ofcontinental drift Are earthquakes and volcanoes distributed uniformly across surface ofearth Prior to ocean exploration in this century how was the topography of the sea oor described What is the MidAtlantic Ridge How does the age of islands in the Atlantic Ocean vary relative to the distance from the MidAtlantic Ridge Has the earth39s magentic poles always had the orientation they have today What is a magnetic reversal How can the history ofthe Earth39s magentic eld orientation be recorded in rocks What are magnetic stripes What can magnetic stripes on the ocean oor tell us about the past What is seafloor spreading How does seafloor spreading help account for continental drift What mechanism drives sea oor spreading What is a convection cell Are ocean basins geologically young features What is a plate Are all plates the same thickness What are the three types of plate boundaries What is the movement of plates relative to one another at a divergent plate boundary What are the two types of divergent plate boundaries EVPP 110 Lecture Exam 2 Study Summary Fall 2003 Page 7 o What is a general and speci c example ofa feature produced at an oceanic divergent plate boundary 0 What is a general and speci c example of a feature produced at acontinental divergent plate boundary What is the movement of plates relative to one another at aconvergent plate boundary What is subduction What role does rock density play in subduction What are the three types of convergent plate boundaries What type of movement occurs at oceanicoceanic convergent plate boundaries What is an ocean trench What is a volcanic island arc What is an example ofa volcanic island arc What type of movement occurs at oceaniccontinentalconvergent plate boundaries What is a volcanic mountain chain What is an example ofa volcanic mountain chain What type of movement occurs at a continentalcontinental convergent plate boundary What is an interior mountain belt What is a transform plate boundary What type of movement occurs at a transform plate boundary What is an example ofa transform plate boundary What is an earthquake What causes an earthquake What is a fault What is the focus ofa earthquake How is depth of focus used to classify earthquakes What is the epicenter of an earthquake What are foreshocks What are aftershocks What is a seismograph What is a seismogram How is the severity of earthquakes quanti ed What is the Richter scale What does the Richter scale measure What is the relationship between one unit on the Richter scale and the increase in the magnitude ofa earthquake What is the Mercalli scale What does the Mercalli scale measure What are the primary effects of an earthquake and how is this primary effects caused What are the secondary effects ofan earthquake and how are these effects caused What is a tsunami What is a seiche What is a landslide What is liquefaction How can an earthquake lead to increases in disease What is a volcano What is lava
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