Introductory AstrSolar System
Introductory AstrSolar System ASTR 111
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Exam 3 Review Problems Note 39 39 39 39 39 i In nnlin mti rt nr another source b Chapter 10 Lectures 17 and 18 Re iew Questions 1 a mm mi v v t mt r far ideothe Moon ssion th ntv imna t rrat r 39 t minatm mnnnmtak A 1n a impacts ofasteroidal debris onto ahard immobile crust between them i easily by convection currents in the Moon s interior 4 o yer L Earth In comparison what plate tectonic features do we see on the surface ofthe Moon 39 39 39 39 39 W panhr M39d OI w vs deep trenches along plate boundaries b None at all I An i wt hair 39 i 39 inthe life ofthe Moon butno currently moving plates or subduction zones 5q The r one containing numerous dark circular basins or maria the other consisting mainly oflightcolored highlands and only one small mare Which segment ofthe Enrth39s population has seen this latter hemisphere a Only the Apollo astronauts b Everyone because this is the hemisphere facing the Earth 9 TL 39 L L39 Ht Panh nth m 39 t The majority ofthe craters on the Moon were caused by a impact ofmeteoritic material upon the surface quot L Ieavin driedup lakes as craters c eruption of ancientvolcanos leaving central calderas 7q How do we know the lunar maria or quotsensquot are younger than the lunar highlands a The maria have relatively few craters whereas the highlands are very densely cratered from long exposure to incoming meteoroids V L 39 39quot J ha 11 n Ii htetteti h amuch from the Sun c 39 39 ele at irm 39 ha had vim to be upiiiteoo Sq Most ofthe mountains on the Moon are a the raised rims of ancient impact craters and maria uiiace history 11quot quot quot Witter Mann a ice in deep craters atthe north and south poles perpetually shaded from sunlight b uid water owing in deep tunnels some of which have collapsed to form the rilles on the lunar surface c thin hazy clouds overlying the dark polar regions where they are shaded from sunlight 12 q a The Moon has no global magnetic field atthe present time but did have early in its life bThe 39 39L39 39 39 eakelui Earth 39 39 wind c The Moon has never had a global magnetic field 14q now we the nu L 4 Earth a The lunar lithosphere is only oneLLhiId to onerquaner as thick as that ofthe Earth The 39 39 ee time tliicrsel solid ante r c The 1511 Compared to earthquakes on Earth moonquakes are a far more frequent but far weaker in in sity b much less frequent but much more destructive c much less frequent and far less intense 16q Moonquakes appear to he more frequent a when the Moon is near perigee closest to the Earth b when the Sun is highest in the lunar sk c at Full Moon quotquot4 39 L 11 ve been 19q determined by laid down during the original formation of the Moon b the measurement ofrelative radioactive element concentrations 39 F miM mt w 21q What a It tapered offvery quickly from ani n aloe a billion years ater remaining very low ever since b Ithas remained almost steady since the Moon first formed c It tapered off slowl 39 39 mu ht half half its and quite low now 22q During what part of the geological history ofthe Moon did the lava llows occur that we now see as the lunar maria a Between 45 and 38 billion years ago during the heavy bombardment phase when asteroids and other objects were hitting the Moon b Between 38 and31hiquoti n are a atoljustaiel i c Between 24 and 17mm n are a h 39 39 the lunar crust L M the anquot history 25 The origin 39 L y L 39 n a the ssion ofthe early molten Earth into two objects by gravitational disturbance within the solar nebula b the ejection nfd M from a quot39 39 39 39 4 o 39ectwith th Fm t 39 Lhe Moon L r 39 anuere o the L 1b The terminntor on the Moon is 1 line A 39 39 39 ottth ltmar nnl 39 Imhri39um nettr entin 0 oflunar longitude B between Lhe near and far sides of the Moon c between the solarrilluminated and dark hemispheres D along the equator between northern and southern hemispheres 2b The diameter of the Moon is A less than 1100 ofthe diameter ofthe Earth B about 110 ofthe diameter ofthe Earth c about 14 ofthe diameter ofthe Earth D just over 12 the diameter ofthe Earth 3b People on Earth see A only the sunlit side ofthe Moon B the same side ofthe Moon at all times C the entire Moon once each month as it rotates D L 39 L Moon once per 4b To observers on Enrth the Moon shows A i r t t i t t r t B its whole surface once per month as it rotates c only one side to Earth at all times D its whole surface once per year as Earth moves around the Sun Moon on it Lu A infinitely long because the Moon never rotates B 273 days the sidereal revolution period c 35525 days to match Earth s revolution period D 295 days the synodic period 7b 1f viewed system now appear to rotate on its axis eara Fanh an L L L B It would not rotate at all because we always see Lhe same face on Earth c It would rotate once per day to maintain its direction toward Earth D 39 d L 39 about Fanh 10b Which ofthe following genernl stntements nbout the Moon is true A 39quotL 39 39d L Moon from hich L B The Moon does not rotate on its axis C There is one side othe Moon from which the Sun can never be seen D One side ofthe Moonis always in darkness 11b Ifyou were stnnding on the Moon with Exrth in View how much time would ellipse between two successive quotExrthrisesquot about 1 synodic month B about 1 da C about 1 sidereal month D in nite time because the same side ofthe Moon always faces toward Earth 15 L a L M how many times each year et a een hv a A 355 times each year B once each year c never the Sun would remain motionless in the sky D about once per month Pm w v tat 16b Astronnuts it 1 Moon bnse Visible from Enrth will NOT see gt u in t L L m I the stars moving through their sky because the Moon does not rotate D Earthrise or Earthset 28b What are the most common shapes oflunar craters and why A round 4 outuniformly in all directions B random shapesL 39 39 ha i d L d I d L 39 their production by impacts of meteoroids c long andthin d I L 39 39 39 hitthe surface mu 39 39 39 d n it h meteoroid impacts Maria e A s radiating away from young fresh craters bright streak B isolated regions ofheavily cratered highland terrain c long sinuous valleys formed by ancient lava rivers D ancient lava floodplains 30 Maria are A large impact craters infilled by lava B ancient lake beds now dry c upli ed regions surrounding large shield volcanoes D heavily cratered highland regions 31b Amare on the Moon is a A l crater with a central peak terracing along the crater walls B crater shaped like a horse large area of dark material on the lunar surface D large area of light material on the lunar surface C 51b ar a law u L 39 craters extend back billions of years Why is this A Ear th escaped the heavy bombardmentthat pelted the Moon early in its history B vanh39 mfa h b en covered by 39 39 39 hi tmv whereas such activity ceased on the Moon several million years ago C V V V erases craters m Fm w 1 L39 1 L L Moon D Plate tectonics has erased older craters on Earth whereas Lhis process has not occurred on Lhe Moon 124b 39 he Moon the Enrth r i probably had a A smaller density and slower rotation rate than it does now B smaller density and faster rotation rate than it does now reater density and slower rotation rate Lhan it does now D greater density and faster rotation rate than it does now 125b Which 39 tut L L Moon A The Moon was formed L 39 L 39 39 39 39 39 39 the Earth and was later captured by the Earth s gravity B Sh 39 39 m 39 39 tats that a l 71 thmww riff and thi 39 39 39 um jg a Lhrown off C The Earth and Moon were formed separately at Lhe same time while in orbit around their common center ofmass by the accretion ofplanetesimals D L39 L 39 39 d This material coalesced to form the Moon 21b Which L A An 39 39 H Ld39 Earthanddbvi B Earth and the Moon formed together already orbiting each other c The Moon formed separately in 39 p D Earth was spinning so rapidly while still molten that a piece quotspun offquot to form the Moon L39 L 5L pied my now n 1 1 9b hv the fact that A moon rocks resemble material similar to that in Lhe interior of Earth B the Moonis heavily cratere C moon rocks resemble rocks close to Lhe surface ofEar th D 39 39 quot Fwaterandotllel llsb J ma migin IS that A the Moon formed 39 ninnin mnidl early in its history B a 39 39 d 39 39 Moon c the Moon formed by accretion elsewhere in the solar system and was captured later by Earth D Lhe Moon formed from material already in orbit around Earth 116b Onetheory L L quot L L when a Mnrs sized 39 Earth r A the Moon has several smooth plains fo ed by ancient lava flows B the Moon always turns the same side toward Earth C v v v r t a a Moon rocks are very similar to those ofEarth but are depleted in elements Lhat melt at relatively low temperatures ldxss Figure 1 L L If it 2 billion yenrs ngo the o r o i i a a t i 1 t i looked a a te39luius 39 H 39 39 39d thanthe other because the moon was drier b 39 39 only I a a hard surface that make th maria c the maria would have more craters d the maria would have fewer craters Zdnss rumui um mt Intense hambardmenl during the rst sou an years a erlhe Moon formant naming ofhighlands rmmanon o1 maria mm large impact near the and 9 he in lease bombardment period Rate oicratermaking impacts lVery light bombardment during l I lhepaskzjbilliqnyearg 4 4 Z 2 1 Time before present h lions of years t mgure 1 Chapter 11 Lecture 18 Review Questions l y w um em 7 m nh my 2 Spmrmb39lt uouplmg suarp 1 A Yes sky Byv c N In Mercury39x xllrl aee Illuminated 12b How often does 11 um y L seen from Exrthioccur A regularly nce every synodic period ofMercury or every 115 days B never c regularly every sidereal period ofMercury or ever 88 days D relatively infrequently between 10 and 20 times per century 23b now y p A 12 rotation B once C many times because Mercury rotates rapidly D 1 12 rotations 33b io i L39 moon r quot L39 39 an ellinticalorbit 39 39 n t v v A 39 Lit 372 spins orbit coupling etc What method y xbom its own nis for every orbit nround the Sun Mercury39 dark id measured 39 p d d temperatures c rotational speed was measured by radar from Earth D rotation period was measured by direct photography from Mariner 10 5 t n n A Mercury s large iron core conducts heat through the planet B Mercury does not rotate synchronously with its orbital period 39 on Mercury pr int tr 39 nmdu excess heat D winds in L L d 39d e night side 3 Ifyou nre on Mercury nnd the time is noon Sun directly overhend whnt time ofdny will it he one Mercurinn yenr luter lifter Mercury hns orbited the Sun once A noon tim c midnight D just a er sunset 43b Suppose Mercury hnd 5to3 i i i i in now Whnt would he the time from noon to noon on Mercury in dnys A 33 B 147 c 254 D 440 Suppose Mercury hnd 5to3 s in n w You observe the Sun directly overhend in the Mercurinn sky nnd then observe ngnin from the some locntion ss dnys luter L L Me Funh A below the eastern horizon B below the western horizon c directly overhead again D directly on the opposite side ofthe planet 48b rrurv like ximn nherequot A Venus B Mercury c Mars D Uranus 54 r r t L L 4 Mercury A shrinkage ofthe planet as Mercury cooled B large impacts near the end of the early period ofheavy bombardment h imilar 39 l d 39 Earth butto amuch smaller 79b Mercury39s mngnetic lield compnred with thnt ofEnrth is A of equivalent strength B Weak ut strong enough to de ect the solar wind C extremely ak 39 39 D much more powerful 0b The mngnetic eld ofMercury nppenrs to be cnused by A a solid magnetized iron core D electric currents in a molten iron core 82b m to uc ucec my to A rapid rotation and a molten iron core B a molten core and a significant atmosphere c rapid rotation and a conducting atmosphere D a solid surface and a significant iron content 1c1n Figure 1 which wnve hns the longest wnvelength A A BB c c D D 2c1n Figure 1 which wnve hns the highest frequency A A BB c c D D 391fMercury were rotnting clockwise in Figure 1 how would the wnves chnnge A A B c D would have the same wavelength th c A would have a longer Wavelenth and c would have a shorter wavelength D A w uld rwa ength and ou have a longer wavelength 4c IfMercury was struck by n nsteroid thnt cnused it to suddenly stnrt moving to the right how would the wnves chnnge A A B and c would have a decreased wavelength B A B c and D would have a decreased wavelength c Only B would have a smaller wavelength D A B and c wou d have an increased wavelength E On y D would have an increased wavelength 5c 39 200dnys L i i L A A 100 days with p L 100 dnys D 200days 7c FL L L quotof100dxv nndn M how long is the length of its dry A 50 days D 200 days Finurel L i A of100 dnys nnd 10000 dnys where will the nrrow be pointing lifter 100 dnys A In almost the same direction as shown anew mL A A vvvv WEVW E 1 WWW Wren rvvvv t E s www lt VVVW V xmsmrmhue gure 1 gure 2 countereloekwrse dreamer Chapter 12 Lecture 19 Review Questions t n m A rotatmh maway geenhouse effect General Quem39em What makes Venus suuh a bnlhant mommg starquot or Waning starquot What 15 sbahge about the mtanm a aetwe surraee gaming as the Earth 1 v t h n 1 my another source by 11 Venn appear te he very bright in bur ky at eertaih time became by It 15 glowmg hm the heat ohts surhee where the temperature 15 750 K ey 115 covered In reneeme clouds and 15 rexamexy these to the Sun ximilar te that at the Earth ay1ts rotauoh pantd erlehgth of m day by Its drameter ey The uhammal temposmm ohts atmosphere and clouds ZZq IfVenu had L A would be the probability oflife existing on its surface a Hard to say e is no information on which to base a decision 13 Quite high Because Venus is in the same part ofthe solar system as the Earth c Essentially zero 23q The reason that Venus has no magnetic field even though it is similar in size to Earth and appears to have a molten core is s L tht magnetic eld 4 Itlfltr nnt imn nhzlt and nickel 27q The reason why Venus39s surface is only lightly cratered appears to be that ta the nea I 39 39 Venus and Mercury 39L L nein nea i 39 c lava flows have covered over most ofthe early cratering and there has been little recent cratering 1b Whic ofthe planets ts the following description quota hot solid surface cloudshrouded with a dense C02 atmospherequot A Venus B Mars C Mercury D Jupiter 4b p vuy bright in o A even though its surface is very dark it is relatively close to the Sun B itis glowing from the heat ofits surface where temperature is 750 K c its rocky surface is shiny like the surface ofnew volcanic lava D itis relatively close to the Sun Earth is close to it and itis covered by very reflective clouds 7b y o u it o passes through inferior conjunction A The orbital plane ofVenus is inclined at 34 to the ecliptic plane Venus is very r L d Venus C 39 d39 39 committed to the other 39 D I L 8b L L A y could be described as Exrth39s twin A Pluto similar in size and density with a large moon and probably life on its surface B Venus and diam ter WiLh a dense and d C Mars 39 imilar mfa 39 and cloud DtheMoon 39 d 39 A film Aquot from the Sun but with no atmosphere 15b Venus rotxtes in the same direction as Earth but very rapidly in a few hours B a quotlockrinquot 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 c the same direction as Earth butvery slowly D the opposite direction to Earth butvery slowly 21bquot L 39 L 39 day m h m n Venus is A about the same as that on Earth c much shorter than that on Earth about an hour D abouthalf as long as that on Earth about 10 hours 6b TL l r excess heating is A st04 or sulfuric acid droplets B NZ c HZO vapor D coz 31bThe main reason y M L to be larwind particles D the absorption ofvisible radiation by L d by the atmosphere 32b The mechanism ofthe greenhouse effect which has resulted in very high temperatures on the surface d as ofVenus and moderate temperatures on Earth can be describe Lem L L L A solar UV and coz in the atmosphere Ural 39 39 39 heatin which then 39 39 quot d UV 39 39 39 by coz in the atmosphere C solar UV 39 39 39 39 39 L d 39 and sulfur compounds the released energy then heating the atmosphere D solaIUV 39 39 39 39 39 Lhe COZ ofth atmn nh rte th neh heating it 34b v em none v n though closer to the Sun thick cloud and 39 39 the surface r MW r r a a c 39 39 39 39 39 and uniformly D Th thi b Fri 39 39 39 r from tmli ht 36b The highest temperature in the atmosphere ofVenus occurs A in Lhe clear atmospheri rs below Lhe cloud level at an altitude of about 30 km B at the height othe thickest clouds 48 52 km Where infrared absorption is highest c at the cloud tops which are heated by sunlight D at the planet39s surface 60b a otiateu uetetteu by j rr W t s volcanoes on Venus at the present time A carbon in coz and co c silicon and silicate dusts B onia and methane gases D sulfur and sulfur compounds 63b Hotspot volcanismis a process that roduces gigantic volcanoes on Venus and Mars but produces chains of smaller volcanoes on Earth eg the Hawaiian Islands R nmrln R la Venn andM d 39d 39d Earthtegth M39d t39 39 Ridge Mm one onEartheg 39 L V L and South America D produces large Ii valleys on Mars Venus and Earth eg the Great Ri Valley ofAfrica 80b On both Earth and L up in 39 A minerals on i A L A L L 0n I 4 Why this difference A There 0 active volcanoes on Venus are n B Venus does not experience the movement oftectonic plates C On Venus Lhe sulfur dioxide minerals are dissolved by acids in the atmosphere D Because othe higher temperature on Venus Lhe SOZ minerals formed there ale different from those on Earth and they are essentially permanent and nonrecyclable 81b Venus A when all the greenhouse gases evaporated 39 39 Mm h Venus C when the C02 was dissolved in Lhe early Venusian oceans D when the greenhouse gases combined with other chemicals 90b Tectonic xctivity on Venus differs from thxt on Earth in thxt A active crustal deformation appears to be completely absent Lhe L of solid plates c the 39 to be come and micro it v v ha bmkenmepa rt v v a quotr instead of a few large ones 1c What causes the runaway greenhouse effect on Venus a Its retrograde motion b Its lack of a way of removing co2 from the atmosphere c Its slow rotation which makes the temperature more uniform d Its oceans which contribute H20 and co to the atmosphere 2c Why is the year on Venus longer than that on Mercury a Venus has retrograde motion b Venus is takes longer to orbit the Sun than Mercury c Mercury takes longer to orbitthe Sun than Venus d Venus has an atmosphere while Mercury does not e Venn L 39 39 39 39 39 c Figure 1 is x View ofVenlls xnd the Sun from xbove their north poles Which Wily does Venus route xround the Sun xnd xround its xxis a arounds CW undits axrs b cw around Sun CW around its c aro Sun ccw around it is d CCW around Sun ccw around its axis 4c 1quot me FinllreI atpointA them a ve aquotmint B a Noon b Dawn c Dusk d Midnight e 900 am 0 Figure 1 Venus39s orbital period is 224 days Venus39s rotation period is 243 days Chapter 13 Lecture 20 Review Questions quot J39 L ht id 139 L quot n mz n t 39 icehouse effect Zq The length of each ofthe Martian seasons compared to those on Earth is L L tilt of Mar nin a i d 39 quot to those ofEarth b about twice as long because ofMaIs s orbital period c abouthalf as long as Earth due to 39 39 Martian nen39nd period 3q vuy old 5 TL L 39 Fm w imilarm L 39 at leistg 39 have survived until the resent time b The observation ofpolarice caps on Mars which probably formed from outgassing water as Mars was being formed at least 4 billion years ago c The observation 39 39 L 39 d lava flow would 3 billion years to grow to their present size 4q Which ofthe following descriptions best characterizes the surface fMars a Morerorrless uniform surface of lightly rolling hills and few craters with two large continentrsized areas raised above the average terrain b T h emi nh ere and cratering in the southern hemisphere cT 39 39 39 lar e li htl 39 39 39 39 cratering with only two small asteroid impact basins in the western hemisphere Sq The volcanoes of Mars are a small e tinct no and in 39 b massive extinct and solitary structures c acti e 39 hemi nhere and dense volcanoes 911 Which ofthe following planets or I A water at the present time a Venus one piece of evidence being its global cloud cover M S heat of summer 3 HI 7 r 39 c Our Moon one piece of evidence being ancient flow channels on its surface 1011 Evidence for water stored as permafrost under the Martian surface is shown in a river valleys extending away from obvious impact craters b haze Ia rs active vol Mars c the darker color ofsome parts ofthe surface ofMars 1L 1 a an an a cold rocky and very dusty b hot dry desert c cold and icy 15q L L quot North quot 39 quot L lxyer ofther ice in addition to an overlying layer of C02 ice a The blue color ofthe polar ice cap is characteristic of waterice not c02 ice b quotquotd39 39 39739 39diamavan rate slows significantly at a certain time 18q One major feature ofthe Martian quotclimatequot is a totally overcast conditions with Lhick sulfuric acid clouds d Si stems b major u c massive thunderstorms and intense lightning 20 i i hx nlxved L than it has on Earth because ahSOIbUV Jquot 39 L J L Eanh b c the Mars atmosphere contains no quotgreenhousequot gases to absorb this UV radiation 2h Which planet in our solar system fits the following description quotA planet with a large iron core heavily cratered surface and no or almost no atmospherequot A Earth B Mars Merc D N tune 3b Which ofthe planets ts the following description quota solid cool surface with occasional dust clouds and a thin C02 atmospherequot A Venus B Jupiter c Mars D Mercury h Which L I with no atmospherequot A Venus B Mars c Jupiter D Mercury 6b During M quotA p 1 hot solid where would J hemi nhere A high inthe south at midnight C on the western horizon at midnight B high in the north at midnight D high in the south at sunset Rh Fw39h r r r L r L L others Why is th 2 A Mars has anellipticalorbit and L n 39 39 quotrwhen Mar i 39 39 39 39 L39 J hence closestto Earth B Mars has an elliptical orbit J L 39 39 when L39 J hence closestto E I ALJ2M 27 u quotM ML the ecliptic plane While at opposition D Even Lhough Mar moves in a circular orbit the orbit ofEarth is elliptical and so favorable oppositions occur when Earth is at perihelion 9b Assume Earth has a circular orbit with a radius of1 AU At its most favorable opposition Mars is 037 All Fwim urtln E31111 quot L whxt you calculate as the sidereal period ofMars in years A 10 B 152 c 188 D 355 m a a a r i i J t a r A Venus B Mars C Jupiter D Mercury 17b Mars experiences similar seasonal changes to those on Earth because A ithas about the same shape ofelliptical orbit as that ofthe Earth producing similar changes in solar radiation intensity as the planet orbits the Sun B its spin axis is tilted at aboutthe same angle to its orbital plane as is the Earth s axis c the length ofits day is very close to anEarth da D the length ofits year is very close to that ofEarth 1 8b The equato win I I 1t 39 39 1 t1 71 h 71 an B experiences very long 20 years seasonal variations c shows no seasonal variation at all 139 h 39 39 to Earth each ea rm 39 L Earth 3 Venus and Mars is L I J 39 L L 39 J J L 39 39 little ow oflava h t r t I 39 heremoltenla 71 40b Hot spot volcanism is a process that a a hyd39 n msmdmm a w n J Mm nhrln ti n me OnEath c produces large ri valleys on Mars Venus and the arth J 39 39 on Venus and Maw L J L Earth 5b L L L Mxrs todxy why could there be no liquid water on its surface A The Watzl 39 me to surface temperatures B It would have reacted chemically WiLh Lhe surface rocks C The UV 39 39 J L 39 39 f hich would leave the planet and oxygen which is still present D It would have soaked into the porous surface ofMars 57b Winter exists on Mxrs Where xnd in whxt stxte does it NOT exist on this plxnet A as liquid owing in river valleys B in permafrost below the surface c in polar icecaps D as water vapor in the atmosphere and as clouds 64b The polar caps on Mars are most likely made up of Water and C02 ices B lightrt nlrmetl 39 d d lm a rlu t d i 39 quotghtr J J 39 39 r L J volcanoes D sulfur dioxide and sulfur compounds 66b The initial and very rapid recession ofthe edge ofthe white polar cap region toward the poles in springtime is caused by A the melting and evaporation of cm ice 139 t v i t v a I M a c the change in color ofthe rocks by photochemical action similar to bleaching D the melting ofHZO ice and subsequent runoff of water 69b A major feature ofthe atmosphere ofMars is A occasional strong Winds and dust storms B very dense clouds shrouding most ofthe planet c a chemical mixture very similarto that 0 Earth D very high temperatures and pressures 77b L L J in M 39 y y What process is now believed to have begun this atmospheric thinning A The solar wind stri ed the outer atmosphere from the anet B The light coz molecules escaped directly into space because of the weak gravity of Mars c The coz molecules were broken down by solar UV photons creating the lighter molecules co and 02 which then escape into sp e D The coz was washed out ofthe atmosphere by rain 7 L whic L the pun without an ntmosphere I Iquot L L Iquot L Why is this A The Martian 39 er In 39 39 L L B There is less energy being conducted upward from the Martian interior to the surface of Mars because of the thickness o its crust compared to that ofEarth D The Martian atmosphere is very thin and traps less infrared radiation from the surface 108 On Mxrs which ofthe following fextures have NOT been seen or detected A dust storms and dust devils B advancing and receding polar icecaps wispy clouds D active volcanoes s a e A spherical and quite large compared to the planet about 1000 km in diameter similar to the largest asteroid B irregular but quite large compared to the planet between 500 and 1500 km across small D almost spherical but very small between 10 and 30 km in diameter Chapter 14 Lecture 21 amp 22 Review Questions oblate oblateness eyWords 39 39 39 nnltl plasma synchrotron radiation tidal force zq Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system What is Jupiter39s mass compared to that ofthe rest of the planets a Jupiter s mass is slightly less than eight times the mass ofall the other planets combined b Jupiter s mass is a slightly more than two times the mass of all of the otherplanets combined lquotmai Fall L39J 3 a it is closestto the Sun at this position b it is closestto the Earth at this position c it amears L39 L 39 I 39 L 4q The Great Red Spot on Jupiter is aavortex L L I L I a nnlerrewinn aH etih h L b a large I 39 39 c clouds of dark gas that have formed above a large volcanic mountain on the planet 5q planets is the fact that a they rotate rapidly 39 39 39 39 rbital r ecliptic plane c they orbitthe Sunin aretrograde direction compared to the terrestrial planets sq now we the p I t 39 A rings a Jupiter has an 39 39 39 L 39 rm tnwti and eddie features appear very subdued and hazy tlw nlsm t lw 39 FL lllnit Vve39ry 39 39 ruthlllevrtt ddi whereas on 39 ooth c Jupiter has an extensive cloud system of largeascale belts and zones whereas Saturn shows a smallascale system of storms and eddies with av intricate structure 7q The rotation period of the giant planet Jupiter is a very short about 1 hour b relatively short about 10 hours c much longer than the Earth about 28 days 5 1 q a Raindrops of liquid helium b The original heat offormation ofthe planet c Decay ofradioactive elements in Saturn s large rocky core 17q Why A tL A l I A belts on pita appea u he might region wnen observed in infrared or heat radiation a Because L 39 39 39 b Because th r i n at hi h tin th 39 39 39 hence are hotter c Because these are relatively cloudafree regions and we are seeing deeper and hence warmer layers ofJupiter s atmosphere 18qnow l r from the Sun and why v v c a t b Jupiter radiates exactly L 39 39 39 this is a requirement for equilibrium lunit rmliat twice mumt v v v r J a the process ofplanetary formation 19q Ly L L hxrder39 Jupiter39s atmosphere a Saturn does nothave the rapid rotation necessary to produce cloud patterns such as those ofJupiter b Saturn has a thicker layer ofhaze above its cloudatops than does Jupiter ammi ha a thinn r la erthan does Jupiter 22q The cause of the slightly flattened or oblate shape ofJupiter is a the gravitational pull ofthe Sun and ofthe other planets the cloud cover because higher clouds form around the equator c its rapid rotation 26q What is the cxuse of the immense mxgnetic eld ofJupiter 11nd Snturn 39 39 and n F lnnit t atm nlvM b Electric currents outside Jupiter s core deep below the atmosphere c Electric currents in Jupiter s molten core 27q What is synchrotron radiation a Highaenergy charged particles trappedin planetary magnetic elds 39 39 39 39 A h 39 the object 28q The shape and dimensions ofthe magnetosphere surrounding Jupiter are controlled by L d 39 luniter 39 39 39 39 b the pressure ofthe solar wind ainst the extended atmosphere ofJupiter c the pressure ofthe ionized gas ofthe solar wind against the planet39s magnetic eld 30q The rings of Saturn are in which plane around the planet b The plane perpendicular to Saturn s magnetic axis c Saturn s equatorial plane 31q Ly Aothe rin s ap invisible over a period ofa few years a V 39 i0 Saturn V39 seen at opposition b 39 39 thin 39 39 A hence indistinct at certain points in Saturn s orbit 0 Lhe Sun 35q At distnnces inside the Roche limit ofn plnnet L 39 39 39 39 39 ata itatinnal attraction the solar Wind 36q Saturn39s rings are composed of 39 d 39 nam39 I 39 mm in in Kenletian equatorial plane bathin A 39 A 39 39 v by t W scattering sunlight c a Gm H and reflecting sunlight from its surface 3 q object in moons under their mutual self gravity Kenletian 39 r V dhem eLhey cannot combine into larger bodies by 0 particles H t is 11 What wouldL L byJupiter m 1 mr v r r J Earth at 1 AU from Earth A 11252 or 12525 times as large 39 large f rc average density ofJupiter about 1300 kgm3 compared with that ofwater1000 kgmj indicates that this planet is composed mainly of A hydrogen in liquid or gaseous form B helium as gas and 1i uid only because low A to f LA helium c water compressed somewhat by gravity maybe inthe form of ice D methane ammonia and water from spectroscopic observation of its atmosphere 5b When viewed from Exrt l its Lhe distance between Jupiter and Earth varies B oftidal in uence of the four massive moons of Jupiter c the fluid planet pulsates with a long natural oscillation period D lnnitM 1 1 elliptical orbit 9b What is the physical appearance ofJupiter as seen from Earth or a spacecraft A a series of dark belts and light zones parallel to the equator B a uniform bluish color with a highalevel haze c vashaped cloud forms around the equator indicative of rapid winds D uniform redacolored dust clouds over cratered surface 12b One distinctive fexture thxt is Visible on the quotsurfxcequot ofJupiter through 11 telescope from Earth is A Lhe Cassini Division c Olympus Mons h mum o a p B Maxwell Montes D the Great Red Spot 14b The lifetime ofthe Great Red Spot appears to be A similarto that of a sunspot that it resembles about2 to 4 weeks between successive appearances ords D well over 2000 years from ancient Greek records 20b For someone standing on the surface ofJupiter tomorrow39s weather forecast is A sunny possible thin high clouds B sunny and clear because Jupiterhas no atmosphere in which clouds can form c overcast possible rain with snow at higher elevations D TL 39 39 39 because L 39 39 21b Evidence of I i A n etr x i L active or i NnT found on A Venus ars c Earth D J piter 23b The rotation periods ofJupiter and Saturn are A very short on the order of 1 hour B very long several weeks because oftheir great size andmass o D relatively short on the order of 10 hours 26b The interesting feature ofJupiter39s rotation is that t in 71 I 39 39 A it mta opposite to its direction of revolution around the Sun 1 fl 39 39 39 39 1 600s c regions at different latitudes appearto rotate at different rates D its axis of mtation lies almost in the plane of its 0 it quotIn quot but Why is this A Samm s inteIior is hotter than that ofJupiter B Saturn is composed of lighter material than is Jupiter 39 39 lllniter 39 39 a larger size D TL quot I 39 39 39 to compress th ma a mu h as inJupiter w A rL r I r39 that of the Sun I L quot L 39 limiter or the Sun B TL 39 with dm en helium and c Satum s atmosphere contains far more heavy elements than does that of either Jupiter or the Sun m nmm39 L a L 39 miter or 341 Which is the least dense planet in the solar system A Uranus B Pluto c Saturn D Jupiter quot L I quot reemitted is thought to be B heat caused by friction between oppositely directed winds at midrlatitudes m quot 39 39 ammonia 39 clouds L quot 39 39 39s atmosphere This is because Samm s clouds and circulation pattern resemble those ofEarth individual cyclones and anticyclones rather than those ofJupiter R amm J by an uppm 39 hwa limit rha too high a temperature for meth ice c Saturn has a similar circulation pattern to Jupiter but it is obscured by a much deeper atmosphere D 85mm 2quot 39 39 lilz llmit rhlltla if 39 cloud levels 63b One observational fact that is common to both Jupiter and Saturn is that A b th nlan t comer 39 d L L 39 39 d solar energy d than expected B the quot 39 39 asdepthinto 39 leadin tn L l L the interiors ofthese planets are probably extremely cold 39 39 39 L 39 atmospheric temperatures of greater than 200 C in the outer layers 139 11 th nlsm t 39 39 39 39 39 39 L a a t t t a a t The most likely major cause ofthis heating is A condensation L quot 39 asheat 39 39 of naturally 39 39 39 of this fluid planet D remnant heat from the original formation ofthe planet 70b 0blateness is a measure oft e 39 39 im mepotai 39 39 diameter 39 longer c inclination of the orbit of a planet or a moon to the ecliptic plane D noncircular shape of a planet39s orbit 71b The reason for the slightly flattened or oblate shape of Jupiter is A its rapid rotation rate B its cloud cover more clouds forming over the equator on average 75b 4 I L I t and p quotof A ane ammonia andwatervapor c magnetized iron B liquid metallic hydrogen Drock 83b TL r pom B liquid metallic hydrogen c gases ofN39H3 ammonia CH4 methane H20 watervapor D solid magnetic iron b L L Inuit V Saturn appear to be A liquid quotmetalquot interior and relatively rapid rotation B solid iron core forming a permanent magnet c liquid quotmetalquot core and interior and slow rotation D solid interior throughout the planet and slow rotation 03b TL L A d 39 are controlled by L J fifth 2mm nf 39 39 39 gravitational field c the pressure of the solar wind against the outer atmosphere ofJupiter quot L k L 39 39 J itttt 39 105b On what planet would you not expect to find an aurora A Venus B Earth c Jupiter D Saturn A move in circular orbits wi the outer 39 39 they B all move as ifthey are one solid disk c revolve in different directions depending on the distance from the planet D move in circular Ke lerian orbits the innerparticles moving fastest 126b Which of the following describes the motions ofthe particles in the rings ofSaturn B llinti al vhit J quot39J j witheachother D mt v 13 The particles in Saturn39s rings are composed of A a mixtuIe ofiron and nickel B water ice or Iock coated with water ice c ammonia and methane ice possibly with rocky centers D rocks with the re ectivity of dark aspha t 132 The Roche limit around in planet is de ned as A the distance beyond which the orbital velocity of a body in a Keplerian orbit is greater than the escape velocity and matter is no longer captured by the planet n L 39 39 39 39 tidalforces C the uutel 39 J L oi 39 particles 1 3b TL y try iiiiitiiiii grxvitxtionxl xttrxction to form one or two moons is thxt 39J than the iriutuai tlw 39 5quot D they are moving too fastto stick together even ifthey bump into one another 3 mt r ofvery many A they are made up of ice andiceacoatedrocks which break up easily in sunlight ey 39 force between particles c they were formed by lav mnrm which up 39 pieces D they r 39 39 39 lrm n tinrl oftime 13 mt J a 1 t a a a a without being destroyed is that an iv a v t pm mom again has given them an iIonrhard crust ofice than the tidal forces pulling them apaIL c they are too small for tidal forces to operate on them effectively 39 themap 150bTL I r L Iquot narroworbitis L V V V V V V memg B major gravitational distortion caused by Jupiter c ressure ofthe solar wind on these particles v 39 I 39 n lw a hfima and Fm elallu Chapter 15 Lecture 23 Review Questions 39 l1 dmcathrm Tn mm 1 ultmirm nnl MM rim mrl nthit r tmwmrl orbit tidal heating ultramafic lava lq The Gnlilexn sxtellites ofJupiter were not discovered until after the telescope Wxs invented tht r r J r e a Telescopes increase the brightness of objects The satellites are too faint to be seen without a telescope 39 39 objects 39 too close to Jupiter to be seen without a telescope 3q Which ee hv a simple mathematical relationship 39 p 39 39 r 39 39 twice that of Io b Orbital radii Europa orbits Jupiter attwice the distance of Io s orbit while Ganymede orbits at twice the orbital radius ofEuropa 4q L L I A 39 A Europa how often would they come close together in their orbital pxths a Once every halfrorbit oflo or twice per orbit of Io b Once every 2 lo orbits c Once every Io orbit 7q V L taking was discovered long before detailed t Haw a as 39 orbital period ofthe moon b The observed shapes of 39 39 m d in 39 39 the orbital period 39 39L J which agreed with synchronous rotation 9qnuw L39 y tam a a t a t a About the size ofthe largest asteroids that is abouthalfthe size of our Moon or smaller b About the size ofMars or slightly larger that is about twice the size of our Moon c About the size ofour Moon or a bit arger 3q TL at an compound on lo the giant moon ofJiipiter is a anintense ux ofsolar wind particles continuously striking Io s surface b radioactive heating in Io s interior mainly from sulfur isotopes c tidal distortion and exing caused by gravitational effects from Jupiter and other moons 1o Io is that J 5 agtiLgtMvinM2tlw i iam 39 antl higher L L l L Em I composition b its 39 that of owing indi atin thatthe lava is very similarto thatupon Earth V V w m V V JV V V mm lava as the flowing material 21 trxnsformxtion in relxtively recent times a Most of L eie ioiirieo by impacts llnrm that has now solidified b There ale volcanic mountains and lava ows all over its sulface a e c There are very few craters upon its surf c 2 q form ofplate tectonics L I p quotA A on the planet a A layer of liquid water b Semimolten lava just like Earth ten sulfur N u in i th p y A L This atmosphere is thought to be composed mostl of a carbon dioxide such as in the atmospheres ofMars and Venus b nitrogen from the breakup of ammonia by solar UV light llch a L J 2611 The source ofthe nitrogen atmosphere on Titan is probably dissociation ofammonia by solar UV radiation the nitrogen being left behind after the loss of the a lighter hydrogen atoms b dissociation ofmethane gas by solarUV radiation and the subsequent loss ofthe lighter hydrogen atoms c outgassi from Titan s interior earlier in its geological history 2b The outer three Galilean f uiffer In Exam 1 Format Exam 1 Review Guide 810 multiple choice questionschapter DO you know the de nition Ofthe key words No calculator required Do you know the concept associated With Closed book the keywords 60 minutes Can you answer the problems solved in Green scantron the one that says Class Parscore on the top Purchase in bookstore on the left when you enter can you eXplam the concepts Shown by the figures shown in class for example can you write a caption Exam 1 Review Guide If you try quiz questions with at least a day since you last tried them can you get most of them correct Lecture 1 Can you give reasons the alternative answers in the quiz are wrong Can you think of questions that test your Chapter 1 understanding of a concept Keywords Keywords and context o anguar distance angular distance size an object appears from perspective of an observer Angular aCtuaIIapparent s39ze distance depends on position of observer arcminarcsec actualapparent size angular sizes are easy to measure but the actual size of something depends on how far away it is I39ght year arcminarcsec 1 degree is divided into parsec 60 arminutes Know how to convert from radians to degrees to arcminutes astronomical unit Keywords and context astronomical unit the distance from the t E rth We discussed how to Sun 0 a convert from astronomical units to light years and parsecs light year the distance light travels in one year parsec close to a light year also noted in class Common prefixes should be known along with manipulation of numbers in scientific notation distance velocity x time Review Questions Why are there many units for distance in astronomy What are three units ofdistance in astronomy How to convert rom one unit to another Chapter 1 questions 1018 Why Pluto is not considered a planet How to estimate angular distances Chapter 1 page 6 question 9 De nition ofan arcminute and arcsecond Chapter1 question he meaning of a gu angular distance and actual distance hat ha ens to angular measure when things change as covered in the group question for example Quiz yourself using questions 1024 ofthe textbook Chapter 1 Quiz at httglbcswhfreemancomuniverse7e Answers vvny are there many units fur distance in astrunumy7 Some are mere ccinyenientrcir describing certain lengtns Fur example when discussing huvvfar cbiect are tnat yciu are seeing tne lignt cit now it is useful tci use lignt years vvna are three units cit distance in as tmrlumy7 AU parse and ligntye 1 pc a ly chtci ccinyertncim cine unit tci another See rcillciwmg slides Chapter 1 guesticins 1De1E See rcillciwmg slides w i Nt lutci is nutcunsldered a p anet ci heavy enciugn tci clear Either mlts ath chtci estimate angulardlstances Chapter 1 page a guesticin a Detiniticin cit an arcmlrlute and arcsecurld Chapter 1 guesticin 778 A e l3 as yciu se it at ppErlstu angularmeasure When tnings cnange as covered in tne gruu guesticin fur example As an cbiect mciyes farther away itappearstu aye a smaller a ar size ouiz yourself using guesticins 1D724 cit tne textbook Chapter 1 Quiz at d nttg bis wnrreeman cumuniverse7e selutiuns are pruyide Review Questions Chapter 1 questions 718 Chapter 1 Quiz questions 1024 Chapter 1 questions 718 Chapter 1 questions 718 7 What are degrees arcminutes and arcseconds used for What are the relationships among these units of measure Measuring angles 60 arcminutes in a degree 60 arcseconds in a arcm39nu e With the aid of a diagram explain what it means to say that the Moon subtends an angle of 2 Connect string from top of moon to your eye Connect string from bottom of moon to your eye The angle the string makes in the angle the moon subtends 9 How many arcseconds equal 1 3600 9 Chapter 1 questions 718 10 What is an exponent How are exponents sed in powersoften notation Exponent is superscript of 10 for example in 10X x is the exponent What are the advantages of using powersof ten notation 106 is easier to write than 1000000 Write the following numbers using powersof ten notation a 107 b 6x104 c 0004 4x103 d 38x1010 e 411x102 or 420x102 N 01 Chapter 1 questions 718 3 How is an astronomical unit de ned Give an example of a situation in which this unit of measure would be convenientto use 1 AU is the average distance from the Earth to the Sun When talking about the orbital distances of other planets 4 What is the advantage to the astronomer of using the light year as a unit ofdistance Smaller numbers than using meters km etc More related to a physical quantity speed oflight What is a parsec 326 ly How is it related to a kiloparsec and to a megaparsec Differ by a factor of onethousand and onemillion respectively Chapter 1 questions 718 16 Give the word or phrase that corresponds to the following standard abbreviations m cm s kmS mih m mS h V 9 k9 XL IOWWUOCUgt Chapter 1 questions 718 7 In the original 1977 Star Wars movie Han Solo raises the speed ofhis spaceship by saying It s the ship that makes the Kessel run in less than 12 misinformation The secquot in parsec may make you think it is a time but it is not It is a unit of distance Lecture 2 Chapter 1 and 2 18 A reporter once described a lightyear as the time it takes light to reach us traveling at the speed of lightquot How would you correct this statement the distance light travels in one yearquot Keywords Diurnal Sidereal Local Time Universal Time Ecliptic Keywords and context 0 Diurnal 7 means daily rotation Sidereal 7 star time Is not the same as solar time time for sun to repeat We went over diagrams to explain why this is This concept came up in two other lectures 7 one related to the orbital period of a planet and another with respect to the moon 0 Local Time 7 different than universal time We discussed why this is important Keywords and context 0 Universal Time 7 reference clock 0 Ecliptic 7 plane that the Earth rotates around the Sun in Discussed the fact that orbit is not circular and relationship between this and the seasons 0 also discussed seasons and what causes them the tilt of Earth with respect to the ecliptic the direction of rotation of the Earth around the Sun and the direction of rotation of the Earth about its axis Review Questions Textbook problems 10 11 20 36 47 Chapter 2 Quiz 3 4 9 14 15 23 24 Textbook problems 10 11 20 36 10Using a diagram explain why the tilt of the Earth s axis relative to the Earth s orbit causes the seasons as we orbit the Sun 11Give two reasons why it s warmer in summer than in winter 20Why is it convenient to divide the Earth into time zones Textbook problems 10 11 20 36 10Using a diagram explain why the tilt of the Earth s axis relative to the Earth s orbit causes the seasons as we orbit the Sun See lecture notes 11Give two reasons why it s warmer in summer than in winter Not because the Earth is closer to the Sun Angle of the Sun s rays onto the Earth s surface and time that the Sun is in the sky 20Why is it convenient to divide the Earth intto time zones Communication trade e c Textbook problems 10 11 20 36 36n the northern hemisphere houses are designed to have southern exposure that is with the larges windows on southern side ofthe house But in the southern hemisphere houses are designed to have northern exposure Why are houses designed this way and why is there a difference between the hemispheres Textbook problems 10 11 20 36 36n the northern hemisphere houses are designed to have southern exposure that is with the larges windows on Lecture 3 designed to have northern exposure y are houses designed this way and why is there a difference between the Chapter 2 hemispheres See lecture notes Keywords Keywords and context 0 Zenith Zenith 7 point overhead 0 Projection 0 Projection 7 where a point appears We Meridian went over a diagram that helped visualize Tropic of Cancer ths Tropic of Capricorn Meridian 7 on a celestial sphere a line Antarctic Circle connecting north pole to south pole and Arctic Circle passing through observer s zenith Tropic of Cancer 7 special latitude We discussed diagrams of why it was special 0 Declination 0 Right ascension Keywords and context Review Questions Tropic of Capricome same as above Textbook problems 4 5 6 8 9 12 17 Antarctic Cirde same as abOVe 0 CD or Online Quiz for Chapter 2 5 7 8 9 0 Arctic Circle 7 same as above 11 12 13 l8 19 20 22 23 24 29 Declination 7 used to specify the position of an object on the celestial sphere 0 Right ascension 7 same as above Chapter 2 questions 4 5 6 8 9 12 17 4 Imagine that someone suggest sending a spacecra to land on the surface ofthe celestial sphere How equ related to the Earth s axis of rotation W ere on a1th Would you have to be for the celestial equator to pass through your zenith How many degrees is the angle from the horizon to the zenith Does you answer depend on What point on the horizon you choose 5quot at Chapter 2 questions 4 5 6 8 9 12 17 Imagine that someone suggest sending aspacecra to land on the surface ofthe celestial sphere How would you respondto such asuggestion Celestial sphere is imaginary object You would need a unicom to y you to it What is the celestial equator How is it related to the Earth s equator How are the north and south celestial poles related to the Earth s axis ofrotation Where on Earth would you have to be for the celestial equator to pass through your zenith Howmany degrees is the angle from the horizon to the zenith Does you answer depend on what point on the horizon you choose 90 No Chapter 2 questions 4 5 6 8 9 12 17 Is there any place on Earth where you could see the north celestial pole on the northern horizon If any place on arth where you could see the north celestial pole on the western horizon Ifso where Explain your answers V m o e stars appear to move over the course ofthe night as seen from the North Pole As seen from the equator Why are these two motions dilrerent What is the ecliptic Why is it tilted with respect to the celestial e uator Does e Sun app move along the ecliptic celestial equator or neither By about how may degrees does the Sun appear Where on Earth do you have to be in order to see the Sun at the zenith Will it be at the zenith ever day Explain N r o where Is there 3 Chapter 2 questions 4 5 6 8 9 12 17 is there any place on Earth where you eould see thenorth eelesual pole on the northern honzon Ifsu where is there any place on Earth where you eould see rth al ole on the western honzon Ifsu where Expl n your Nu furthe same reason Earth39s north polewrll never he ohserved on the western honzon How do the stars appearto move overthe eourse ufthe mght as seen 39um the North Fule7 As seen homthe equator Why are these two monons different North pole At zenith erreles Athunzun theymovehonzontally Equator At zenith they aremovrng 39um eastto west Athunzunthey aremovrng almost zontally E a a Whatrs the eelrpue Why is rttrlted with res eet to the eelesual equator Does the Sun appearto move alongthe eelrpue ee esual equator ornerther By about how may degrees does the Sun appear Eelrptre ls theplane Earth rotates ccw ahoutthe Sunln Sun appears to move alongthe eelrptre at about l degee per d Where on Earth do you have to hem order to seethe Sun atthe zenith Will rthe atthezenrth ever day Explarn Eetween theTropre quanEerand theTropre f Capneorn Nu the Sun will appear at zenith only onee peryear Lecture 4 Chapter 3 Key Words total eclipse 0 solar corona annular eclipse 0 solar eclipse apogee Umbra perigee Penumblquota sidereal month 116W mOOn synodic month fun mOOn Key Words and context total eclipse 7 Moon completely blocks the Sun only for o in certain places on Earth s surface Otherwise faint solar corona is visible Ifthe Moon orbited the Earth in the ecliptic plane and the orbit was aperfect circle there would be one total eclipse per month annular eclipse 7Moon partially blocks the Sun Solar corona is not visible apogee e farthest distance ofan Earthorbiting object perigee e nearest distance ofan Earthorbiting object sidereal month 7 tirne it takes for the rnoon to be in the sarne position with respect to the stars synodic month 7time it takes for the rnoon to be in the sarne position with respect to the sun Key Words and context 0 solar corona 7 solar atmosphere that is only visible when light from sun is completely blocked solar eclipse 7 moon is in Earth s shadow Umbra 7 during eclipse no light from sun can hit the Earth 0 Penumbra during eclipse some light from sun can hit the Earth 0 new moon 7 moon appears dark 0 full moon 7 moon is fully illuminated Review Questions Textbook Chapter 3 problems 14 7 8 3 CD or Online Quiz for Chapter 3 122 Chapter 3 questions 147810182333 1a Explain why the moon exhibits phases b common misconception about the Moon s phases is that they are caused by the Earth s shadow Use Figure 32 to explain why this is not correct 2How would the sequence and timing of lunar phases be affected if the Moon moved around its orbit a in the same direction but at twice the speed b at the same speed but in the opposite direction Chapter 3 questions 147810182333 1 a Explain whythe moon exhibits phases bA common misconception about the oon s hases is that they are caused byt e Earth s shadow se Fi ure 32 to explain why this is not correct a we see different perspectives of illuminate pa 0 moo as it orbits the Earth b Earth s shadow rarely covers the moon but in the opposite direction a same phases Jll moon twice as o en b phases would occur in opposite order Chapter 3 questions 147810182333 3 Is the far side of the moon the side that can never be seen from Earth the same as the dark side of the Moon No Se lecture notes or figure 3 4 4 Astronomers sometimes refer to lunar phases in terms of the age of the Moon This is the time that has elapsed since a new moon phase Thus the age of a full moon is half of a 295day synodic period or approximately 15 days Find the approximate age of a a waxing crescent moon b a third quarter moon c a waning gibbous moon a 18x29 b 34x29 c 58x29 Chapter 3 questions 147810182333 7What is the difference between a sidereal month and a synodic month Which is longer Why Sidereal month is time it takes moon to repeat its position in the sky relative to distant stars Synodic lunar month is time to repeat with respect to the Sun Synodic month is longer See diagram in notes or Figure 35 of text On a certain date the Moon is in the direction of the constellation Gemini as seen from Earth When will the Moon next be in the direction of emini one sidereal month later or one synodic month later One sidereal month later 00 Chapter 3 questions 147810182333 10Why don t we see lunar and solar eclipses each about one time per month 18How is an annular eclipse different from a total eclipse What causes the difference Chapter 3 questions 147810182333 10Why don t we see lunar and solar eclipses each about one time per month Tilt of plane that the Moon orbits the Earth is tilted with respect to the ecliptic 18How is an annular eclipse different from a total eclipse What causes the difference Lecture 5 Chapter 4 Key Words conjunction retrogradeprotograde elongation ellipse geocentric model heliocentric model Kepler s laws Key Words conjunction inner planet is in line with sun eitherin from of or behind retrogradeprotograde movement of planet with respect 0 stars P anet movement is usually eastward protograde or direct Sometimes it is retrograde westwar with respect to the stars elongation see gure 46 or notes 39 orbit around the Sun Acircle ellI se sha e ofa lanets is a regular ellipse while an ellipse that is very noncirclar very eccentric Is at geocentric model every thing rotates around Earth heliocentric model planets rotate about Sun Ke ler s laws orbits are elliptical equal areas in equal time and the farther away planets rotate more slowly Key Words Occam s razor parallax period ofa planet Ptolemaic system Key Words Occam s razor simple explanations are more likely to be correct parallax apparent difference in position of object because change in observation point period of a planet the time it takes a planet to complete on orbit of the Sun Ptolemaic system geocentric Review Questions CD or Online Quiz forChapter4 127 but omit 10 11 15 19 22 25 26 Lecture 6 Chapter 4 Key Words Newton slawstorrnotion tidalforces universalconstant of gravitation weightvs mass Force acceleration gravity Key Words Newton s laws ornotion ooiects in rnotion tend to stay in rnotion unless acted on o an external rorce Force a plied to an ooiect auses a cnange in velocitvtnat is inversely proportiona o oblect s rnass Equal and opposite rorces or one ooiect on anotnerano vlcervel39sa tioal rorces 7 cause level ofwaterto cnange Witn respect to land Botn tne Sun and Moon create tioal rorces The Sun s rorce is Aofthe lvlool39l s universal constant or gravitation 7 part or Newton s equation tnat relates tne rorce between rnassive ooiects Welghtvs rnass e rnass does not depend on Wnere you step on tne scale Eartn vs Moon forexample vveignt ooes Force 7 causes acceleration tnat in inversely proportional to rnass Acceleration 7 a cnange in velocit cravitve rorce tnat pulls rnassive ooiects togetner Review Questions Textbook Chapter 4 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 18 21 22 23 24 27 29 39 42 CD or Online Quiz for Chapter 4 2945 but omit 36 41 42 Chapter4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 18 21 22 23 24 27 29 39 42 1 In what direction the a planet move relative to the stars when it is in direct motion When it is in retrograde motion How do these compare with the direction in which we see the Sun move relative to the stars a In what direction does a planet move relative to the horizon overthe course of one N whether the planet is in direct motion or retrograde motion What does this tell you about the speed at which planets move on the celestial sphere Chapter 4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 1821 222324 2729 3942 1 In what direction the a planet move relative to the stars when it is in direct motion When it is in retrograde o e or protograde is eastward Retrograde is westward with respect to distant stars a In what direction does a lanet move relative to the horizon over the course of one night b The answer to a is the samewhether e planet is in direct motion or N to protograde or retrograde motion over the course of Chapter4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 1821 222324 272939 42 4 What is the significance of Occam s razor as a tool for analyzing theories 6 How did Copernicus determine thtat the orbits of Mercury and Venus must be smaller than the Earth s orbit 9 What is the difference between the synodic period and the sidereal period of a planet Chapter 4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 1821 222324 2729 3942 What is the significance of Occam s razor as a tool for analyzing theories See definition How did Copernicus determine that the orbits of Mercury and Venus must be smallerthan the Earth s orbit He only observed them in the daytime and close to the Sun See Figure 46 What is the difference between the synodic period and the sidereal period of a planet Synodic is time for planet to be in same position relative to Sun Sidereal period is time it takes to complete its orbit 5 0 9 Chapter4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 1821 222324 272939 42 10 What is parallax What did Tycho Brahe conclude from his attempt to measure the parallax ofa supernova and a comet Parallax is the apparent movement ofan object because of a c ange in position ofan observer His parallax measurements were small so he concluded they were very vary awa What observations did Tycho Brahe make in an attempt to test the heliocentric model What were his results Explain w y mo ern astronomers get different results s ements ofnearby objects had small parallax as expecte from geocentric mo e he problem is that the actual parallax was too small for ins ruments to measure Chapter 4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 18 21 22 23 24 27 29 39 42 14At what point in a planet s elliptical oribit does it move fastest At what point does it move slowest At what point does it sweep out an area at the fastest rate 18What observations did Galileo make that reinforced the heliocentric model Why did these observations contradict the older model of Ptolemy Why could these observations not have been made before Galileo s time Chapter4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 18 21 22 23 24 27 29 39 42 14At what point in a planet s elliptical orbit does it move fastest When it is nearest perihelion At what point does it move slowest Farthest aphelion At what point does it sweep out an area at the fastest rate Always Kepler s law 18What observations did Galileo make that reinforced the heliocentric model Phases of Venus and moon s orbiting Jupiter Why did these observations contradict the older model of Ptolemy Geocentric model predicted Venus to have different phases Why coul these observations not have been made before Galileo s time Telescopes were not around Chapter 4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 1821 222324 2729 3942 21 What is the difference between weight and mass 22What is your weight in pounds and in newtons What is your mass in kilograms Chapter4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 1821 222324 272939 42 21What is the difference between weight and mass See definition 22What is yourweight in pounds and in newtons What is your mass in kilograms On Earth s surface 198 lbs a weight is the same as 198 225 lbskg 88 kg a mass W m x g 88 kg x 98 ms2 86 x 102 Newton Chapter 4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 1821 222324 2729 3942 23 Suppose that the Earth were moved to a distance of 30 AU from the Sun How much stronger or weaker would the Sun s gravitational pull be on the Earth Explain 24 How far would you have to go from Earth to be completely beyond the pull of its gravity Explain Chapter4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 1821 222324 272939 42 23 Suppose that the Earth were moved to a distance of 30 AU from the Sun How much 5 r nger or w rwould the Sun s gravitational pull be on the Earth Explain 1 law of gravitation says force is inversely proportional to the square of their separation distance 132 19 How farwould you have to go from Earth to be completely beyond the pull of its gravity Explain Infinite Force equation says that as long as there is a finite separation there is a N J Chapter 4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 18 21 22 23 24 27 29 39 42 27What is a tidal force How do tidal forces produce tides in the Earth s oceans 29Figure 42 shows the retrograde motion of Mars as seen from Earth Sketch a similar figure that shows how Earth would appearto move against the background of stars during this same time period as seen by an observer on Mars Chapter4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 18 21 22 23 24 27 29 39 42 27What is a tidal force How do tidal forces produce tides in the Earth s oceans Tidal force is force on ocean water that depends on farthe Moon or Sun is away from that point in the ocean 29 Figure 42 shows the retrograde motion of Mars as seen from Earth Sketch a similar on Mars Use sketch in lecture notes or Figure 4 5 Chapter 4 questions 1 2 4 6 9 10 11 14 1821 222324 2729 3942 39 Suppose that you traveled to a planet with 4 times the ass and 4 times the diameter ofthe Earth Would you weigh more or less on that p anet than on Earth By wh at factor FGm MrQG2mM2r21l4Gm Mr2 A satellite is said to be in geosynchronous orbit if it appears always to remain over the exac same spot on Earth a What is the period ofthis orbit Same as Earth s b At what distance from the center ofthe Earth must such a satellite be placed into orbit Use Kepler s law that relates orbital period and distance 42 x107 meters 0 Exp ain w ythe or it must e int e plane ofthe Earth s equator Projection ofsatellite onto arth would change positions g m Lecture 7 Chapter 5 Key Words frequency wavelength absorptionemission spectrum 1 EN C 2V 2 Key Words frequency the time it takes for something to repeat such as the peak point in a passing wave wavelength length between peaks in a wave absorptionemission spectrum objects absorb and emit electromagnetic radiation only when the radiation has a special wavelength hc CZV E 1 Key Words frequency wavelength absorptionemission spectrum also covered relationship between energy and wavelength and color and the wave vs particle picture for photons 6221 E25 2 Review Questions Textboo 39 6 20 Textbook Chapter 5 2 47 15 16 CD or Online Quiz for Chapter 5 3 6 Chapter 5 questions 2 47 15 16 2 How long does it take light to travel from the Sun to the Earth a distance of 150x10quot8 km 3 a Describe an experiment where light behaves like a wave b Describe an experiment where light behaves like a particle 4 What is meant by the frequency of light How is frequency related to wavelength Chapter 5 questions 2 47 15 16 2 How long does it take light to travel from the Sun to the Earth a distance of 150x10quot8 km 8 minutes See lecture no es a Describe an experiment where light behaves like a wave b Describe an experiment where light behaves like a particle a light passing through closelyspaced slits b photoelectric experiment or solar sails What is meant by the frequency of light How is frequency related to wavelength Frequency is the time it takes peaks in a wave to pass a fixed V 5 O I Chapter 5 questions 2 47 15 16 6 A cellular phone is actually a radio transmitter and receiver You receive an incoming call int eh form of a radio wave of frequency 8806 MHz What isthe wavelength in meters ofthis wave 7 A light source emits infrared radiation at a wavelength of 1150 nm What is the frequency of this radiation Chapter 5 questions 2 47 15 16 m A cellular phone is actually a radio transmitter and receiver You receive an incoming call in the form of a radio wave of frequency 8806 MHZ What is the wavelength in meters of this wave 034 meters Use c 3 x108 and C V A light source emits infrared radiation at a wavelength of 1150 nm What is the frequency of this radiationi6 x 1014 cycles per second Hz Use C l
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