Research Method and Analysis
Research Method and Analysis ADJ 300
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Jacobson on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ADJ 300 at George Mason University taught by Lisa Newmark in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see /class/215151/adj-300-george-mason-university in Law and Legal Studies at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Study Guide for Test 1 ADJ 300 Prof Lisa Newmark Spring 2009 1 NO late night cramming or skipping breakfast You need to have a clear head for thinking your way through a test and you can t think clearly if you haven t had at least 78 hours sleep and a decent meal before the exam You need to review this guide the PPT notes on Blackboard the textbook and the Bill Bratton reading optional in stages over several days not all at once right before the exam 2 Bring a scantron form 882 E darker green version and a 2 pencil to the test 3 This test counts for 20 of your total course grade and it consists of about 40 give or take a few multiplechoice questions Material covered in both the text and the classroom is most likely to be represented on the exam but material covered in only the classroom or only the text may also be included The exam will not cover the 10 case studies from the IT ethics module Highlights of Material Covered in the Test What You Should Know Nature of the Research Endeavor o PPT unit 1 on Blackboard o Textbook chapter 1 You should understand and be able to think through and apply these terms and concepts 0 We gain knowledge in different ways by accepting what we re told in folklore or cultural norms from experts or authority gures and from the scienti c method The scienti c method requires the use of logic objectivity and systematic empirical methods carefully going out and testing our ideas The goal is to understand the general probabilistic rules of causeandeffect relationships Paradigms are the givens or the implicit assumptions that in uence how we see and interpret the world The paradigm behind the scienti c methods positivism assumes that there is a logical objective reality that we can come to know through scienti c inquiry The two types of logic are deductive and inductive Deductive reasoning is from the general to the speci c inductive reasoning is from the speci c to the general Theories are systematic logical explanations of how something generally works Hypotheses are speci c empirical predictions about relationships between variables which are derived from theories and tested in research Variables are characteristics that vary across people events situations or whatever you re researching Values or attributes are the speci c properties that make up a variables Gender is a variable and its values are male or female If you can logically say what is your then the word that lls in the blank is probably a variable If you can logically say are you a then it s probably a value The major types of variables used in research are 0 Independent or predictor variable the cause 0 Dependent or criterion variable the effect 0 Mediator the middleman variable that explains why the independent variable causes the dependent variable 0 Moderator the depending on variable that interacts with the independent or mediator variable to determine whether and how those variables cause the dependent variable Know what a diagram of a theoretical model looks like and be able to correctly identify its parts which is the independent variables which is the dependent variable etc Know that scienti c research occurs in a cycle such that deductive logic is used to reason from theories to develop hypotheses which are tested in empirical research and the research ndings are then applied inductively to re ne theories and then the cycle begins again Be aware of the difference between observation and inference and be able to spot examples of each Be familiar with con rmation bias or the tendency to focus on data that con rm our beliefs and ignore data that discon rm them Hypotheses and our approach to testing them must be falsi able we must be able to disprove them not just con rm them Another logical error that you should be familiar with is overgeneralization pg 4 in the textbook the tendency to make broad generalizations from limited experiences Be familiar with descriptive exploratory explanatory and evaluative research pages 8 13 in the textbook Exploratory to answer the question what is going on here 0 Descriptive to answer questions around who what how many and when 0 Explanatory to answer questions around how and why identify causal relationships Evaluative to assess the effects of social interventions O O Be familiar with interpretivism and constructivism pages 2021 in the textbook which focus on the role of human perceptions and fallibilities in constructing reality and the interactive nature of the research process Justice Research and Resources PPT unit 2 on Blackboard Bill Bratton article on Blackboard optional Text chapter 2 You should understand and be able to think through and apply these terms and concepts Justice research can be basic to build the body of knowledge or applied oriented to immediate action It can also be deductive theorybased or inductive atheoretical datadriven You should be able to categorize examples of research along these dimensions You should know that the US Department of Justice DOJ is an executivebranch federal agency that includes federal law enforcement prosecution and correctional agencies as well as agencies that assist state local tribal and nonprofit agencies but not the federal court system DOJ provides funding training technical assistance and information to researchers policymakers and practitioners in the justice field at all levels of government and sometimes private sector organizations Be familiar with sources of information including NCJRS The two primary sources of crime data at the national levels are the FBI s Uniform Crime Reporting Program UCR and the Bureau of Justice Statistics National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS The UCR operates as a summary system but is slowly changing over to an incident based system the National IncidentBased Reporting System or NIBRS The major limitations of the UCR summary system is that it only includes crimes reported to the police part 11 crimes are only included if an arrest was made it uses a hierarchy rule for incidents involving multiple crimes only aggregate data are available and very little information describing the crimes is available The NIBRS system overcomes some of these limitations e g the hierarchy rule aggregatelevel data only but not all eg only crimes reported to the police NCVS data are from household surveys on criminal victimization It includes crimes that were not reported to the police as well as crimes that were and it includes a lot of information describing the crimes However it does not include homicides or crimes against children younger than 12 Ethical Standards in Justice Research PPT unit 3 on Blackboard You should understand and be able to think through and apply these terms and concepts You should know the 6 major ethical issues in social science research worthiness and feasibility privacy voluntary and informed participation minimize potential harm maximize potential bene ts and report the study honestly Know what the two forms of privacy are anonymity and con dentiality and be able to distinguish between them Know that privacy protections are limited by mandatory reporting requirements in case of real or threatened harm Know what voluntary participation and informed participation mean Know that sometimes deception is essential and that it undercuts voluntary informed participation When deception is used in research participants must be debriefed afterwards to expose the deception and try to restore participants to the state they were in before the research Know that various types of harm are possible from research participation including physical emotional and social harm Some populations may be especially vulnerable to harm and should be given special considerations Know that financial or material benefits or incentives to participation are not considered to be benefrts Know that it s not ok to use these incentives if they re so large that they become an offer you can t refuse Be familiar with the major ethical safeguards including Institutional Review Boards IRBs federal legislative requirements informed consent forms and data security plans Know that IRBs are composed of members who work at the organization as well as those outside the organization to avoid con ict of interest review research procedures and materials before the study begins and have real veto power Know that federal laws require organizations that receive federal research funding to use IRBs voluntary informed consent and protect data privacy and security and that they protect DOJfunded research from subpoena Be familiar with two major types of documents required by IRBs the informed consent form and the data security plan The informed consent form is read and signed by the research participant prior to participation and explains the research procedures potential risks and benefits privacy protections voluntary participation any compensation that s being provided for research participation and alternatives to participation The data
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