Foundations Public Communicatn
Foundations Public Communicatn COMM 300
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ottis Vandervort on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 300 at George Mason University taught by Star Muir in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/215183/comm-300-george-mason-university in Communication at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Communications 300 Final Exam Guide Narrative Narrative paradigm is anchored in Walter Fisher s connection that the most basic human symbolic response to rhetoric exigencies is storytelling 8 Narrative Elements 0 Narrator Characters characters are motivated to act by others or the context Plot a good story has recognizable patterns of causality Setting context setting serves as indicator ofprior events circumstances and conditions surrounding the characters Temporal Relations Causal Relations Audience 0 Themes Standards to evaluate Narrative Rationality o Narrative probability coherence Does the story hang together events of the story follow one because of another Is the plot free of contradictions o Narrative Fidelity correspondence concerns with truth qualities and logic of good reasons relevance consistency etc 000 000 Daramatism Man is the symbol making using and misusing o Inventor of the negative Separated from nature by instruments of our own making Humans are goaded by spirit of hierarchy ranking of categories Humans are in a state of guilt because they are not perfect they are not at the top of their hierarchy o Humans are aware of their impending death Identification the essential nature ofpersuasion identifying your ways with theirs Cycle ofTerms 0 Order and disorder 0 Sin and guilt o Victimage the demand for a sacrifice I Mortification sacrificing oneself I Scapegoating placing the blame on someone or something other than oneself o Redemption reinforces the order The Pentad search model that provides a set of topics to get us thinking systematically about dramas embedded in all messages 0 Act Agent Agency Scene Purpose 0 Ratios explains a rationale for how a message works I The first element controls the interpretation OOO Fantas y Theme Analysis Developed by Ernest Bormann as a means ofaccounting for how groups of people use stories to see the world in similar ways Fantasies stories recollections of events involving the group or discussions of recurring topics that may seem at first irrelevant to the group s task Fantasy Themes word phrase or story that accounts for group experience Robert Bales dynamic process of group fantasizing 0 Small groups eventually start dramatizing 0 Convergence starts as the group is creating a shared reality amongst them all Fantasy Type example quotCinderella team or quotgatequot is used as a scandal Watergate Rhetorical Vision description of how things should be coherent picture of fantasy themes rhetorical visions affect how people perceive and interpret their reality Feminist Criticism Gener Patriarchy the domination ofmen and male thinking and speech in the political social and economic structure ofa culture Liberal Feminism 0 Dominant philosophy of the early women s rights activists 0 Women are entitled to the same natural rights as men because they are essentially the same as men reasoning and independent 0 Liberal feminists position accept the existing political and economic structure but demands that women be assimilated equally into that structure Cultural Feminism 0 Cultural feminists believe that the causes of inequality for women are rooted in ideologies about gender in our culture through religion and media 0 They argue that feminine qualities are typically devalued in society 0 A critic examines how gender is portrayed in the message how women and men are portrayed differently Postmodern Feminism o Postmodern feminism insists that feminists hold different perspectives or standpoints because of their variations in age race class etc and it expresses doubt that the differences between men and women are permanent 0 Focus on how women understand and represent their lives ic Criticism To discover how people create individual instances of meaning and value within structure discursive fields the generic critic seeks to discover commonalities in rhetorical patterns across recurring situations Rhetorical Genre a constellation fusion or clustering of three different kinds of elements so that a unique kind of artifact is created o Situational perception of conditions in a situation that call for particular kinds of rhetorical responses 0 Substantive and stylistic characteristics substantive characteristics are those that constitute the content of the rhetoric while stylistic characteristics constitute its form 0 Organizing Principle the root term that serves as an umbrella label for the various characteristic features of the rhetoric Visual Communication Indeterminate lacks specific definition for interpretation it is uncertain o It is what limits the ability of a visual to present an argument 0 Visual communications may invite interpretation but they cannot control interpretation to the degree that verbal argument can Three basic concepts 0 Syntactics the rules of organization and ordering of symbols 0 Semantics process ofassigning meaning to or interpreting communication I Icon the object being represented I Index no resemblance to its objects its association with the object synonym I Symbols agreement that a sign will mean something amongst the users of the language 0 Pragmatics concerned with the behavioral effects of symbolic use Functions ofVisuals in Persuasion o Visuals serve in persuasive communication by attracting attention and stirring emotions o Violating Reality accomplished by presenting an unexpected or odd image that grabs out attention 0 Visual Metaphor attempts to illuminate a familiar target or idea by placing it side by side with an unfamiliar one o Parody works by imitating some object wherein a key element of the original is made ridiculous through distortion 0 Point ofView I Direct gaze the subject of the visual is gazing directly at the viewer I Rear view viewer is placed behind the subject I Closeup featuring from the shoulders up I Distant showing the entire subject I Subjective through the eyes of the viewer Ideological Criticism Ideology the culturally shared beliefs about how the world is and how it ought to be Two central terms one encounters in ideological theory 0 Hegemony the everyday means by which a dominant belief system practice custom or people prevails within a culture
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