Psychology of the Exceptional Child
Psychology of the Exceptional Child PSYC 321
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Santa Hahn on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 321 at Old Dominion University taught by Suzanne Morrow in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/215330/psyc-321-old-dominion-university in Psychlogy at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
Learning Objectives Exam 1 Psychology of the Exceptional Child Chapter 17 Exceptional Childhood Define exceptional childhood 0 Normal Development gone awry Psychopathology is behavior that once was but no longer can be considered appropriate to the child s level of development Whether the described behaviors are regarded as normal or pathological depends on when they occur in the developmental sequence Define the important terms that are needed to study exceptional childhood etiology prevalence coimorbidity differential diagnosis and prognosis Etiologyi origins or cause of the disorder or behavior Prevalencei overall number of cases of disorder CoiMorbidityi more than one disorder present at time AND ie Bipolar and Personality Disorder Differential Diagnosisi deciding which disorder best captures the child s presentation and which alternative disorders should be ruled out Try to decide between two different disorders which could fit symptoms OR ie Autism or Mental Retardation O Prognosisi the likely outcome of the child s development based on disorder 0 O O 0 Can be a good or bad prognosis depending upon the case List and explain the basic tenants of the developmental psychopathological approach to the study of exceptional childhood 0 An approach to understanding how psychopathology emerges over the life span It is the study of developmental processes that contribute to or protect against psychopathology Does not necessarily follow any unimry theoretical model however it is guided by an ogam39galz39onalpmgpettz39ve Views the human organism in a bolixtz39t way as an integrated and dynamic system in which all domains of developmentithe cognitive social emotional and biologicaliare in continual interaction with one another Development itselfis considered to be biemrtbz39m psychological growth is a process ofincreasing complexity and organization such that new structures emerge out of those that have come before The key to undersmnding his perspective is to attend to the tasks at each stage of development termed 31613646156711 issue that must be confronted and mastered Whether these issues are resolved in adaptive or maladaptive ways influences future adaptation Define risk vulnerability and protective factors and identify an example of each 0 Risk any condition or circumstance that increases the likelihood that psychopathology will develop No comprehensive list of risk factors and they span all contents le faInily risk factor could be parental neglect or in the individual context a risk could be low intelligence 0 Vulnerabilityi increases the likelihood that apam39mlar child will succumb to risk A risk factor is associated with an increased likelihood of psychopathology for all children exposed to it thus is emerges as a main effect in statistical analyses A vulnerabilty in contract increases the likelihood ofpsychopathology particularly for those children who are susceptible to it thus it emerges as an interaction effect le Temperament children who are difficult to care for are more often targets ofparental irritability criticism and hostility than are easily managed children and so are more vulnerable to subsequent disturbance the risk 0 Protective factorsi factors that promote or maintain healthy development Evidenced by the resilient kids who are at high risk but still make a good adjustment to circumstances le three clusters ofprotective factors 1 At least average intelligente and personal aimMules that elicited positive responses from family members and other adults such as robustness vigor a sociable temperament 2 A ttz39onate ties with parent substitutes such as grandparents or older siblings which encouraged trust autonomy and initiative 3 An external mppori system in church youth groups or school which rewarded competence Describe the difference between the psychoanalytic model and the behavioral model 0 The psychoanalytical model emphasizes the role ofunconscious drives on behavior and development While the Behavioral Model emphasizes that behavior is learned and that behavior is either adaptive or maladaptive depending on the socieml expecmtions O In psychoanalytical egosuperego psychosexuality develop while the behavioral model focuses of course on behavior 0 The processes of development in the psychoanalytical model are clashes between drives and reality and transfer oflibido In the behavioral model rewards punishment and imitation ofmodels are the processes of development 0 In the psychoanalytical model xation or regression are examples of psychopathology ln behavioral model its inappropriate behavior 0 In the psychoanalytical model psychopathology develops through conflicts among parts of the psyche id ego superego and in the behavioral model it develops through reinforcement or modeling ofmaladaptive behavior Describe how the social learning theory differs from the other two behavioral models 0 Bandura s Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another via observation imitation and modeling The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention memory and motivation Bandura believed in reciprocal determinism that is the world and a person s behavior cause each other while behaviorism essentially states that one s environment causes one s behavior Bandura who was studying adolescent aggression found this too simplistic and so in addition he suggested that behavior causes environment as well Later Bandura soon considered personality as an interaction between three components the environment behavior and one s psychological processes one s ability to entertain images in minds and language The other two behavioral models mainly focus on either classical or operant conditioning Stimulus response Positive and Negative Reinforcement Punishment and Extinction O O Describe the difference between the two cognitive models 0 0 Cognitive Developmental Theory 7 Piaget Development through maturation of the nervous system and interaction with the environment Acquire schemas through accommodation and assimilation Psychopathology when failure to acquire schemas Information Processing Describes skills that we have to process information Looks at age related quantitative changes Psychopathology when child performs at a lower age level Explain the information processing theory in the cognitive model 0 O 0 Information processing theorists proposed that like the computer the human mind is a system that processes information through the application of logical rules and strategies Like the computer the mind has a limited capacity for the amount and nature of the information it can process Finally just as the computer can be made into a better information processor by changes in its hardware eg circuit boards and microchips and its software prograInming so do children become more sophisticated thinkers through changes in their brains and sensory systems hardware and in the rules and strategies software that they learn Informationiprocessing theory holds that thinking is informationiprocessing When the individual perceives encodes represents and stores information from the environment in his mind or retrieves that information he is thinking Thinking also includes responding to any constraints or limitations on memory processes Identify an exaInple of the four operant conditioning principles 0 O O O In Positive Reinforcement you present a stimulus in order to increase a behavior EXAMPLEi giving a rat some cheese to encourage the behavior of pressing a button In Negative Reinforcement you take away an aversive stimulus to increase a behavior EXAMPLEiyou shock a rat put into a cage until he presses a button You want to increase the behavior of pressing the button by removing the shockian aversive and painful stimulus ln Punishment you want to decrease a behavior by presenting an aversive stimulus EXAMPLEi When the rat bites a lab tech you present a shocking stimulus in order to decrease the biting behavior Extinction occurs when a behavior response that had previously been reinforced is no longer effective In the Skinner box experiment this is the rat pushing the lever and being rewarded with a food pellet several times and then pushing the lever again and never receiving a food pellet again Eventually the rat would cease pushing the lever Define and identify an example of accommodation and assimilation O 0 Accommodation when existing ways of thinking about or acting towards something are modified to incorporate new features of the environment Assimilationi when an individual incorporates features of the environment into already existing ways of thinking or acting toward them A child seeing a zebra for the rst time and calling it a horse The child assimilates this information into her schema for a horse When the child accommodates information she takes into consideration the different properties ofa zebra compared to a horse perhaps calling a zebra a horse with stripes When she eventually learns the name of zebra she has accommodated this information Identify an exaInple ofa longitudinal crossisectional and sequential development research design 0 LongitudinaliAssessment of the same person or group ofpersons at different points in time LEiFollowing a group of boys from age 10 to age 50 to see how selfiesteem changes based upon career success 0 Crossisectionali Assessment ofgroups of ages at the same point in time lE7 Testing different groups of 10 year olds for something 0 SequentialiTesting different age groups at two or more points in time Basically retesting later to see you get different data List the pros and cons of each of the developmental designs 0 Well a con in crossisectional is the cohort effect where being a certain age at cermin points in timehistory affect develop so that the data gathered from that cohort only applies to them and not to the develop ofpeople as a whole 0 A con in longitudinal designs is the amount of time and money needed to carry out the experiment Explain the difference between experimental and correlational research 0 In an experiment you control variables and manipulate them so you can infer causation but in correlational studies you look at comparing relationships between two variables no causation can be inferred Explain the difference between a prospective and retrospective study and list the cons of each method 0 In a prospective study you follow your subjects progress into the future to see what things but contribute to or cause a psychopathology have to wait and see ifyour subjects develop one ofcourse In a retrospective study you look back into the subjects past to see what caused or contributed to the psychopathology you already know about The con is that people s memories aren t perfect so they may give you incorrect information and information that is minted by current knowledge Book question Identify an exaInple of one of Minuchin s problematic family systems 0 In one of Minuchin s problematic family system s the family s relationship is described as triangulation This is where the child is caught in the middle of the parents In this case the child attempts to mainmin a coalition with each parent either to be a peacemaker or goibetween or in response to pressure from parents to side with one or the other So the girl child would be the negotiator who takes a message from mom to dad about what s for dinner because they aren t mlking to each other Also detouring where there is no problem with the parents except they insist their child s disobedience or delicate nature Encouraging child s behavior because thafs the only time they work together they like being distracted from marital problems 0 O O 0 And the third one is the parentichild coalition which arises when one parent involves the child in an alliance that excludes the other parent Chapter 2 7 Normative Development List the cause of the genetic disorders discussed in class in terms ofbeing autosomal dominant autosomal recessive and seX linked Describe the evidence needed in concordance rates to prove that a trait or disorder has a strong genetic component 0 A concordance rate is the percentage of cases in which a characteristic displayed by one child is also displayed by his or her twin If twins reared apart are more alike then different this suggests that genes rather than environmental influences are affecting their behavior List the lobes of the brain and what each lobe is responsible for 0 Brain Stemi regulates autonomic functions such as breathing heartrate motor coordination and arousal O Cerebellumi coordination and balance 0 Forebraini includes limbic system hippocampus cingulated gyrus and aInygdale governs the basic drives of seX aggression and satiety and plays an important role in the regulation of emotion and impulse control 0 Occipital lobei involved in visual processing 0 Parietal lobei responsible for perception of sensory informationirecognition ofpain pressure touch and the movement of the body through space 0 Temporal lobei important for memory auditory perception and facial recognition 0 Frontal lobei higher mental operations like planning problem solving decision making and organization executive functions Define reaction range and nicheipicking 0 Reaction rangei genetics set the range ofpossible outcomes environment selects where along that range we fall 0 Nicheipickingi because of our genetics we will pick a certain environment and the environment in turn influences us Explain neuronal changes in the brain and how they are related to better cognitive performance or processing ofinformation O Pruningi the brain rids itself ofunnecessary redundant or nonfunctional cells Also in later pruning reduces the number of connections between neurons 0 Myelinationi white matter i the brain that surrounds the axon of the nerve cell and serves much the same function as the insulation of wire increasing the speed and efficiency of the transmission ofinformation O The last part of the brain to be pruned and myelinated is the prefronml corteX After adolescence better decision making and processing of information Describe the developmental outcome from the 3 different temperaInents and the concept of goodness of fit 0 Difficulti fussy irregular easy to upset and difficult to soothe Negatively correlated with overall ratings of emotional adjustment in adulthood Children who develop psychiatric problems were overwhelmingly more likely O to have shown a difficult temperaInent in infancy Increases the child s vulnerability to the development ofpsychopathy Easyi display positive affect react in a mild manner to frustration and are easily soothed by parental comforting Slow to warm up shy infants who have a generally low activity level and while they may show an initially negative reaction to new stimuli or change they will adapt over time and begin looking more like the easy infants lncreases child s vulnerability to the development ofpsychopathy Goodness of fit the meshing between child s temperamental style and the demands of the environment places on the child When the environmenfs expecmtions demands and opportunities are compatible wit the individual s temperament the child is able to master environmenml challenges effectively When there is a poorness of fit the demands from the environment exceed the child s capacities and the ensuing stress leads to an unhealthy developmental course Describe the characteristics of thought in each of Piaget s stages of cognitive development 0 See notes Describe how infants from each of the 4 attachment styles would react in the Strange Situation 0 O O 0 Secure infant explores environment freely and interact well with the unfamiliar adults when in the caregiver s presence They may be distressed by separation and if so will protest and limit exploration in the caregiver s absence Upon reunion they greet the caregiver positively and seek contact with her are readily soothed and can return to play after a period of emotional refueling lnsecureiAvoidanti infants seem to be preociously independent They don t seem to relay on the caregiver for security when she is present exploring the room very independently and responding with equal interest to the parent or the stranger They react minimally to the caregiver s absence Upon reunion these infants avoid proximity with the caregiver they may turn away avoid eye conmct and ignore her lnsecureiResistanti infant is preoccupied with the caregiver They tend to be clingy and inhibited from exploring the room or interacting with the stranger even when the caregiver is present Highly distressed by separation but upon reunion angrily resist attempts at closeness and are not easily soothed Respond to mother with an ambivalent pattern of proximityiseeking and rejection lnsecureiDisorganizedi infants act in an inconsistent or odd manner They may have a dazed expression or wander around aimlessly or seem to be fearful and ambivalent in the presence of the caregiver not knowing whether to approach for comfort of avoid for safety If they seek proximity they do so in distorted ways such as approaching the caregiver backwards List the developmental outcomes of the different atmchment styles in terms of psychopathology O lnsecure atmchment leads to risk mechanisms ofinsecurity basic trust is an important prerequisite to healthy social and psychological development to feel that the self is lovable inhibited mastery motivated insecurely attached infants are either hesitant and uncertain or defensively avoidant of the environment thereby depriving themselves oflearning opportunities Mastery motivation means the child s drive to interact with the environment for the intrinsic satisfaction of learning about it Emotion Dysregulation they may be unable to internalize the caregiver s comforting functions modulate their own emotions and generate an inner confidence incorrect Internal Working Models Past experiences with caregiving have left their imprint on the children s mental life and this imprint produces different expecmtions concerning what future close relations will be like and consequently different interpersonal behavior In later life internal working models of self and other play a part in the quality of friendships Define emotion regulation and explain how emotion regulation is related to later psychological outcomes 0 O The ability to monitor evaluate and modify one s emotional reactions in order to achieve one s goals Children learn that they are the authors of their own actions through emotion regulation Children initially develop a sense of self through experiencing their actions as effective or ineffective in managing internal and external demands and mainmining equilibrium Gives continuity to experience despite development and environmenml change List the typical sequence of the development of emotions O powerpointnotes Explain the development of selfiesteem and what it is based on in each of the developmental periods discussed in class 0 1 lnfancy and Toddlerhoodi dawning of recognition of self arises out of experiences of effectiveness in the world I cry and the food I need appears By 2 can recognize selfin mirror Se m agent 2 Preschooli conceptions of self are focused on concrete observable characteristics such as their physical appearance play activites preferences or possessions Bebzwz39omlsegC descriptors represent discrete behaviors rather than higheriorder categories 3 Early to Middle Childhoodi 577 Tendency toward unrealistically positive selfperceptions All or nothing thinking persists in the form of thinking in terms of opposites and over dg39 fermtz39atz39ng Focus on specific competencies and skills they have mastered Cannot integrate both positive and negative attributes with one another 4 Middle to Late 8711 Concepts of selfinvolve generalizations that integrate a number of characteristics of the self View in terms ofpersonality characteristics they hold Can form higheriorder concepts so they can develop a representation of his or her overall selfiworth Can also evaluate themselves in terms of specific areas of competence academic physical and social 3mg mmparz39xon 5 Adolescencei Formal Operational Skills allow youth to think about selfin increasingly abstract terms based not only what one is doing and has done but on what one believes one can be Akxtmtt futureiorz39mted veg Describe the outcomes of the 4 parenting styles proposed by Baumrind O Authoritariani if parents discipline in a punitive rejecting manner their children tend to become aggressive uncooperative fearful of punishment and low on initiative self esteem and competence with peers O Permissive may result in a dependent irresponsible aggressive spoiled child 0 Authoritativei children tend to be selfireliant selficontrolled secure popular and inquisitive Neglectfuli Breeding ground for antisocial behavior Associated with child impulsivity moodiness truancy lack oflongiterm goals and early drinking and smoking 0 Identify an exaInple of one of the 4 parenting styles proposed by Baumrind 0 Refer to chart in powerpoint for overview of styles Explain the predictors of adjustment to divorce and identify which ones are related to positive outcomes and which ones are related to negative outcomes 0 In notes Describe the characteristics of each of the 4 sociometric smtuses describing peer relations and acceptance 0 Accepted the child who is accepted by other children is resourceful intelligent emotionally stable dependable cooperative and sensitive to the feelings of others 0 Rejectedi children are aggressive distractible and socially inept in addition to being unhappy and alienated At risk for being school dropouts and having serious psychological difficulties in adolescence adulthood O Neglectedi children who are neither liked nor disliked by peers tend to be anxious and lacking in social skills 0 Controversiali children are perceived both positively and negatively by others Are often troublemakers or class clowns yet they possess interpersonal skills and charisma that attract or impress others Book question Explain how crossicultural psychology affects our study of developmental psychopathology O Cultureibased subjective experience the way in which culture influences one s view ofpsychopathology and one s perceptions of self 0 Cultureibased idiomsi the ways in which psychopathology is evidenced in behavior Culture may influence the symptoms that individuals exhibit as well as those that others focus on in determining mental health or illness 0 Cultureibased diagnosis the categories and language that people use to understand and explain psychopathology O Cultureibased treatmentsi determine who are the potential healer s and what the mechanisms through which healing take place for exaInple whether a psychiatrists is sought for medication a faith healer is visited to reconnect the spirit to the body or the symptom is hidden to protect the honor of the family 0 Cultureibased outcomesi the results that ensue when a psychopathology has been conceptualized and treated in a particular way Childs response to treatment may be influenced by the degree to which society emphasizes the need to provide familial support the individual who is suffering from mental illness Chapter 3 and 16 7 Assessment Describe the difference between assessing adults and children 0 Children don t self refer themselves for psychological help so may not be cooperative or happy about being there 0 They may not think there is a problem with themselves or their behavior 0 Don t understand that the therapist is there to help List and describe the steps in the assessment process 0 Referrali first bit of data provided by referring person teacher parents physicianquot who can provide info about the problem as they perceive it its durations and onset its effect on the child and on others and what measures have been taken to remedy it 0 Parent Interviewi Account of the presenting problem a demiled development history that includes child s prenatal and birth history and early development May ask parents about own information Esmblish rapport 0 Child Interviewi Talk with child allows them to give their own perspective on problem Observe behavior and establish rapport with child 0 Psychological Testsi Used to confirm or deny hypothesis about whafs wrong and assess other characteristics Intelligence tests are often used List and describe the important points for assessment 0 Need complete picture very involved info from many areas of child s life 0 Identify weaknesses and strengths of child 0 Establish rapporti very impormnt with parent and child 0 Developmental perspectivei everything has to be age appropriate 0 Ethnic diversityi don t just assume and make sure to take into account 0 Case formulationi really long document that includes all background information test results treatment and diagnosis List the uses ofintelligence tests 0 The IQ score itselfis related to many aspects of the child s life success in school vocational choice peer relations and IQ is a better predictor of future adjustment than any score on a personality test 0 Provides data concerning general areas of strength and weakness 0 Data on the kind and degree of impairment of specific intellectual functions such as immediate recall or abstract reasoning O The child s coping techniques work habits and motivation O Stylistic characteristics of thinking that may well be related to personality variables 0 The presence of distorted thinking that might indicate either organic brain pathology or psychosis Calculate an IQ score given MA and CA 0 MACA x100IQ List example tests that are found on the subscales of the Weschler scales 0 Refer to powerpoint picture for examples PRI perceptual reasoning indexiconcrete material WMIWorking Memory Index VCIVerbal Comprehension Index facility in using verbal symbols PSIProcessing Speed Index 0000 0 Scores yield a FSl full scale IQ with a mean score of 100 and a SD of 15 Identify the uses of the Bayley lnfant Scales O Evaluates cognitive language motor and social functioning of children 142 months of age 0 Menml Scale evaluates the infant s perceptual acuity object constancy memory learning problem solving and verbal communciation 0 Motor Scale evaluates fine and gross motor coordination and body control 0 Behavior Rating Scale assesses the infanfs attention and arousal social engagement with others and emotional regulation 0 Can also be used to help identify areas of development in which there are delays or impairments and can be used to design interventions to address those problems Describe what the CBCL measures 0 The CBCL is a parentireport measure and consists of a set of carefully developed measures to assess children s behavior problems from the parenfs perspective Measures narrow band and wide band factors The narrow band factors included specific syndromes or behavior problems such as withdrawndepressed somatic complaints social problems attention problems and aggressive behavior Several of the narrow band syndromes were grouped together to form wide band factors The lnternalizing factor comprises anxiousdepressed withdrawndepressed and somatic complaints and Exernalizing factor comprises rule breaking behavior and aggressive behavior After scoring all eight narrowiband scales the clinician can obtain a profile indicating which scales are within normal limits and which exceed them Make statements about broad brand and narrow band syndromes given a child s scores on the CBCL List the advantages and disadvantages of the CBCL 0 See power point and notes Identify which disorders are diagnosed on each axis of the DSM 0 Axis I Clinical Disorders Other Disorder That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention 39 Contains most of the disorders with which we will be concerned Axis II Personality Disorders Menml Retardation 39 Concerned with conditions that affect functioning in a pervasive manner including personality disorders and mental remrdation It can also be used to indicate problematic personality characteristics that do not meet the criteria for a fulliblown personality disorder such as maladaptive and rigid use of defense mechanisms Axis III General Medical Conditions 0 0 Includes general medical conditions that are potentially relevant to the understanding or management of cases for example injuries and infectious diseases diseases of the nervous system or digestive system and complications ofpregnancy and childbirth 0 Axis IV Psychosocial and Environmental Problems 39 lncludes negative life events stresses and environmental deficiencies that provide the milieu within which the child s problems developed 0 Includes problems related to the primary support group the social environment education occupation housing economics health care legal system and others Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning 39 The clinician s judgment of the overall level of functioning Such information is useful in planning treatment and measuring it s impact Made in terms ofa Global Assessment of Functioning GAF Scale which goes from superior functioning to persistent danger of hurting self or others or persistent inability to maintain minimal personal hygiene List and describe the advantages and disadvantages of the DSM 0 See powerpoint and notes Book question Compare and contrast the DSM with the lCD710 O O O O O 0 Like the DSM the ICD710 is multiaxial however the child is assessed on six axes instead of five Axis One Clinical Psychiatric Syndrome 39 Like the DSM s Axis I this axis includes the major mental and behavioral disorders that may be seen in either children or adults Axis Two Specific Disorders of Psychological Development 39 In a departure from the DSM the ICD710 seperately assesses the extent to which the child experiences delays in development These may occur in areas such as speech and language scholastic skills and motor functions Axis Three Intellectual Level 39 This axis provides a rating of the person s general level of intellectual functioning on an 87point ordinal scale ranging from very high intelligence to profound mental retardation The extent of the impairment in the child s functioning is also noted whether minimal or significant Axis Five Associated Abnormal Psychosocial Situations 39 This axis includes situations in the child s psychosocial environment that might have implications for understanding the origins of the child s clinical psychiatric syndrome or might be relevant for treatment planning Unlike DSM s Axis IV the list here is extensive and specific to the kinds of deficiences in family life that are likely to affect children s development Axis Six Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability 39 As with the DSM the clinician is asked to rate the young person s overall psychological social and occupational functioning at the time of the evaluation A 9 point ordinal scale is used ranging from 0superior social functioning to 9profound and pervasive social disability Consideration is given to psychiatric developmental or intellectual deficits and excludes problems that are related to physical or environmental limitations Like the DSM the ICD710 retains the medical model that requires the children be classified into discrete categories subject to all the limitations of clinical judgment More developmentally friendly than the DSM
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