Psychology of Sexuality: Exam 2 Review Guide
Psychology of Sexuality: Exam 2 Review Guide Psy 457
Popular in Psychology of Sexuality
Popular in Psychlogy
verified elite notetaker
This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Laura Pratt on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psy 457 at California State University Long Beach taught by Dr. Jones in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sexuality in Psychlogy at California State University Long Beach.
Reviews for Psychology of Sexuality: Exam 2 Review Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/17/16
Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 1 Sexuality in Childhood & Adolescence ● Summarize typical sexual behavior in: ○ Infancy ■ Infants can be observed discovering the pleasure of genital stimulation soon after they are born ■ Body begins first sexual response in utero ■ Boys have erections in utero ■ Girls may have vaginal lubrication and genital swelling when infants ■ Both male and female infants have been observed experiencing what appears to be an orgasm ○ Early childhood ■ Typically they’ll disguise their interest rather than risk the disapproval of their elders ■ Begin interacting with peers and children explore their bodies together ● Masturbate ● Play “mommy and daddy” ● Hug and kiss and lie on top of each other ● Play “doctor” so they can look at each other’s genitals ○ Preadolescence ■ Curiosity and Sex play ■ Masturbation and Permission to feel pleasure ■ Between ages 1012, 24% of boys and 29% of girls is very interested in the other sex ○ Adolescence ■ Masturbation ● Males typically start this earlier than females (1315 for males) ■ Motivation to have sex socialenvironmental factors and individual characteristics ■ First Intercourse: average age for first intercourse is currently 17 years old ● Define puberty and adolescence ○ Puberty: the stage of human development when the body becomes capable of reproduction ○ Adolescence: the social and psychological state that occurs between the beginning of puberty and acceptance into full adulthood ● Summarize the impact of family, peers and the media on adolescent sexuality Sex Isn’t That Simple ● In the US, most new cases of HIV infection are among ____ ○ People under 25 years of age, and the vast majority of these infections occur through sexual activity. ● What are sexual lifeways? ○ The sexual culture creates a system for categorizing certain sexual acts and behaviors as desirable and appropriate – individual develop their sexuality within different cultures and create sexual lifeways which are viewed as “erotic emotions, categories and roles” ● What is gay culture? ○ The culture consists of defining ethnic/racial groups within the psychological literature are applied to the lives of lesbians and gay men ○ Gay and bisexual must learn “appropriate” sexual behaviors within tier sexual culture and learn the larger gay culture’s norms and expectations around ways of behaving, acting, and knowing ● What are the factors that impact acculturation? Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 2 ○ Various forms of mass media have been sources of gay youths to use in becoming acculturated to gay culture – internet, gay cultural norms ○ When youths are able to feel comfortable with their sexual identity there is evidence that acculturation into a larger gay community can serve to buffer some of the negative effects of stigmatization and lead to deeecreased participation in HIV sexual risk behaviors ● What were the strategies used for developing culturally grounded HIV prevention programs? ○ These programs are grounded in the ethnic/racial culture of the targeted population and in an exploration of ethnic specific messages related to sexual identity and sexual risk/protective behaviors ○ Subverting culture – created to examine the role of ethnic culture in HIV prevention programs ○ Learning about gay culture, importance of contextual factors in HIV prevention programs (these intervention programs may not work in certain contexts where the people live – need to be developed with an understanding of the societallevel contextual factors that may influence the sexual lives of their participants), heterosexism and sexual risk/protection (LGB adolescents are often harassed), masculinity ideology and sexual risk/protection, sexual identity development, ethnic identity development Sexuality in Adulthood ● What are the developmental challenges for young adults? ○ Establishing Sexual Orientation ○ Integrating love and sex (sex versus love dichotomy should be addressed in adulthood) ○ Forging intimacy and making commitments (as adults become more intimate, most desire to develop their ability to make commitments) ○ Making fertility/childbearing decisions (becoming a parent or not?) ○ Practicing safer sex to protect against STIs (awareness must be integrated into communication, values, and behaviors of all people) ○ Evolving a sexual philosophy (as individuals move into adulthood – reevaluate moral standards – develop personal principles of right and wrong, caring, and responsibility) ● Current status of singlehood and reasons ○ Reasons for greater numbers of single young adults: ○ Greater sexual experience ○ Increased number of singles are divorced or widowed ○ Widespread acceptance of cohabitation ○ Unintended pregnancies ○ Increased numbers of abortions and births to single women ○ Greater numbers of separated and divorced men and women ○ Rise in the number of singleparent families ● Reasons for cohabitation ○ People cohabitate because the climate regarding sexuality is more openminded than it was a generation ago, divorce is seen now more preferable than an unhappy marriage, young adults ar continuing to defer marriage (but want a companionship) ● What is POSSLQ? What are the biases? Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 3 ○ Person of opposite sex sharing living quarters (term coined in the 1970s) ○ Biases is that this automatically assumes that two opposite sex people can’t live together without having sexual relations – i.e. what if they are both homosexual ● What are the developmental challenges for those in middle adulthood? ○ Redefining sex in marital or other longterm relationships (In longterm relationships, sex may need to be redefine as more of an expression of intimacy and caring) ○ Reevaluating one’s sexuality (weight the costs and benefits of sex in casual/lightly committed relationships; redefining sexual orientation and sexual philosophy evolves) ○ Accepting the biological aging process (challenges of aging including physiological slowing and menopause for women) ● Summarize the findings on frequency and satisfaction in established relationships ○ People have sex less frequently when they are married, but are more satisfied with the sex they have ● Summarize sexuality within marriage ○ Married couples have sex less frequently as they are together longer – might be because of their biological clock or an adaptation of the initial surge of dopamine that prompts romance and desire ○ Married couples don’t seem to feel that declining frequency in sexual intercourse is a major problem if their overall relationship is good ○ Higher levels of sexual satisfaction and pleasure seem to be found in marriage ● What are the developmental challenges for those in late adulthood? ○ Biological changes: sexuality tends to diffuse, less genitally oriented, and less insistent ○ Death of a partner: absence of a sexual partner signals a dramatic change in the survivor’s sexual interactions ○ Psychological influences: many people deem it inappropriate for older individuals to be sexually active – might interfere with other individual’s ability or willingness to see themselves as sexual beings ● Discuss impact of aging on men & women ○ Women: perimenopause – decline in fertility; menopause: complete cessation of menstruation for 1 year ○ Men: manopause (symptoms include fatigue, inability to concentrate, depression, loss of appetite, and a decreased interest in sex) ○ Ejaculation takes longer or does not happen ○ Sexual interest and enjoyment generally do not decrease ● What are the physical effects of menopause? ○ menopause comes with a multitude of symptoms including hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and sleeping disturbances ○ lowered estrogen levels ○ some women also experience urinary incontinence, weakening of pelvic floor muscles, headaches, or weight gain ● What is benign prostatic hypertrophy? ○ An enlargement of the prostate gland ○ Enlarged prostate puts pressure on the urethra and makes it difficult to urinate and frequent urgent need to urinate Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 4 Sex Education ● Describe 4 types of sex education ○ Four types of sex education include abstinence only (1950s movement for getting rid of unwanted teen pregnancy), comprehensive program (60s and 70s), abstinence only until marriage, and now abstinence only but use a condom if you do have sex (best program to prevent teen pregnancy). ● Summarize findings re: effectiveness ○ The first three programs were basically ineffective, the last one has proven to make pregnancy rates go down as it encompasses the sex education component which is important for young people to understand ○ Behaviors of the sexually healthy adult: ○ 1. Human development: appreciating one’s own body, seeking further information about reproduction as needed, affirm that human development includes sexual development, interact with all genders in respectful/appropriate ways, affirm one’s own sexual orientation and respect the sexual orientation of others, affirm one’s own gender identities and respect the gender identities of others. ○ 2. Relationships: express love and intimacy in appropriate ways, develop and maintain meaningful relationships, avoid exploitative/manipulative relationships, make informed choices about family options and relationships, exhibit skills that enhance personal relationships. ○ 3. Personal skills: identify and live according to one’s own values, take responsibility for one’s own behavior, practice effective decision making, develop critical thinking skills, communicate effectively with family/peers/romantic partners. ○ 4. Sexual behavior: enjoy/express one’s sexuality throughout life, express one’s sexuality in congruence with one’s values, enjoy sexual feelings without necessarily acting on them, discriminate between lifeenhancing sexual behaviors and those that are harmful to oneself and/or others, express one’s sexuality while respecting the rights of others, seek new information to enhance one’s sexuality, engage in sexual relationships that are consensual/nonexploitative/honest/pleasurable/protected. ○ 5. Sexual health: practice healthpromoting behaviors such as regular checkups and exams, use contraception effectively to avoid unintended pregnancy, avoid STIs and transmitting them, act consistently with one’s own values in dealing with an unintended pregnancy, seek early prenatal care, help prevent sexual abuse. ○ 6. Society and culture: demonstrate respect for people with different sexual values, exercise democratic responsibility to influence legislation dealing with sexual issues, assess the impact of family/cultural/religious/media/societal messages on one’s thoughts/feelings/values/behaviors related to sexuality, critically examine the world around them for biases on gender/sexual orientation/culture/ethnicity/race, promote the rights of all people to have access to accurate sexuality information, Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 5 avoid behaviors that exhibit prejudice and bigotry, reject stereotypes about the sexuality of different populations, educate others about sexuality. ● List the SIECUS guidelines for sex ed ○ Lifelong process of acquiring information and forming attitudes, beliefs, and values about identity, relationships and intimacy ○ Primary goal of sexuality education is to promote adult sexual health ○ Should assist young people in the developing a positive view of sexuality, provide them with information they need to take care of their sexual health, and help them acquire skills to make decisions now and in the future The Sexual Health Model ● What is sexual health? ○ Practice health promoting behaviors ○ Use contraception effectively ○ Avoiding contracting or transmitting STIs ○ Act consistent with your own values if dealing with an unwanted pregnancy ○ Seek early prenatal care ● What is sexual pluralism? ○ Advocates an acceptance of the rights of others to differ from you in their choices and a belief that there is more than one way to achieve a moral life ● What is the sexual health model? ○ Framework to improve overall sexual wellbeing ● List and describe the 10 components ○ 1. Talking about sex ■ Foundation of the sexual health model is the ability to communicate about sexuality (e.g. sexual values, preferences, attraction, history, and behavior) ■ Goal is to encourage use of sexual language ■ Exercise involve small groups (objective: each individual discusses own sexual journey) ○ 2. Culture and Sexual Identity ■ Culture influences one’s sexuality and one’s self ■ It is important to examine impact: sexual identity, attitudes, behaviors, health ■ All cultural meaning needs to be taken into account since that meaning may drive safe/unsafe sex ■ Kammerer (2001): inform transgenders more about the impact of transphobia and harassment of HIV risk; transexuals who hide thier natal gender during sexual encounter may or may not want to raise safer sex issues which could jeopardize their secret and safety ○ 3. Sexual Anatomy Functioning ■ Sexual health: basic knowledge, understand and accept your sexual anatomy, sexual response and functioning, freedom of sexual dysfunction and other sexual problems ■ Ehrhardt (1992): targeted AA women ● Encouraged physical genitals exploration, increase comfort with genitals, teach the female response cycle, believe knowledge enables women to discuss safer sex ○ 4. Sexual Health Care and Safer Sex ■ It is important to know: one’s body, obtaining regular exams for STDs and cancer, and responding to physical changes with appropriate medical intervention ■ Encourage exploration of the meanings of safe and unsafe sex behaviors Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 6 ● Men who have sex with men testicular exams and medical checkup ● Swallowing semen is considered a means of nourishing maleness among some femaletomale transgenders ○ 5. Challenges ■ Sexual abuse, substance abuse, compulsive sexual behavior, sex work, harassment and discrimination ■ Promote safer sex with using resilience and empowerment ● Bockting and Robinson (2000) ○ Targeted transgenders and men who have sex with men ○ Goal was to help empower these individuals to challenge prejudice and internalized homo and transnegativity ○ 6. Body Image ■ Different idea of beauty in cultures, media, and individuals ■ But unattainable for many ■ Directly related to unsafe sexual practices ■ Selfacceptance is relevant across all culture ■ Ex: gay men are more likely to practice unsafe sex with “attractive” males ■ Transgenders struggle with body image issues including: body dysphoria and deciding on outer appearance ○ 7. Masturbation and Fantasy ■ Frowned upon ■ Associated with sin, illness, immaturity ■ Male stereotypes (males SHOULD masturbate) ■ Female stereotypes (women should NOT masturbate) ■ Positive light: great appreciation, ultimate role in safer sex, decreases the pressure of partner sex, positive views linked to positive communication and sex negotiation, and linked to positive attitudes toward condoms ○ 8. Positive Sexuality ■ Appropriate experimentation, affirming sensuality, attaining sexual competence through ability to get and give pleasure, setting boundaries ■ Explore to know who one’s self is sexually ■ Exploring and celebrating sexuality in a positive and selfaffirming perspective ■ When comfortable, one can know and communicate what pleasures them sexually ■ Set boundaries which leads to safer sex ■ What one knows as safe and responsible ○ 9. Intimacy and Relationships ■ Critical area to address STI prevention ■ Everyone needs intimacy in some form throughout their relationships ■ Affects safer sex decisions ■ Less likely to use condoms with primary partner than in more casual relationship ■ Communication is important ■ Taught dating and relationship skills ■ Improve selfefficacy ○ 10. Spirituality Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 7 ■ Congruence between one’s ethical, spiritual and moral beliefs and one’s sexual behaviors and values ■ Spirituality may or may not include identification with a formal religion ■ Used to address moral and ethical concerns ■ It’s important to be successful while dealing with institutionalized homonegativity from many organized religions ■ Transgender may research the spiritual meanings and roles of a transgender person in various religions and cultures ■ Deeper reflection on values leads to better integration of sexual and spiritual selves ■ Leads to safer selfcare The Sexual Health Model (cont.) ● How does the model apply to HIV prevention? ○ The application of the sexual health model consists of collecting background of the target population and using the 10 components as intervention which leads to sexuality and HIV risk reduction outcomes ● Summarize the preliminary findings ● A higher proportion of men who have sex with men in the intervention group reported consistent condom use at the 12 month follow up period ● Significant reduction in internalized homonegativity in experimental group ● AA women who exhibited unsafe sex before intervention had positive changes in attitudes toward female condoms ● Change in compulsive behaviors and body image in sample men who have sex with men ● What are the strengths and limitations of the model as it applies to HIV prevention? ○ Limitations include the fact that the model posits the importance of a large number of variables, yet their relative importance and interactions with each other are currently unknown ■ Not appropriate for all HIV prevention environments and not all components of the model need to be applied in all situations ■ Doesn’t take into account chemical dependency, sexual dysfunction, and psychological issues ○ Strength of the model include providing a stimulating,m motivational and fun environment, which can in turn motivate people to learn ■ Might motivate people to have open communication about one’s own sexuality Love and Communication ● What is the relationship between love & sexuality? ○ Love is an important determinant of sexual satisfaction ● What are some of the reasons people choose celibacy? ○ Religious reasons, life circumstance, absence of a partner or imprisonment ● List and describe the seven types of love ○ 1. Mania: obsessive and possessive love ○ 2. Ludus: playful love ○ 3. Storge: love between companions – natural affection ○ 4. Eros: love of beauty – passionate and delight in the tactile, sensual, and immediate ○ 5. Agape: chaste, patient, undemanding, altruistic Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 8 ○ 6. Pragma: practical love – businesslike in approach to looking for someone who meets their needs ○ 7. Philia: sibling love ● Describe the triangular theory of love ○ Emphasizes the dynamic quality of love relationships ○ ● What are the components? ○ Components include passion (elements of romance, attraction, and sexuality in the relationship), commitment (shortterm = an individual’s decision that he or she loves someone; longterm = maintenance of love), and intimacy (refers to the warm close bonding feeling we get when we love someone) ● What types of “love” arise? ○ Liking: intimacy only ○ Infatuation: Passion only (love at first sight) ○ Romantic Love: Intimacy and Passion (more intense than liking as a result of physical/emotional attraction) ○ Companionate Love: Intimacy and Commitment (love begins romantically and turns into this) ○ Fatuous Love: Passion and Commitment (whirlwind love – develops really quickly) ○ Consummate Love: Intimacy, Passion, and Commitment (kind of love we dream about) ○ Empty Love: Commitment only (staying together for appearance sake) ○ Nonlove: Absence of all components (might occur because of financial reason, fear, or the fulfillment of neurotic needs) ● Describe the types of attachment ○ Secure attachments: adults who find it relatively easy to get close to other people; don’t worry about being abandoned or having someone get too close to them ○ Anxious/Ambivalent attachments: believe that other people did not get as close as they themselves wanted; feel that it is easy to fall out of love Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 9 ○ Avoidant attachments: feel discomfort when close to other people; not likely to focus on partner’s needs; feared intimacy and experienced emotional highs and lows and jealousy ● How does attachment type impact romantic love? ○ Attachment style developed in infancy combines with sexual desire and caring behaviors to give rise to romantic love ○ However, an individual’s past does not necessarily determine the future course of his or her relationships ● What are the types of communication? ○ Verbal and nonverbal ○ Nonverbal communication makes up the majority of our communication – our moods, proximity, eye contact, and touching convey how we feel ● What are the goals of communication? What are common difficulties? ○ Establish human contact, exchange information, and reinforce or change the attitudes and behaviors of ourselves and others ○ Common difficulties include having trouble articulating our feelings about sex because we rarely have models for talking openly and honestly about sexuality, talking about sexual matters defines us as being interested in sex, we may believe that talking about sex will threaten our relationships ● What are helpful communication strategies? ○ Selfdisclosure – revealing ourselves to others ○ Trust – believe in the reliability and integrity of another person ○ Feedback – constructive response to another’s selfdisclosure Sexual Orientation ● Describe and compare the three models of sexual orientation ○ First model was a dichotomy that simply consisted of heterosexuality and homosexuality ○ Kinsey challenged this model and made a model that resembled a continuum between homosexuality and heterosexuality ○ Storms criticized Kinsey’s model because he thought homo/heteroeroticism we important components of sexual orientation ■ His model has four boxes homosexual, bisexual, asexual and heterosexual ■ An individual who is homosexual is high on the homoeroticism dimension, but low on the heterosexual dimension; a bisexual person would be high on both dimensions, an asexual person would be high on heteroeroticism; an asexual person would be low on both dimensions Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 10 ○ ● Define sexual orientation ○ an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender ● Homoeroticism ○ Feelings of sexual attraction to members of the same sex ● sexual fluidity ○ regardless of one’s sexual orientation, sexual fluidity makes it possible for some women under unique circumstances to experience samesex or othersex desires ○ women are more likely to view their sexuality is flexible and dependent upon the context they are in while men view their sexual orientation as rigid and fixed/innate ● internalized homophobia ○ A set of negative attitudes and affects toward homosexuality in other persons and toward same sex attraction in oneself ● Heterosexism ○ Feelings of sexual attraction to members of the opposite sex ● heterosexual privilege ○ being heterosexual is already approved by society so they do not have the difficult task of establishing their sexual orientation and fighting against prominent cultural taboos Asexuality ● Define asexuality ○ A person who does not experience sexual attraction or desire ● List and define the categories ○ Behavior/desire – lack of sexual acts or lack of desire for sexual acts (usually examines it as either a bodily dysfunction that requires health intervention or a psychological diagnosis and treated through therapeutic means) Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 11 ○ Identity: production of the identity associated with being asexual; identifying with asexuality typically prompts discrimination because of its association of mental and physical health; asexual identity reflects an introspective process and internal experience of coming to the identity to others ● What were the three themes discussed? ○ The meaning of the sexual ■ Definition of asexuality: “a person who does not experience sexual attraction” (AVEN 2007) ○ Essentially asexual ■ Scherrer argues being essentially asexual could be used as a strategy for those who do not want to be completely identified as asexual ■ The idea behind this notion is that people may not feel their asexuality is particularly important but only in certain situations ■ Many participants say asexuality is naturally who they are ■ The “essentialness” of asexual identity was absent before people created the language to describe their true selves ○ Romantic dimension ■ Romantics are those who desire a partnership but delineate this romantic partnership from sexual acts ■ Aromantics are individuals who desire relationships that are friendships and do not feel the need for anything more than emotional support ● How does asexuality differ from celibacy? ○ Celibacy is a choice not to have sex while asexuality is the absence of desiring sex Variations in Sexual Behavior ● Define sexual variation ○ Many of the behaviors that are uncommon to us have been labeled as unnatural, pathological, and perverted ○ Sexulity can be expressed in a variety of ways, more are very common and others are more uncommon ● Paraphilia – definition ○ Paraphillias: APA defines as “any intense and persistent sexual interest other than genital stimulation or preparatory fondling with phenotypically normal, physically mature consenting human partners.” ○ Paraphilias don not need to be treated because they are less harmful ○ On the other hand Paraphilic Disorder does cause stress or harm to the individual or others as it is harmful sexual behaviors ● Types and descriptions of paraphilias ○ Noncoercive paraphilias: regarded as relatively harmless because they are victimless ■ Fetishism: using an inanimate object or focus on nongenital body parts ■ Transvestism: crossdressing in clothing of the other sex ○ Coercive paraphilias: involve victimization and therefore are a source of concern for society because they are harmful to others ■ Exhibitionism: exposing one’s genitals to an unsuspected person ■ Frotteurism: touching or rubbing sexually against a nonconsenting person in public places Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 12 ■ Pedophilia: have a sexual focus on a prepubescent child or children ■ BDSM: bondage, discipline, sadism, masochism ■ Sexual Masochism: being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer ■ Sexual Sadism: inflicting psychological or physical suffering upon another person ■ Voyeurism: observing an unsuspecting person who is naked, disrobing, or having sex ■ Necrophilia: having sexual activity with dead bodies ■ Telephone Scatologia: making sexual and obscene phone calls ■ Zoophilia: having sexual activity with nonhuman animals (beastiality is those who are not interested in the welfare of the animal) ● Causes of paraphilias ○ Combination of biology, sociocultural norms, and life experiences ○ Could be linked to higher levels of testosterone, brain damage, or inheritance ○ Seems to be heavily linked to biology most are male ○ Dysfunctional home environments as well as unhealthy early sexual experiences ● Treatment of paraphilias ○ Many go untreated by some therapies they use to treat paraphilias include: psychodynamic therapy, aversive conditioning, cognitivebehavioral programs, relapse prevention, medical intervention, enhancing social and sexual skills, developing selfmanagement plans, modifying sexual interests, providing sexuality and relationship education Feminist SM: A contradiction in terms… ● Define – ○ Feminism ■ Movement that involves women and men working together for equality ○ BDSM ■ Encompasses various types of play involving pain, power exchange, restriction of movement and punishment ○ sex hierarchy ■ The terms ‘top’ or ‘dom(me)’ is used to refer to people who give the sensation or exert control, and the terms ‘bottom’ or ‘submissive’ are used to refer to the people who receive sensation or give up control ■ Feminists argue that this isn’t necessarily reinforcing gender stereotypes because sometimes it is two women and couples will often switch roles from being the submissive and being the dominant ○ 24/7 relationship ■ This is where a woman submitted to a male top or dom all of the time women are consensual in this situation ○ Autoethnography ■ Part of the agenda in SM is to tell their own sexual stories they would inevitable be telling the stories of their lovers, play partners, and friends it seems more honest to allow those women into the story construction, and invite their lovers in telling their own stories too Feminist SM: A contradiction in terms… ● List 3 misconceptions about BDSM ○ 1. Men are always dominant/tops and women are always submissive/bottoms ○ 2. Female submissives don’t have any power Psychology 457: Exam 2 Review Page 13 ○ 3. SM reproduces negative gender stereotypes ● Who holds the power in BDSM relationships? Why? ○ The submissive holds the power in BDSM relationships because that person is relinquishing their body and trusting the other person – “giving in” and allowing it to happen
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'