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WKU / Psychology / PSY 100 / What is the meaning of long term memory?

What is the meaning of long term memory?

What is the meaning of long term memory?

Description

School: Western Kentucky University
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Mark graves
Term: Spring 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Chapter 6 notes
Description: notes from Chapter 6
Uploaded: 03/18/2016
4 Pages 38 Views 1 Unlocks
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Memory


What is the meaning of long term memory?



• The system that allows us to retain information and bring it to mind

• Information processing system: there are 3 basic processes that make memory possible o Encoding: converting information into a form usable in memory

o Storage: retaining information in memory

o Retrieval: bringing to mind information stored in memory

• Memory retrieval: the process of accessing and bringing into consciousness information  stored in memory

• Retrieval cues: stimuli that help gain access to memories If you want to learn more check out What type of landform occurs when underground limestone is dissolved by acidic groundwater?
If you want to learn more check out What did the comstock act of 1873 accomplish?

• Context clues: types of retrieval cues that can aid our retrieval of memories • Tip of the tongue phenomenon: the inability to retrieve information that feels as if it’s  just out of your reach


What are the memory stages?



Memory stages

• Sensory memory ⇒ short term memory ⇒ long term memory

• Sensory memory: the storage system that holds memory of sensory impressions for a  very short time (3-4 seconds tops)

o Iconic memory: a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a visual  image for a fraction of a second

o Eidetic imagery: a lingering mental representation of a visual image

o Echoic memory: a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a sound  for a few seconds after it registers in the ears

• Short term memory: the memory subsystem that allows for retention and processing of  newly acquired information for a maximum of about 30 seconds (also called working  memory)


What is the meaning of short-term memory?



o Chunking: the process of enhancing retention of a large amount of information  by breaking it down into smaller, more easily recalled chunks If you want to learn more check out Why did pluto kidnap proserpina?

o The magic 7: you can hold up to 7 bits of information in short term memory at a  time

o Maintenance rehearsal: the process of extending retention of information held  in short term memory by consciously repeating the information

• Long term memory: the memory subsystem responsible for long term storage of  material

o Consolidation: the process of converting short term memories into long term  memories We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of variation in psychology?

o Elaborative rehearsal: the process of transferring information from short term to  long term memory by consciously focusing on the meaning of the information

• Semantic networks: a representation of the organizational structure of long term  memory in terms of a network of associated concepts

• Types of long term memory We also discuss several other topics like How does the supreme court interpret the law?

o Declarative memory: factual information

▪ Type: semantic memory (memory for facts), episodic memory (personal  experiences)

▪ Time frame: retrospective (memory of past experiences and acquired  information), prospective (memory of future actions)

o Procedural memory: actions, perceptual motor skills, conditioned responses,  emotional memories (ex: riding a bike) Don't forget about the age old question of What are the main beliefs of atheism?

• Flashbulb memories: enduring memories of emotionally charged events that seem  permanently burned into the brain

Forgetting

• Decay theory: the belief that memories gradually fade and deteriorate over time • Massed vs spaced practice effect: the tendency for retention of learned material to be  greater with spaced practice vs massed practice

• Forgetting curve

• Interference theory: the belief that forgetting is the result of the interference of  memories

o Retroactive interference: new information impairs previously learned  information

o Proactive interference: when old information interferes with new information o Serial position effect: the tendency to recall first and last items in a list better  than items in the middle

▪ Primacy effect: the tendency to recall items better when they are learned  first

▪ Recency effect: the tendency to recall items better when they are learned  last

• Retrieval theory: forgetting is the result of a failure to access stored memories o How can the retrieval process break down?  

▪ Encoding failure: memories are never stored due to a lack of encoding • Ineffective encoding: memories are never stored due to lack of  

attention

▪ Lack of retrieval cues

▪ Tip of the tongue phenomenon

• Repression: a type of defense mechanism involving motivated forgetting of anxiety  evoking material

• Ways to measure forgetting:

o Measures of retention

▪ Recall measure: requires a person to reproduce information on their own  without any cues

• Free recall

• Serial recall

• Paired associated recall

▪ Recognition measure: requires a person to identify information  

previously learned

• Amnesia: loss of memory

o Retrograde amnesia: early memory loss

o Anterograde amnesia: later memory loss

Anatomy of Memory

• Hippocampus: essential to the formation of new memories of facts, general  information, and life experiences

• Thalamus damage can result in amnesia

• Amygdala: involved in encoding emotional information

• Long term potentiation: the long term strengthening of the neural connections as the  result of repeated stimulation

o Scientists suspect that LTP may be needed for long term memory

Powering up Memory

• Using mnemonics

o Acronyms

o Acrostics

o Popular sayings and rhymes

o Visual cues and imagery  

o Chunking

• Suggestions for improving memory

o Pay attention

o Practice to overlearn

o Use external memory aids

o Link time based tasks to external cues

o Don’t memorize, just google it

o Control stress

o Adopt healthy habits

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