Study Guide Quiz 1
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Angela Cameron on Tuesday September 30, 2014. The Study Guide belongs to CEM 301 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 220 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/14
Cameron 1 CEM 301 Test 1 Study Guide 0 Four or five Main Methods of Knowing o Method of Tenacity or Tradition I Something is true because it has always been that way I This knowledge is part of your heritage o Method of Intuition I Something is true because it seems logical to you I Useful for executives who have to make creative decisions o Method of Authority I Something is true because a trusted source told you so o Method of Science I Something is true because you have observed it directly objectively systematically and empirically o Method of Sef Discovery I A private scientific conclusion I Hybrid between science and personal discovery 0 Epistemology o Study of knowledge 0 Characteristics of Scientific Inquiry o Scientific Inquiry I Public 0 Can be reviewed by a board 0 Other people can build on it I Objective 0 Objective o Independent of the mind o Has no feelings 0 Subjective o Coming from the mind I Empirical 0 Testable 0 Measurable 0 Operational definitions I Cumulative and systematic 0 Series of small steps or building blocks I Predictive 0 Relates present to future I Sef Correcting I Follows Certain Order 0 Induc ve o From the particular to the general 0 Deductive o From the general to the particular Research o Academic I Theoretical I Public I Has No Deadlines I Less Expensive o Private I Applied I Proprietary I Has Deadlines I Expensive Primary Analysis o Study that collects original data Secondary Analysis o Study that relies on data already collected 0 Example I Study that uses the Census for reference Conceptualization o Conceptual definition I To specify and define the concepts in your study I Dictionary Definition I Compared to operationalization 0 Make fuzzy concepts clearer Hypotheses or Research Questions o Hypothesis I Formal predictive statement I Concerns the relationship between two or more variables I Example 0 Children who watch violent TV exhibit aggressive behavior o Research question I A question about something I Example Cameron 2 0 Do children who watch violent TV exhibit more aggressive behavior Concept o A term that expresses an idea o Construct I A concept that has three characteristics 0 Combination of concepts 0 Cannot be observed directly 0 Designed with a particular research purpose defined in its context 0 Example I quotDo males experience more communication apprehension than females I Construct Cameron 3 0 Communication Apprehension Variables Connect abstract quotconstructs to empirical evidence Independent variable I Predictor I Represents the presumed quotcause of a dependent variable and determines its changeoutcome I ManipulatedChanged by the researcher Dependent Variable I Represents the presumed quoteffect of the independent variable I Variable that the researcher tries to explain I Researcher cannot manipulatechange Discrete Variable I Includes a finite set of values that cannot be broken down into fractions I Black and White I Example 0 Gender Continuous variable I Values can be broken down into fractions I Can be represented with a continuous line I Example 0 Age Variables need to be defined in order to be measured I Operational definition 0 Specifies the procedures to be followed in order to experience or measure a variable o Measured operational definition o Experimental operational definition Four Ways to Measure Variables Nominal I Attributes of the variable are merely qualitative or descriptive labels I Example 0 Gender Ordinal I Attributes of the variable are rankordered I Do not have equal intervals I Example 0 Important Not Very Important Very Important etc Interval I Attributes of the variable are rankordered and have equal intervals I No zero point I Example 0 IQ Ratio 0 Validity O 0 Cameron 4 I Attributes of the variable are rankordered and have equal intervals I Have a true zero point I Will always be continuous I Example 0 Salary Internal validity I Does the study measure what it is supposed to measure I Gets rid of extraneous variables 0 Important for lab experiments External validity I Can the results of the study be generalized to the population at large 0 Important for surveys 0 Advantages of Survey 0 O O O 0 Investigation of social and political issues Reasonable cost Collection of large amounts of data No geographic constraints Generalization 0 Disadvantages of Survey 0 O O O Difficult to demonstrate causality I Difficulty to manipulate variables and eliminate confounding extraneous variables that offer rival hypotheses because of little control 0 Internal validity could be compromised Problems with questionnaire design Lack of control Increasingly difficult to conduct 0 Basics of questionnaire design 0 OOOOO Type of survey research influences the specifics of questionnaire design Construct questionnaire to answer specific hypotheses or research questions Questions must be clear and concise Response categories must be exhaustive and mutually exclusive Avoid Acronyms Avoid doube barreed questions I Inclusion of two or more questions in the same sentence I Example 0 Do you like chocolate or vanilla ice cream Yes or No Avoid leading questions List your response choices vertically I Unless too many options Assign numerals to your response choices I Example 0 1 yes 0 2 no Cameron 5 Methods of gathering survey data o Mall interviews I Popular in the 1980s and 1990s o Telephone o CAPI I Computer Assisted Personal Interview o Group administration I Similar to focus groups o Internet surveys Conceptual example o Assume that you conduct a telephone poll with 1000 randomly selected registered voters in Florida to determine Governor Rick Scott39s reelection prospects in 2014 Of these surveyed voters 40 reported that they would vote for Scott in the 2014 gubernatorial election The sampling error is i 3 95 confidence level If you compute the confidence interval of this poll will Scott have an easy time at reelection o What is the confidence interval o Answer I You are 95 confident that the results of the election fall between 37 and 43 Therefore Governor Scott39s chances are slim Probabilistic Sampling o Random o Mathematical o Gives a known and equal chance to all population members to be included in the sample Nonprobabilistic Sampling o Nonrandom o Has no external validity Factorial designs o Have more than one independent variable o Each independent variable is called a factor I Each factor has two or more levels 0 Categories o A 2 x 3 factorial design has two factors I First factor has two levels I Second factor has three levels I Slides 3133
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