BIOS 101 Exam 2 Study Guide
BIOS 101 Exam 2 Study Guide BIOS 101
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kruti Merchant on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOS 101 at University of Illinois at Chicago taught by Dr. Brown in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Population and communities in Biology at University of Illinois at Chicago.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
GENETICS Individuals can not evolve, only populations can. Modes of Evolution: 1 Genetic Drift 2 Gene Flow 3 Mutation 4 Natural Selection Natural Selection (NS): Conditions of NS: 1 Variation 2 Heritability 3 Differential reproductive success Fitness rate: expected per capita growth rate: (1/N)(dN/dt) Heritable Variation: Factor affecting whether natural selection can occur. Genes/traits being passed down to offspring. Hereditary Units: Pangenes: units of hereditary thought to circulate through blood. Genes: Fundamental unit of hereditary (made after Mendel's laws) Effect of gene depends on the gene and environment. Codon is three nucleic acid (purines and pyrimidines). Code for proteins. Example) HPV: Evolution of virus. Low-grade STD. Not terminally lethal. Side effect is that it induces cancer (CERVICAL). The creature: genetically simple, evolved late, it needs virus to be viable, uses mechanism. HPV has a coat with 2 different proteins and the coat encapsulates 6 genes. Viral coat hits the body and then sticks, one of the protein opens a whole and enters. Insert itself into our genome. This allows the formation of the proteins they need and last codons trigger packaging. HPV can cause cancer as an unintended consequence, it opens the door for mutations that cause cancer. Nucleotide substitutions in codons can either code for the same protein or a different protein. Example) GAG to GTG causes sickle cell anemia as it codes for abnormal hemoglobin. Prokaryotes: Small and simple organism. One loop of DNA No sexual reproduction, may exchange genes via swapping plasmids. 1200 genes in typical bacteria Eukaryotes: Linear DNA strand (aka chromosome) Packed in nucleus Some genes actives, others "turned off" Histones: proteins that package and order DNA into a "nucleosome" Undergo mitosis (gives rise to two genetically identical copies, not produce gametes) ****Mutations are the primary source of heritable variation Sexual Reproduction: form an individual with equal contributions of two separate parents. Meiosis: One diploid cell gives rise to 4 genetically different haploid cells. Same gene but different sets of alleles Assortment: segregation at two or many loci Recombination: Chromosomes crossing over Linkage: Genes on one chromosome passed as units, broken up by recombination. Types of Variation: 1 Attributes: qualitative 2 Quantitative 3 Discontinuous measurable variables: discrete intervals-ex)shoe size 4 Continuous measurable variables: exist along a continuum -ex) hieght
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