Exam I Study Guide
Exam I Study Guide BIOL 1345 - 001
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bridgette Isaac on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1345 - 001 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Gretchen Lee Gann in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 752 views. For similar materials see BIOLOGY I FOR NURSING STUDENTS in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
mm I Studv Guide Chapters 13 CHAPTER 1 The Study of Life 0 Science a collection of facts and a process for understanding the world 1 Observation description experimentation explanation 0 Scientific Method powerful approach to understand world 1 QuestionObservation 2 HypothesisPrediction 3 Experiments I Accurate amp valid or I Revised or alternative explanations 0 Inductive Reasoning uses related observations and logic to arrive at a general conclusion 1 T i2 If you re still having trouble remembering the dijference between inductive and deductive reasoning remember this method I came up with Ball either one of your hands into a fist Hold your fist to the center of your chest Remember that this is IN for Inductive 39 in is specific Now move your fist out and away from your body while opening your hand Think of all the specific ideas that were balled in your fist being released into the open air in turn leading to a general conclusion As long as you can remember this you ll remember deductive reasoning as the reverse using a general conclusion to find the specific 0 Deductive Reasoning uses a general principlelaw and logic to arrive at a specific result 0 SCIENTIFIC METHOD important detz 1Make Observations look for patterns 2 Formulate a Hypothesis proposed explanation Mutually exclusive Must generate testable falsifiable predictions meaning it has the ability to be proven wrong The Null Hypothesis 0 A NEGATIVE that proposes no relationship between two variables 0 Equally valid Easier to disprove Impossible to prove a hypothesis absolutely without a doubt true 3Devise a Testable Prediction certain conditions make certain observations 4 Conduct a Critical Experiment 5 Draw Conclusions Make Revisions trial and error Elements Common to Most Experiments 0 Treatment 39Condition applied to subjects 0 Experimental Group 39Group given the treatmentcondition 0 Control Group 39Group that does not get the treatment or gets the placebo 0 Variables 39Characteristics subject to change The Placebo Effect 0 Phenomenon in which people respond favorably to any treatment Welldesigned Experiment Attributes 0 Blinddoubleblind to prevent biases which can in uence data collection and results 0 Randomized 0 Must be repeatable Variables 0 Independent explanatory variable measurable value that can be changed as required 0 Dependent response variable value cannot be controlled outcome depends on the independent variable Theories 0 Repeatedly tested 0 Broader in scope 0 Explain phenomena 0 Are not guesses or speculation strongly supported by empirical evidence and generally accepted by the scienti c community Pseudoscience scientificsounding claims that are not backed by scientific fact 0 Ex Humans only use 10 of their brains 39This is false folks We use 100 of our brains There is no untapped potential or extra gray matter Anecdotal Observations based on very few observations or stories Limit of Science 0 No insight on nonquantifiable subjective info only applied to natural world Characteristics of Living Things 0 Order 0 Regulation and homeostasis Energy processing Growth and development Reproduction Response to stimuli Evolution adaptations Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Populations Organisms Organs 0 IO 390 390 IO and Organ Systems Tissues Cells Organelles Molecules Atom Evolution is the process of change in genetic composition that allows life on Earth to adapt to its surroundings from generation to generation in a population 0 Supported by scientific evidence 0 Descent with modification Darwinism Forces of Evolutionary Change 0 Natural selection 0 Mutation 0 Migration 0 Random genetic drift Phylogeny all organisms share certain features that suggest one ancestor 35 billion yrs Three Domains 511 0 Bacteria o Eukarya o Archaea UESTIONS Is this inductive or deductive reasoning a All humans have blood I am a human therefore I have blood b Every time you eat pistachios your skin starts to itch Therefore you are allergic to pistachios c The Smith parents three children both have green eyes Therefore the next baby will also have green eyes What is the explanatory variable What are the seven characteristics of living organisms Which level of organization of life has organisms of ONLY the same species In evolution are all organisms equally successful in reproduction 6 Which of the three domains has both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells CHAPTER 2 Life and Chemistry CHEMISTRY amp ATOMS 0 Elements are composed of individual atoms 0 Cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions 0 Atoms 0 Atomic Number the of protons in its nucleus 0 Mass Number protons neutrons 0 Atomic Mass atom s total mass amudaltons 0 Isotopes O Atoms With the same of protons but different amount of neutrons 0 Radioactive 0 Unstable atoms that break down spontaneously IFast small highenergy particles released 0 Electron Shell 0 An electron s state of potential energy correlates With its average distance from the nucleus and is called its energy level 0 Valence ShellValence Electron 0 Electrons in the outermost shell Bohr model 0 An electron orbital is the 3D space Where an electron usually 90 of the time is I Chemically reactive outermost energy level not filled 0 Chemically inert full outermost shell 0 Compounds are substances consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio 0 Compounds have different properties from its individual elements 0 Chemical Bonds 1 Covalent Bonds I Atoms share a pair of valence electrons 0 0 Carbon Oxygen Nitrogen Sulfur I A molecule consists of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds and has a distinct structure I PolarNonpolar 39339 Depends on electronegativitv 393 Measure attraction bW shared electrons 2 Ionic Bonds I Atoms gain or lose valence electrons completely m charged atoms or molecules I Cation I Anion I Compounds are called Ionic Compounds or salts 3 Hydrogen Bonds I Occur when there s unequal electron sharing in two different covalent bonds 393 Occur between two polar molecules I Individual H bonds are WEAK I Collectively strong and critical for shape of biological molecules 393 Stabilize protein molecules into helical shape 4 Van der Waals Forces I Weak forces over short distances I Temporary or zones make the molecules polar I Collectively stabilize molecules 0 Chemical reactions 0 Making and breaking of chemical bonds 0 Are reversible I EX cellular respiration 0 Chemical equilibrium 0 Forward and reverse reactions occur at the same rate I Amount of reactants and products do not change UESTIONS 1How is the atomic number of an element found a What is the atomic number of oxygen bF or carbon c What about hydrogen 2 How many electrons can t in each electron shell 3 Which of the chemical bonds is the strongest a Rank the chemical bonds from strongest to weakest How is chemical equilibrium achieved 5 What s the difference between atomic mass and mass number I WATER 0 Water is the molecule that supports all life 0 Emergent Pronertjes of Wm 1 Cohesion I Attraction between same type of molecules I Ex Two water molecules 2 Ability to moderate temp I Water absorbs heat from warmer air and releases stored heat to cooler air I Water can absorb or release a large amount of heat With only a slight change in its own temp 3 Expansion upon freezing spreading of hydrogen lattices I Water reaches its greatest density at 4 C 0 Ice is less dense than water Why it oats 0 Hydrogen bonds are more ordered as ice 4 Universal solvent I Solution a liquid that s a completely homogenous mixture of substances I Solvent the dissolving agent of a solution I Solute the substance that is dissolved I Aqueous solution one in Which water is the solvent I Versatility as a solvent due to polarity I Hydration shell When each ion in a dissolved ionic compound is surrounded by a sphere of water molecules I Can dissolve nonionic polar molecules proteins included Adhesion attraction between different substances 0 Ex water and a leaf Surface tension a measure of how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid 0 Water has high surface tension due to hydrogen bonding 0 Temperature amp Heat 0 Kinetic energy energy of motion I Associated W random motion of atomsmolecules gt thermal energv 0 M I total kinetic energy I heat is absorbed when hydrogen bonds break I heat is released when hydrogen bonds form 0 Temperature I Average kinetic energy of the molecules Hydroghilic loves water polar Hydrophobic repels water nonpolar 0 Associated With oils phospholipids main ingredient in cell membranes 0 pH scale 0 the amount of H in a solution I more H acids I more OH bases 0 0 acids gt 7 neutral gt 14 bases 0 Each Whole represents a value 10X greater or less than the next I Ex pH 8 has 1000 L88 H than pH 5 Bases High OH negative Slippery and bitter I EX baking soda milk of magnesia antacids seltzer Proton acceptor High H positive Sour in taste I EX stomach acids soda lemons Proton donor Homeostatic Svstems control internal acidity Buffers absorb excess H to prevent too much acidity or release H to even out increases of OH O O PPPL Acidbase pair that reversibly combines w H Region of greatest bu ering capacity a little above i to a little above Z UESTIONS Is an acid or a base a proton donor What are water s four emergent properties What is the sphere of water molecules around an ion called What substances are typically hydrophobic Which gives off more energy a Water s temperature being raised 1 O or water evaporating b Water freezing or ice melting Do small changes in pH matter Why or why not What is the function of a buffer Why is water considered the universal solvent What happens to the hydrogen lattices when water freezes Why does water have a high surface tension You get out of a swimming pool and your skin instantly feels cool Why Can water dissolve large polar molecules such as protein Is H highly reactive Any substance that reduces H concentration in a solution is an 15 What does the pH scale measure 16 How many more H are in a solution with a pH of 4 compared to a solution with a pH of 9 w 0 Tetravalence carbon can form four covalent bonds With a variety of atoms 0 Electron configuration atom s characteristics 0 Hydrogen valence 1 0 Oxygen v 2 O Nitrogen v 3 0 Carbon v 4 0 Tetrahedral carbon bonded to four other atoms 0 FLAT SHAPE When doublebonded 0 Carbon chains form the skeletons of most organic molecules 0 Due to its nature of bonding easily 0 Hydrocarbon only hydrogen and carbon bonds in organic molecule 0 EX fats have hydrocarbon components 0 Can have reactions that release a large amount of energy 0 Isomers molecules W same chemical formula but different molecular structure 0 Structural bonded in different orders 0 Cistrans geometric 0 Cis elements on same side of molecule 0 m elements are on opposite sides across from each other 0 Enantiomers mirror image molecules C ARE NOT THE SAME MOLECULE DO NOT PERFORM THE SAME FUNCTIONS 0 Functional Groups components of organic molecules involved in chemical reactions 0 Changes in functional groups can change molecules properties 0 Chemical Groups NEED TO MEMORIZE 0 Hydroxyl OH 0 Polar due to electronegative oxygen 0 Forms hydrogen compounds W water 0 Compound name Alcohol 0 Carbonyl CO 0 Sugars W ketones ketoses 0 Sugars W aldehydes aldoses 0 Compound name Ketone or Aldehyde 0 Carboxyl COOH 0 Acts as an acid 0 Compound name carboxylic acid or organic acid 0 Amino NH2 0 Acts as a base 0 Compound name Amine 0 Sulfhydryl SH or HS depends on structure S is always facing in 0 Two SH groups can react forming a crosslink that helps stabilize protein structure 0 Compound name Thiol 0 Phosphate OPO3quot2 0 Negative charge 0 Can link organic building blocks 0 Reactions conserve or release energy 0 Controls activity of many proteins 0 Compound name Organic Phosphate 0 An important organic phosphate is adenosine triphosphgte ATP 0 ATP adenosine string of three phosphate groups 0 Stores potential to react With water gt release energy 0 Methyl CH3 0 Affects expression of genes 0 Affects shape and function of sex hormones 0 EX Estradiol Estrogen and Testosterone 0 Nonpolar 0 Compound name Methylated Compound UESTIONS Why does carbon bond so easily with other atoms What type of carbon bond makes a at shape What helps give an atom its characteristics Which isomer is associated with mirrorimage molecules a Are these the same molecule bAre the functions the same i Why or why not 5 What are the seven chemical groups discussed earlier 3 Which one acts like a base bWhich one acts like an acid Which group includes ATP Which group is not polarpolarcharged Which groups forms hydrogen bonds with water Which group s compound name is Thiol l39 l l39 l I l I lquot gWhich group s compound names include Ketone or Aldehyde 6 What is the function of ATP 7 What is a functional group a Why are they important b Changes in a functional group affect CHAPTER 3 Big Carbon Molecules 0 All living things are made of these large bio molecules 0 Carbohydrates 39 Sugars and polymers of sugars I 1 Carbon 2 Hydrogen 1 Oxygen I Primary fuel for organisms 39 Cell structure 0 Lipids not a true polymer 0 Proteins 0 Nucleic Acids 0 Macromolecules large molecules W 1000s of covalentlybonded atoms 0 Polymer O Polysaccharide carb 0 Protein polypeptide 0 Nucleic acid DNARNA Nucleotide 0 Monomer O Monosaccharide carb 0 Amino acid 0 The Synthesis of Polymers gt dehydration reaction O Removing H20 to combine polymers 0 Hydrolysis 0 Breaking down a polymer by adding H20 Enzymes specialized macromolecule that speeds up chemical reactions Haworth Projection ring formed by sugars in aqueous solutions Glucose Ring Formation O Otglucose gt OH goes down 0 Bglucose gt OH goes up Monosaccharide single sugars Disaccharide two monosaccharides O Glycosidic linkage covalent bond 0 EX sucrose glucose fructose lactose glucose galactose Lactase a part of the Bgalactosidase family on enzymes 0 Essential for digestive hydrolysis of lactose Polvsaccharides the polymers of sugars have storage and structural roles 0 Glucose 0 Most carbs become glucose 0 Blood sugar M 0 Glycogen animal starch O 100s of glucose molecules combined Chitin amp cellulose are indigestible carbohydrates O AKA Fiber gt aids in digestion 0 Lipids nonpolar molecules that do not dissolve in water 0 Greasy 0 Significant source of energy storage 0 E I Longterm energy storage and insulation 0 Sterols I Regulate growth and development I Tip Sterols sounds like steroids Steroids bu people up gt growth 0 Phospholipids I Form the cell membrane 0 LIPIDS DO NOT HAVE TRUE POLYMERS 0 Mix poorly with water 0 Most biologically important I Fats phospholipids steroids and waxes 0 Fats amp Oils 0 Glycerol I head region 0 Fatty acid I tail region I Usually between 14 to 22 carbons 0 The longer a chain the more oily O Ester linkage bond between H and O 0 Saturated fat solid 0 Unsaturated fat liquid 0 Transfat unhealthy due to hydrogenation I Liquid gt solid adding H to cisunsaturated fats 0 Energy is stored in the adipose cellstissue I Adipose cushions organs and insulates 0 Phosnholipids 0 Make up cell membrane 0 Form bilayer in water I Hydrophilic head points toward interior 0 Steroids O 4 fused carbon rings 0 Cholesterol I Component of animal cell membranes I Origin of other synthesized steroids I Mostly produced in our liver 0 Steroid Hormones 0 Help w growth and development I Estrogen and testosterones Waxes Lipid made of long fattyacid chains gt longchain alcohols I Contraction ex muscle movement I Transport ex in membranes and blood I Enzymes made up of amino acids like other proteins I Twenty different R groups twenty different amino acids I R groups come in different shapes and sizes gt different functions I Determined by inherited gene information I Interactions among side groups R groups 0 Strongest bond disulfide bridge I Some proteins consist of 2 or more polypeptides I Collagen fibrous protein 3 identical helical gt helix 0 40 of our body s protein 0 Hemoglobin oxygen binding protein in blood cells I m subunit w nonpolypeptide subunits 0 ON ANY LEVEL OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE A TINY CHANGE WILL CHANGE THE FUNCTION COMPLETELY 0 Protein 0 Functions I Structure ex hair nails skin I Storage ex egg whites I Immunity ex antibodies I Hormones some not all 0 Essential to growth repair and replacement 0 More than 1 polypeptides folded into 3D shape 0 Amino Acids 0 Amino group Carboxyl group 0 Properties depend on R group 0 Linked by dehydration synthesis I Linked by peptide bonds 0 Four Levels of Protein Structure 0 Primary I Linear chain of amino acids 0 Secondary I H bonds w the backbone 0 Coils helix 0 Folds pleated sheet 0 Tertiary I Overall 3D shapeconformation O Quaternary 0 Protein Conformation Depends on physicalchemical environment pH Salt concentration Temperature Chaperonins protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins PROTEIN SHAPE DETERMINES FUNCTION 0 Destroyed shape destroyed function I Can cause disease ex Leukemia Dementia I Caused by change in DNA sequence mutations I Can also be caused by denaturation 0000 0 Too much heat salt andor wrong pH ruins Hbonds Sickle Cell Disease results from change in 1 structure Nucleic Acids store info on how to build and run a body 0 Store and transmit hereditary info DNA I Directions to replicate itself I Directs synthesis of RNA Ribonucleic Acid 0 DNA gt RNA gt protein 0 Gene expression 0 Polymers called nucleotides I Nucleoside nitrogenous base and sugar pentose ONLY Nitrogenous Big O Pvrimidines I Cytosine Thymine Uracil U in RNA I One hexagon O Purines I Adenosine Guanine 0 Two hexagons Building a nucleic acid 0 Nucleotides are linked by dehydration synthesis I Forms covalent phosphodiester bonds Information Storage 0 Instructions in DNA determined by base sequence I Base sequence is unique for each gene gt unique protein 0 A G C T RNA is a universal translator O Reads DNA 0 Directs protein production RNA vs DNA 0 The sugar molecule of the sugarphosphate backbone 0 Singlestranded O Uracil U replaces Thymine T 9W9quot 15 16 17 18 O 99 0 Genomics analyzing large sets pf genes or comparison of whole genomes of different species 0 Proteomics analysis of large sets of proteins including their sequences UESTIONS What are the four macromolecules discussed in this chapter a What is the function of each one b Which one does not have true polymers Is an amino acid a polymer or monomer How are polymers synthesized What is hydrolysis and where does the water go in regards to the cell What is the function of an enzyme What are the elements in a carbohydrate a How many atoms of each When does the OH concentration go down in a glucose Ring Formation What kind of link is made in disaccharides Which lipids regulate growth and development On what level will a change in protein structure affect the function of a cell What is a chaperonin What determines the function of a protein What happens during gene expression Name the nitrogenous bases 3 Which ones are pyrimidines b Which ones are purines i What shape do these take on What determines the information in a molecule of DNA How are nucleotides linked TrueFalse RNA is triplestranded What is the difference between genomics and proteomics In what direction does electronegativity increase on the periodic table of elements 0 Not in these notes Good luck on the exam I
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