Exam 1 Study Guide/Answers
Exam 1 Study Guide/Answers MAST200010
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashley Thompson on Monday September 28, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MAST200010 at University of Delaware taught by Thoroughgood,C A in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see The Oceans in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/28/15
MAST 200 The Oceans Exam 1 Study Guide Fall 2015 Guidelines Review the bulleted points below and understand the concepts stated from Lectures Textbook and other Readings Lecture 1 Introduction and History Description and definition of OCEANOGRAPHY 0 An interdisciplinary science 0 How we understand the ocean by scientific study using physics chemistry geology biology and mathematics as well as engineering and marine policy The three major stages in oceanic research 0 Exploration of ocean boundaries 0 Descriptive studies of ocean processes 0 Integrative studies of ocean dynamics The important people in early exploration and oceanography and what their major contribution was ie Magellan Boyle Newton Cook Franklin Forbes Maury Darwin Thompson 0 Famous Scientist Famous Science Ocean Science 0 Robert Boyle Gas Laws Salinity temperature and depth 0 Isaac Newton Laws of Motion Tidal Forces 0 Ben Franklin Electricity and Lightening Gulf Stream 0 Charles Darwin Organic Evolution coral Atolis 0 Famous Oceanographer Famous Oceanography Dates o Magellan 0 Captain James Cook Currents tides water temperature for all ocean basin3917681779 0 Forbes 0 Matthew F Maury lmportant book Physical Oceanography of the Sea91855 0 Charles Wyville Thompson amp Sir John Murray HMS Challenger Expedition918721876 0 Alfred Mertz Survey Vessel Meteor Expedition919251927 Why is the scientific method important in scientific research 0 Natural phenomena are governed by physical processes 0 Physical processes chemistry physics operate the same today is in the past 0 Scientists observe these processes and 0 Make predictions that can be tested through experiment or further observation 0 Asks questions about the natural world o Conducts laboratory field or modeling experiments to generate data 0 Formulates hypothesis to explain data 0 Tests hypothesis Lecture 2 The Earth and Oceans What is the hydrosphere Where does most of the water reside Know the basic cross section of the earth and the oreo cookie model Understand the key characteristics of oceanic vs continental crust The importance of seismology in understanding Earth s structure What is bathymetry What is the average depth of the ocean What is the deepest spot in the ocean Be familiar with the typical ocean profiles and associated terminology coastal region continental shelf break slope rise abyssal plain seamounts guyots submarine canyons midocean ridges etc Be ready to recognize all the above features on a diagram Lecture 3 The Sea Floor What are the different coastal regions ie beaches estuariesbays salt marshes mangrove swamps deltas o Beaches aggregations of unconsolidated sediment usually sand 0 Estuaries partially enclosed bodies of water where freshwater is mixed with saltwater o Lagoons shallow bodies of water separated from open water by barrier island Marshes vegetated intertidal flats o Deltas sediment deposits typically triangularly shaped that form at mouth of river 0 Formation of continental shelves 0 Width varies over geological time with rise and fall of sea level Know what comprises the continental margin vs the ocean basin Continental Margin submerged edges of the continents 0 Massive wedges of sediment eroded from the land and deposited along the continental edge 0 Continental Shelf 0 Continental Slope 0 Continental Rise 0 Ocean Basin majority of bottom area 0 Abyssal plains o Abyssal hills 0 Seamounts and Guyots Formation of submarine canyons o V shaped valleys that run across continental shelves and down continental slopes Know the characteristics of the ocean basin 0 Abyssal Plains extremely flat regions beyond the base of the continental rise 0 Abyssal Hills 0 Seamounts conical undersea mountains that rise 2 1000m above the seafloor o Guyots flat topped seamounts apparently cut by wave action and commonly capped with coral reefs Know the characteristics of ocean ridges Hint what are the three major ocean ndges 0 Seismic hot spots 0 High volcanic activity 0 High heat flow 0 Many earthquakes O Ocean trenches what is their distribution Why are they associated with island arcs 0 Distribution narrow deep trough parallel to the edge ofa continent or an island arc o Deepest parts of the oceans Know the typical ocean basin profile also difference between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean profiles Lectures 4 and 5 Plate Tectonics and II Be familiar with the evidence for continental drift and seafloor spreading Who developed these theories 0 Evidence of Seafloor spreading o Rift valleys o Transform faults o MidOcean ridges 0 Continental mountain ranges o Wegener s believed at one time all the continents were together and they have separated over time like I Jigsaw 0 Lack of evidence 0 Later found it to be true but after he has already died 0 1666 Francios Placet coastlines match 0 1858 Antonio SniderPellegrini fossils match Be familiar with plate tectonics and plate boundaries Know the difference between convergent divergent and transform boundaries What does the global distribution of seismic events earthquakes and volcanoes tell us 0 Convergent o Collision of two plate boundaries 0 One plate under the other subduction 0 Crystal material in subducting plate is destroyed melted and becomes part of asthenosphere o Oceanic plate v Oceanic plate Oceanic plate subducted and destroyed Trenches formed 0 Oceanic plate v Continental plate Oceanic subducted and destroyed Continental crust is uplifted 0 Continental plate v Continental plate Uplifting and mountain formation 0 Divergent o Upwarping of lithosphere and continental crust o Upwelling of magma from asthenosphere and formation of new oceanic crust in rift valley 0 Formation of more oceanic crust and linear sea Red Sea is a geologically new spreading zone 0 Formation of midocean ridge and extensive new oceanic crust o Transform 0 Different movement of two adjacent plate boundaries 0 Crust and lithosphere are neither created nor destroyed o Crust is conserved EX San Andreas Fault Understand spreading vs subduction aka divergence vs convergence 0 Spreading Divergence upwarping of lithosphere and continental crust o Subduction9convergence9Collision of two plate boundaries What are the characteristics of convergentsubduction and spreading zones Crust lost or destroyed 0 Deep earthquakes 0 Deep trenches with island arcs of continental mountain ranges 0 Rock silicarich after remelt 0 Major source of oil What are hot spots Be able to give an example 0 Hotspot the linear volcanic chains trace the drift path of a plate over mantle plume o Mantle Plumes o Volcanoes Understand the characteristics that define Passive vs Active margins Where does each occur Atlantic vs Pacific 0 Passive continental margins have a continental shelf continental slope and continental rise descending to the abyssal plain no plate boundary at edge of con nent 0 Active continental margins have continental shelves and slopes but the slope extends down into a deep oceanic trench where trenches and plates converge Lecture 6 Sea Floor and Sedimentation Why is it important to study marine sediments 0 Provide clues to past changes 0 A vast library recording geologic oceanographic and climate conditions 0 Remarkably complete compared to land How are sediments classified 0 Sediment texture 0 Grain size 0 Origin 0 Hydrogenous particles that are precipitated directly from seawater What are the main sediment sources 0 Terrigenous in temperate and polar regions that drain large mountain ranges 0 River input 0 Glacial o Volcanic o Biogenic Calcium Carbonate in tropics o Coral rubble and shell debris o Weathers into carbonate sands o Hydrogenous o In situ formation What are the factors that control sedimentation 0 Average grain size reflects the energy of the depositional environment 0 Hulstrom s Diagram graphs the relationship between particle size and energy for erosin transportation and deposition Know about the distribution of sediments across continental shelves 0 Latitudinal distribution 0 Biogenic at low latitude o Terrigenous at midlatitude o Glacial at high latitude How is sedimentation influenced over short time scales How about longer time scales Know what a turbidity current is Know what a carbonate shelf is and how it is made 0 Confined to tropical and subtropical settings where the water is shallow warm and clear Understand the importance of the CCD the Carbonate Compensation Depth Lecture 7 Seawater Understand the dipole structure of the water molecule and its importance in giving water many of its unique properties know these special properties Why does ice float Know the major cations and anions of seawater Understand the difference between conservative and nonconservative behavior Know the salinity of the ocean the source of salts and how variable it is and why how you measure it Understand the effects of salinity on the freezing point of water Be familiar with light penetration in the ocean and the photic zone From Book Be familiar with sound transmission in the ocean From book Lecture 8 Chemical Oceanography Temperature Source of variation laterally vertical temperature profiles and seasonal vs permanent thermoclines Salinity Source of variation laterally and vertical salinity profiles Density What factors determine water density Understand the big picture density structure of the oceans Understand oxygen profiles Be familiar with the relationship between photosynthesis vs respiration Hint be able to understand the EQUATION but you won t have to memorize it Understand the basics of pH what it means how it is related to C02 levels in seawater Understand the buffering capacity of seawaterCarbonate Buffer System Understand the relationship between precipitation vs evaporation over the oceans vs terrestrial systems Other Materials Textbook and Supplemental Readings Be sure to cover through suggested readings in the textbook Hint Light and Sound in the ocean Supplemental Reading Loihi the next Hawaiian Island
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